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これから学ぶ人のための ソフトウェアアーキテクチャ入門: Software architecture is a tool to enhance our humanity

これから学ぶ人のための ソフトウェアアーキテクチャ入門: Software architecture is a tool to enhance our humanity

Developers Summit2023 Summer #devsumi での発表資料です
https://event.shoeisha.jp/devsumi/20230727/session/4471/ #devsumiC

Koji SHIMADA

July 27, 2023
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  1. ͜Ε͔ΒֶͿਓͷͨΊͷ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟೖ໳
    ౡాߒೋ !TOPP[FS

    %FWFMPQFST4VNNJU4VNNFS
    4PGUXBSFBSDIJUFDUVSFJTBUPPMUPFOIBODFPVSIVNBOJUZ
    ENISHI TECH INC.

    View full-size slide

  2. ࠓ೔ɺ͓࿩͢Δ͜ͱ

    View full-size slide

  3. ࠓ೔ɺ͓࿩͢͠Δ͜ͱ
    w ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ΁ͷऔΓ૊Έํ

    View full-size slide

  4. ࠓ೔ɺ͓࿩͢͠Δ͜ͱ
    w ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ΁ͷऔΓ૊Έํ

    View full-size slide

  5. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟʁ

    View full-size slide

  6. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸ɺந৅Խͱ໰୊ͷ෼ׂʹΑͬͯෳࡶੑΛ
    ೦಄ʹஔ͍ͨ΋ͷͰ͋Δɻͨͩ͠ɺࠓ·Ͱͷͱ͜Ζʮιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩ
    ςΫνϟʯͱ͍͏༻ޠʹؔͯ͠ɺສਓ͕߹ҙͨ͠ݫີͳఆٛ͸ଘࡏ͠ͳ͍
    IUUQTKBXJLJQFEJBPSHXJLJιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ
    l

    View full-size slide

  7. ࠜఈʹڞ௨͢Δߟ͑ํΛ΋ͱʹ

    View full-size slide

  8. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ࣾձతߏங෺Ͱ͋Δ
    w ඼࣭ཁٻΛຬͨͨ͢ΊͷઃܭͰ͋Δ
    w γεςϜͷߏ੒ʹؔ͢ΔઃܭͰ͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  9. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ࣾձతߏங෺Ͱ͋Δ
    w ඼࣭ཁٻΛຬͨͨ͢ΊͷઃܭͰ͋Δ
    w γεςϜͷߏ੒ʹؔ͢ΔઃܭͰ͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  10. Wandering down our corridor a while
    ago, I saw my colleague Dave Rice
    in a particularly grumpy mood. My
    brief question caused a violent
    statement, “We shouldn’t interview
    anyone who has ‘architect’ on his
    resume.” At first blush, this was an odd turn of
    phrase, because we usually introduce Dave as
    one of our leading architects.
    The reason for his title schizo-
    phrenia is the fact that, even by our
    industry’s standards, “architect”
    and “architecture” are terribly
    overloaded words. For many, the
    term “software architect” fits per-
    fectly with the smug controlling im-
    age at the end of Matrix Reloaded.
    Yet even in firms that have the
    greatest contempt for that image,
    chitect.) However, as so often occurs, inside
    the blighted cynicism is a pinch of truth. Un-
    derstanding came to me after reading a posting
    from Ralph Johnson on the Extreme Program-
    ming mailing list. It’s so good I’ll quote it all.
    A previous posting said
    The RUP, working off the IEEE definition, defines
    architecture as “the highest level concept of a sys-
    tem in its environment. The architecture of a soft-
    ware system (at a given point in time) is its orga-
    nization or structure of significant components
    interacting through interfaces, those components
    being composed of successively smaller compo-
    nents and interfaces.”
    Johnson responded:
    I was a reviewer on the IEEE standard that used
    Who Needs an Architect?
    Martin Fowler
    IUUQTNBSUJOGPXMFSDPNJFFF4PGUXBSFXIP/FFET"SDIJUFDUQEG

    View full-size slide

  11. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟʹ͍ͭͯͷ࠷΋༗໊ͳఆٛͷҰͭ
    lΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸ʢͦΕ͕ԿͰ͋Εʣॏཁͳ΋ͷͩ
    ——ϥϧϑɾδϣϯιϯ

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  12. lʜΞʔΩςΫνϟ͸ɺιϑτ΢ΣΞ͚ͩʹґଘ͍ͯ͠ΔΘ͚Ͱ
    ͸͋Γ·ͤΜɻιϑτ΢ΣΞͷͲͷ෦෼ΛॏཁͱΈͳ͔͢ͱ͍͏
    ूஂͷ߹ҙʹ΋ґଘ͠·͢ɻΑͬͯɺΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸ࣾձత
    ߏங෺ͳͷͰ͢ʢ·͋ɺιϑτ΢ΣΞ΋ͦ͏Ͱ͕͢ɺΞʔΩςΫ
    νϟ͸͞Βʹͦ͏Ͱ͢ʣɻʜ
    2 IEEE SOFTWARE Published by the IEEE Computer Society 0740-7459/03/$17.00 © 2003 IEEE
    Wandering down our corridor a while
    ago, I saw my colleague Dave Rice
    in a particularly grumpy mood. My
    brief question caused a violent
    statement, “We shouldn’t interview
    anyone who has ‘architect’ on his
    resume.” At first blush, this was an odd turn of
    phrase, because we usually introduce Dave as
    one of our leading architects.
    The reason for his title schizo-
    phrenia is the fact that, even by our
    industry’s standards, “architect”
    and “architecture” are terribly
    overloaded words. For many, the
    term “software architect” fits per-
    fectly with the smug controlling im-
    age at the end of Matrix Reloaded.
    Yet even in firms that have the
    greatest contempt for that image,
    there’s a vital role for the technical
    leadership that an architect such as Dave plays.
    What is architecture?
    When I was fretting over the title for Pat-
    terns of Enterprise Application Architecture
    (Addison-Wesley, 2002), everyone who re-
    viewed it agreed that “architecture” belonged
    in the title. Yet we all felt uncomfortable defin-
    ing the word. Because it was my book, I felt
    compelled to take a stab at defining it.
    My first move was to avoid fuzziness by
    just letting my cynicism hang right out. In a
    sense, I define architecture as a word we use
    when we want to talk about design but want
    to puff it up to make it sound important. (Yes,
    you can imagine a similar phenomenon for ar-
    chitect.) However, as so often occurs, inside
    the blighted cynicism is a pinch of truth. Un-
    derstanding came to me after reading a posting
    from Ralph Johnson on the Extreme Program-
    ming mailing list. It’s so good I’ll quote it all.
    A previous posting said
    The RUP, working off the IEEE definition, defines
    architecture as “the highest level concept of a sys-
    tem in its environment. The architecture of a soft-
    ware system (at a given point in time) is its orga-
    nization or structure of significant components
    interacting through interfaces, those components
    being composed of successively smaller compo-
    nents and interfaces.”
    Johnson responded:
    I was a reviewer on the IEEE standard that used
    that, and I argued uselessly that this was clearly
    a completely bogus definition. There is no high-
    est level concept of a system. Customers have a
    different concept than developers. Customers do
    not care at all about the structure of significant
    components. So, perhaps an architecture is the
    highest level concept that developers have of a
    system in its environment. Let’s forget the devel-
    opers who just understand their little piece. Ar-
    chitecture is the highest level concept of the ex-
    pert developers. What makes a component
    significant? It is significant because the expert
    developers say so.
    So, a better definition would be “In most successful
    software projects, the expert developers working
    on that project have a shared understanding of the
    design
    Who Needs an Architect?
    Martin Fowler
    E d i t o r : M a r t i n F o w l e r I T h o u g h t Wo r k s I f o w l e r @ a c m . o r g

    View full-size slide

  13. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟʹӨڹΛ༩͑Δ΋ͷ
    ਤԿ͕ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹӨڹΛ༩͑Δʁ

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  14. ࣾձతͳ෺ͱͯ͠ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟΛߏங͍ͯ͘͠
    lγεςϜશମΛߟ͑Δͱ͸ɺͭ·Γɺ୯ͳΔٕज़Ҏ্ͷ΋ͷΛѻ͏ͱ͍͏͜ͱΛҙຯ͢Δɻ
    ਓɺϓϩηεɺϏδωεχʔζΛ͸͡Ίͱ͢Δٕज़తɺ͋Δ͍͸ඇٕज़తཁҼ͕ɺ࠷ऴతͳι
    ϑτ΢ΣΞγεςϜʹؔΘͬͯ͘ΔɻʜུʜΞʔΩςΫτ͸ɺઃܭ൑அ͕ӨڹΛ༩͑ΔൣғΛ
    ޿͘ଊ͑ɺγεςϜશମʹ͍ͭͯߟ͍͑ͯ͘ඞཁ͕͋Δ
    ʢʮ޿͍ࢹ໺Λ࣋ͬͯશମʹ໨Λ޲͚ଓ͚Δʯʣ
    ਤιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫτͷཱͪҐஔ

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  15. ୈ**෦ΞʔΩςΫνϟελΠϧ
    ɾϨΠϠʔυΞʔΩςΫνϟ
    ɾύΠϓϥΠϯΞʔΩςΫνϟ
    ɾϚΠΫϩΧʔωϧΞʔΩςΫνϟ
    ɾαʔϏεϕʔεΞʔΩςΫνϟ
    ɾΠϕϯτۦಈΞʔΩςΫνϟ
    ɾεϖʔεϕʔεΞʔΩςΫνϟ
    ɾΦʔέετϨʔγϣϯۦಈαʔϏεࢦ޲ΞʔΩςΫνϟ
    ɾϚΠΫϩαʔϏεΞʔΩςΫνϟ
    ɾద੾ͳΞʔΩςΫνϟελΠϧΛબͿ
    ୈ*෦جૅ
    ɾΞʔΩςΫνϟࢥߟ
    ɾϞδϡʔϧੑ
    ɾΞʔΩςΫνϟಛੑ
    ɾΞʔΩςΫνϟಛੑΛ໌Β͔ʹ͢Δ
    ɾΞʔΩςΫνϟಛੑͷܭଌͱ౷੍
    ɾΞʔΩςΫνϟಛੑͷείʔϓ
    ɾίϯϙʔωϯτϕʔεࢥߟ
    ʰιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͷجૅʱ
    ୈ***෦ςΫχοΫͱιϑτεΩϧ
    ɾΞʔΩςΫνϟܾఆ
    ɾΞʔΩςΫνϟ্ͷϦεΫΛ෼ੳ͢Δ
    ɾΞʔΩςΫνϟͷਤղ΍ϓϨθϯςʔγϣϯ
    ɾޮՌతͳνʔϜʹ͢Δ
    ɾަবͱϦʔμʔγοϓͷεΩϧ
    ɾΩϟϦΞύεΛ։͘

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  16. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ࣾձతߏங෺Ͱ͋Δ
    w ඼࣭ཁٻΛຬͨͨ͢ΊͷઃܭͰ͋Δ
    w γεςϜͷߏ੒ʹؔ͢ΔઃܭͰ͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  17. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ࣾձతߏங෺Ͱ͋Δ
    w ඼࣭ཁٻΛຬͨͨ͢ΊͷઃܭͰ͋Δ
    w γεςϜͷߏ੒ʹؔ͢ΔઃܭͰ͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  18. IUUQTXXXJQBHPKQQVCMJTIUOIUNM

    View full-size slide

  19. 42VB3&ʹΑΔ඼࣭Ϟσϧ
    IUUQTXXXJQBHPKQQVCMJTIUOIUNM

    View full-size slide

  20. ⚠ॻ੶ɺจݙʹΑ༷ͬͯʑͳ༻ޠͰදه͞Ε͍ͯΔ
    ΞʔΩςΫνϟಛੑʢBSDIJUFDUVSBMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTʣ
    ඼࣭ಛੑʢRVBMJUZBUUSJCVUFTʣ
    ΠϦςΟ JMJUJFTʣ
    ඇػೳཁ݅ʢOPOGVODUJPOBMSFRVJSFNFOUTʣ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞ඼࣭

    View full-size slide

  21. ⚠ॻ੶ɺจݙʹΑ༷ͬͯʑͳ༻ޠͰදه͞Ε͍ͯΔ
    ΞʔΩςΫνϟಛੑʢBSDIJUFDUVSBMDIBSBDUFSJTUJDTʣ
    ඼࣭ಛੑʢRVBMJUZBUUSJCVUFTʣ
    ΠϦςΟ JMJUJFTʣ
    ඇػೳཁ݅ʢOPOGVODUJPOBMSFRVJSFNFOUTʣ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞ඼࣭

    View full-size slide

  22. ඼࣭ಛੑͷ۩ମྫ
    Մ༻ੑ
    "WBJMBCJMJUZ
    ৴པੑ
    3FMJBCJMJUZ
    ςετੑ
    5FTUBCJMJUZ
    εέʔϥϏϦςΟ
    4DBMBCJMJUZ
    ηΩϡϦςΟ
    4FDVSJUZ
    อकੑ
    .BJOUBJOBCJMJUZ
    σϓϩΠੑ
    %FQMPZBCJMJUZ
    ଱ো֐ੑ
    'BVMU5PMFSBODF
    ஄ྗੑ
    &MBTUJDJUZ
    ύϑΥʔϚϯε
    1FSGPSNBODF
    ճ෮ੑ
    3FDPWFSBCJMJUZ
    ֶश༰қੑ
    -FBSOBCJMJUZ
    ΞδϦςΟ
    "HJMJUZ
    ݎ࿚ੑ
    3PCVTUOFTT
    ߹๏ੑ
    -FHBM
    ϢʔβϏϦςΟ
    6TBCJMJUZ
    ߏ੒༰қੑ
    $PO
    fi
    HVSBCJMJUZ
    ֦ுੑ
    &YUFOTJCJMJUZ
    ࠶ར༻ੑ
    3FVTF
    Մ؍ଌੑ
    0CTFSWBCJMJUZ
    ʜ
    ʜ
    ʜ ʜ ʜ

    View full-size slide

  23. lΞʔΩςΫτ͸ɺυϝΠϯ΍Ϗδωεͷཁ݅Λఆٛ͢Δ͜ͱʹڠྗͭͭ͠΋ɺ
    ॏཁͳ੹຿ΛҰͭ࣋ͭɻͦΕ͸ɺυϝΠϯͷػೳʹ͸௚઀ؔ࿈͠ͳ͍͕ιϑτ
    ΢ΣΞ͕ຬͨ͞ͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍͢΂ͯͷ͜ͱɺ͢ͳΘͪΞʔΩςΫνϟಛੑ
    Λఆٛɺൃݟɺ෼ੳ͢Δ͜ͱͩʢʮষΞʔΩςΫνϟಛੑʯʣ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͷ໨త
    lଟ͘ͷνʔϜͰ͸ɺϓϩμΫτϚωʔδϟʔ͕ϑΟʔνϟʔͷఆٛΛߦ͏ɻϑ
    Οʔνϟʔ͸ૉ੖Β͍͠΋ͷͩɻ͔͠͠ɺผͷछྨͷཁٻ΋͋ΔɻͦΕ͸඼࣭
    ಛੑͱݺ͹ΕΔɻΞʔΩςΫτ͕࠷΋ؾʹ͢Δͷ͸ͪ͜Βͷཁٻͩɻʢʮ
    ΤϯδχΞϦϯάͷ؍఺͔Β໰୊Λఆٛ͢Δʯʣ

    View full-size slide

  24. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͰຬͨ͢΂͖ϓϩηε
    IUUQTXXXJQBHPKQQVCMJTIUOIUNM

    View full-size slide

  25. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ࣾձతߏங෺Ͱ͋Δ
    w ඼࣭ཁٻΛຬͨͨ͢ΊͷઃܭͰ͋Δ
    w γεςϜͷߏ੒ʹؔ͢ΔઃܭͰ͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  26. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ࣾձతߏங෺Ͱ͋Δ
    w ඼࣭ཁٻΛຬͨͨ͢ΊͷઃܭͰ͋Δ
    w γεςϜͷߏ੒ʹؔ͢ΔઃܭͰ͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  27. Wandering down our corridor a while
    ago, I saw my colleague Dave Rice
    in a particularly grumpy mood. My
    brief question caused a violent
    statement, “We shouldn’t interview
    anyone who has ‘architect’ on his
    resume.” At first blush, this was an odd turn of
    phrase, because we usually introduce Dave as
    one of our leading architects.
    The reason for his title schizo-
    phrenia is the fact that, even by our
    industry’s standards, “architect”
    and “architecture” are terribly
    overloaded words. For many, the
    term “software architect” fits per-
    fectly with the smug controlling im-
    age at the end of Matrix Reloaded.
    Yet even in firms that have the
    greatest contempt for that image,
    chitect.) However, as so often occurs, inside
    the blighted cynicism is a pinch of truth. Un-
    derstanding came to me after reading a posting
    from Ralph Johnson on the Extreme Program-
    ming mailing list. It’s so good I’ll quote it all.
    A previous posting said
    The RUP, working off the IEEE definition, defines
    architecture as “the highest level concept of a sys-
    tem in its environment. The architecture of a soft-
    ware system (at a given point in time) is its orga-
    nization or structure of significant components
    interacting through interfaces, those components
    being composed of successively smaller compo-
    nents and interfaces.”
    Johnson responded:
    I was a reviewer on the IEEE standard that used
    Who Needs an Architect?
    Martin Fowler
    IUUQTNBSUJOGPXMFSDPNJFFF4PGUXBSFXIP/FFET"SDIJUFDUQEG

    View full-size slide

  28. ʜʮ΄ͱΜͲͷ੒ޭ͢Διϑτ΢ΣΞϓϩδΣΫτͰ͸ɺͦͷϓϩ
    δΣΫτʹܞΘΔઐ໳Ոͷ։ൃऀ͸ɺγεςϜઃܭͷڞ௨ͷཧղΛ
    ͍࣋ͬͯ·͢ɻ͜ͷڞ௨ͷཧղΛɺʰΞʔΩςΫνϟʱͱݺͿͷͰ
    ͢ɻ͜ͷཧղʹ͸ɺγεςϜ͕ͲͷΑ͏ʹίϯϙʔωϯτʹ෼ׂ͞
    ΕΔ͔ɺίϯϙʔωϯτ͕ΠϯλϑΣʔεΛհͯ͠ͲͷΑ͏ʹର࿩
    ͢Δؚ͔͕·Ε·͢ɻ
    2 IEEE SOFTWARE Published by the IEEE Computer Society 0740-7459/03/$17.00 © 2003 IEEE
    Wandering down our corridor a while
    ago, I saw my colleague Dave Rice
    in a particularly grumpy mood. My
    brief question caused a violent
    statement, “We shouldn’t interview
    anyone who has ‘architect’ on his
    resume.” At first blush, this was an odd turn of
    phrase, because we usually introduce Dave as
    one of our leading architects.
    The reason for his title schizo-
    phrenia is the fact that, even by our
    industry’s standards, “architect”
    and “architecture” are terribly
    overloaded words. For many, the
    term “software architect” fits per-
    fectly with the smug controlling im-
    age at the end of Matrix Reloaded.
    Yet even in firms that have the
    greatest contempt for that image,
    there’s a vital role for the technical
    leadership that an architect such as Dave plays.
    What is architecture?
    When I was fretting over the title for Pat-
    terns of Enterprise Application Architecture
    (Addison-Wesley, 2002), everyone who re-
    viewed it agreed that “architecture” belonged
    in the title. Yet we all felt uncomfortable defin-
    ing the word. Because it was my book, I felt
    compelled to take a stab at defining it.
    My first move was to avoid fuzziness by
    just letting my cynicism hang right out. In a
    sense, I define architecture as a word we use
    when we want to talk about design but want
    to puff it up to make it sound important. (Yes,
    you can imagine a similar phenomenon for ar-
    chitect.) However, as so often occurs, inside
    the blighted cynicism is a pinch of truth. Un-
    derstanding came to me after reading a posting
    from Ralph Johnson on the Extreme Program-
    ming mailing list. It’s so good I’ll quote it all.
    A previous posting said
    The RUP, working off the IEEE definition, defines
    architecture as “the highest level concept of a sys-
    tem in its environment. The architecture of a soft-
    ware system (at a given point in time) is its orga-
    nization or structure of significant components
    interacting through interfaces, those components
    being composed of successively smaller compo-
    nents and interfaces.”
    Johnson responded:
    I was a reviewer on the IEEE standard that used
    that, and I argued uselessly that this was clearly
    a completely bogus definition. There is no high-
    est level concept of a system. Customers have a
    different concept than developers. Customers do
    not care at all about the structure of significant
    components. So, perhaps an architecture is the
    highest level concept that developers have of a
    system in its environment. Let’s forget the devel-
    opers who just understand their little piece. Ar-
    chitecture is the highest level concept of the ex-
    pert developers. What makes a component
    significant? It is significant because the expert
    developers say so.
    So, a better definition would be “In most successful
    software projects, the expert developers working
    on that project have a shared understanding of the
    design
    Who Needs an Architect?
    Martin Fowler
    E d i t o r : M a r t i n F o w l e r I T h o u g h t Wo r k s I f o w l e r @ a c m . o r g

    View full-size slide

  29. lίϯϙʔωϯτ͸ɺϞδϡʔϧԽ͞ΕͨΞʔΩςΫνϟͷجຊߏ੒ཁૉͰ͋
    ΓɺΞʔΩςΫτ͕ߟྀ͢΂͖ॏཁͳཁૉͩɻ࣮ࡍɺΞʔΩςΫτ͕ܾఆ͠ͳ
    ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍͜ͱͷҰͭʹɺΞʔΩςΫνϟͷ࠷্ҐίϯϙʔωϯτΛͲ͏
    ෼ׂ͢Δ͔ͱ͍͏͜ͱ͕͋Δʢʮίϯϙʔωϯτͷ෼ྨʯʣ
    γεςϜͷߏ੒ʹؔ͢Δઃܭͱͯ͠ͷιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ
    lιϑτ΢ΣΞγεςϜΛ෼ׂ͢Δ͜ͱͰɺΞʔΩςΫτ͸඼࣭ಛੑΛ͸͡Ίͱ
    ͢ΔγεςϜཁٻΛຬͨ͢ઓུΛཱͯΒΕΔΑ͏ʹͳΔɻʢʮγεςϜΛ
    ෼ׂ͠ɺ੹຿ΛׂΓ౰ͯΔʯʣ

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  30. IUUQTCMPHDMFBODPEFSDPNVODMFCPCUIFDMFBOBSDIJUFDUVSFIUNM
    ͜͏͍͏ͷΛߟ͑Δͬͯ͜ͱʁ
    IUUQTNBSUJOGPXMFSDPNBSUJDMFTNJDSPTFSWJDFTIUNM

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  31. IUUQTCMPHDMFBODPEFSDPNVODMFCPCUIFDMFBOBSDIJUFDUVSFIUNM
    ͜͏͍͏ͷΛߟ͑Δͬͯ͜ͱʁ
    IUUQTNBSUJOGPXMFSDPNBSUJDMFTNJDSPTFSWJDFTIUNM
    ͍͋ͬͯΔɻ͚ΕͲ΋ɺؾΛ͚ͭͳ͍ͱ͍͚ͳ͍͜ͱ͕͋Δ

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  32. lϓϩάϥϜ·ͨ͸ίϯϐϡʔλγεςϜͷιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ
    ͸ɺιϑτ΢ΣΞཁૉɺ֎෦͔Β؍ଌͰ͖Διϑτ΢ΣΞཁૉͷಛੑɺ͓Α
    ͼιϑτ΢ΣΞཁૉؒͷؔ܎Ͱߏ੒͞ΕΔγεςϜͷߏ଄·ͨ͸ෳ਺ͷߏ଄
    Ͱ͋Δ
    લఏɿγεςϜ͸ෳ਺ͷߏ଄Ͱߏ੒͞ΕΔ

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  33. ͞·͟·ͳࢹ఺͔ΒγεςϜͷߏ଄Λݕ౼͢Δ
    γφϦΦ
    ࿦ཧϏϡʔ
    ϓϩηεϏϡʔ
    ࣮૷Ϗϡʔ
    σϓϩΠϝϯτϏϡʔ
    ݕূ
    ؔ࿈
    ந৅֓೦ͷߏ଄
    ɾϞδϡʔϧߏ଄
    ɾ࿦ཧσʔλϞσϧ
    ɾʜ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞϞδϡʔϧͷߏ੒؅ཧ
    ɾσΟϨΫτϦߏ଄
    ɾϦϙδτϦߏ଄
    ɾϏϧυ୯Ґ
    ɾ෺ཧσʔλϞσϧ
    ࣮ߦ࣌ͷߏ଄
    ɾ௨৴ߏ଄
    ɾʜ
    σϓϩΠߏ଄
    ɾσϓϩΠϝϯτύΠϓϥΠϯ
    ɾΠϯϑϥߏ଄
    ɾʜ
    ̐ʴ̍Ϗϡʔ

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  34. lߏ଄͸༷ʑͳγεςϜͷݟํΛ༩͑Δ΋ͷͰ͋Δ͕ɺͦΕΒ͕ಠ
    ཱ͍ͯ͠ΔΘ͚Ͱ͸ͳ͍ɻ͋Δߏ଄ͷཁૉ͸ɺଞͷߏ଄ͷཁૉͱؔ
    ܎͢ΔͷͰɺզʑ͸͜ΕΒͷؔ܎ʹ͍ͭͯߟ࡯͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δɻ
    ͢΂ͯͷϏϡʔΛԣஅͯ͠ઃܭͷ੔߹ੑΛอূ͢Δ

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  35. ͞·͟·ͳࢹ఺͔ΒγεςϜͷߏ଄Λݕ౼͢Δ
    γφϦΦ
    ࿦ཧϏϡʔ
    ϓϩηεϏϡʔ
    ࣮૷Ϗϡʔ
    σϓϩΠϝϯτϏϡʔ
    ݕূ
    ؔ࿈
    ந৅֓೦ͷߏ଄
    ɾϞδϡʔϧߏ଄
    ɾ࿦ཧσʔλϞσϧ
    ɾʜ
    ࣮ߦ࣌ͷߏ଄
    ɾ௨৴ߏ଄
    ɾʜ
    σϓϩΠߏ଄
    ɾσϓϩΠϝϯτύΠϓϥΠϯ
    ɾ෺ཧߏ଄
    ɾʜ
    ̐ʴ̍Ϗϡʔ
    ͢΂ͯͷϏϡʔΛԣஅͯ͠ઃܭͷ੔߹ੑΛऔΓͳ͕Βߏ଄Λܾఆ͍ͯ͘͠
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞϞδϡʔϧͷߏ੒؅ཧ
    ɾσΟϨΫτϦߏ଄
    ɾϦϙδτϦߏ଄
    ɾϏϧυ୯Ґ
    ɾ෺ཧσʔλϞσϧ

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  36. ͞Βʹେࣄͳ఺

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  37. ஍ਤ͸ݱ஍Ͱ͸ͳ͍
    ݕ౼ͨ͠಺༰΍ͦͷ݁Ռͱͯ͠ॻ͔Εͨ៉ྷͳਤ͸ɺΞʔΩςΫν
    ϟΛઆ໌͢Δ΋ͷͰ͸͋ͬͯ΋ɺΞʔΩςΫνϟͦͷ΋ͷͰ͸ͳ
    ͍ɻΞʔΩςΫνϟ͕໨తΛຊ౰ʹՌ͍ͨͤͯΔ͔͸ɺ࣮ࡍʹγε
    ςϜ͕ߏங͞ΕΔ·Ͱ͸ධՁ͕Ͱ͖ͳ͍ɻ

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  38. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ࣾձతߏங෺Ͱ͋Δ
    w ඼࣭ཁٻΛຬͨͨ͢ΊͷઃܭͰ͋Δ
    w γεςϜͷߏ੒ʹؔ͢ΔઃܭͰ͋Δ

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  39. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ࣾձతߏங෺Ͱ͋Δ
    w ඼࣭ཁٻΛຬͨͨ͢ΊͷઃܭͰ͋Δ
    w γεςϜͷߏ੒ʹؔ͢ΔઃܭͰ͋Δ

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  40. ࠓ೔ɺ͓࿩͢͠Δ͜ͱ
    w ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ΁ͷऔΓ૊Έํ

    View full-size slide

  41. ࠓ೔ɺ͓࿩͢͠Δ͜ͱ
    w ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ΁ͷऔΓ૊Έํ

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  42. ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹऔΓ૊Ήࡍʹ৺ʹஔ͘͜ͱ

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  43. ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹऔΓ૊Ήࡍʹ৺ʹஔ͘͜ͱ
    ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹ͓͚Δ͢΂ͯͷӨڹΛࣄલʹ͸೺ѲͰ͖ͳ͍

    View full-size slide

  44. ஌ͬͯͷ௨Γɺط஌ͷ஌ͱ͍͏΋ͷ͕͋Δɻ͜Ε͸ɺզʑ͕஌ͬͯ
    ͍Δͱ஌͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱͩɻ·ͨɺط஌ͷະ஌΋͋Δɻ͢ͳΘͪɺ
    ݱ࣌఺Ͱط஌Ͱͳ͍ͱΘ͔͍ͬͯΔࣄฑͩɻ͔͠͠ɺະ஌ͷະ஌
    ΋͋Δɻ͜Ε͸զʑ͕஌Βͳ͍ͱ͍͏͜ͱ͑͞஌Βͳ͍͜ͱͩɻ
    ŠυφϧυɾϥϜζϑΣϧυ
    l
    ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹ͓͚Δ͢΂ͯͷӨڹ͸ࣄલʹ͸೺ѲͰ͖ͳ͍

    View full-size slide

  45. ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹऔΓ૊Ήࡍʹ৺ʹஔ͘͜ͱ
    ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹ͓͚Δ͢΂ͯͷӨڹΛࣄલʹ͸೺ѲͰ͖ͳ͍
    ඼࣭ಛੑͷશ෦ೖΓ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍

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  46. ඼࣭ಛੑͷ۩ମྫ
    Մ༻ੑ
    "WBJMBCJMJUZ
    ৴པੑ
    3FMJBCJMJUZ
    ςετੑ
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    4DBMBCJMJUZ
    ηΩϡϦςΟ
    4FDVSJUZ
    อकੑ
    .BJOUBJOBCJMJUZ
    σϓϩΠੑ
    %FQMPZBCJMJUZ
    ଱ো֐ੑ
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    ஄ྗੑ
    &MBTUJDJUZ
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    3PCVTUOFTT
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    ࠶ར༻ੑ
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    Մ؍ଌੑ
    0CTFSWBCJMJUZ
    ʜ
    ʜ
    ʜ ʜ ʜ

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  47. ඼࣭ಛੑͷશ෦ೖΓ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍

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  48. ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹऔΓ૊Ήࡍʹ৺ʹஔ͘͜ͱ
    ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹ͓͚Δ͢΂ͯͷӨڹΛࣄલʹ͸೺ѲͰ͖ͳ͍
    ඼࣭ಛੑͷશ෦ೖΓ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    ΞʔΩςΫνϟͷલఏ͸มԽ͍ͯ͘͠

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  49. ਤԿ͕ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹӨڹΛ༩͑Δʁ
    ΞʔΩςΫνϟͷલఏ͸มԽ͢Δ

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  50. ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹऔΓ૊Ήࡍʹ৺ʹஔ͘͜ͱ
    ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹ͓͚Δ͢΂ͯͷӨڹΛࣄલʹ͸೺ѲͰ͖ͳ͍
    ඼࣭ಛੑͷશ෦ೖΓ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    ΞʔΩςΫνϟͷલఏ͸มԽ͍ͯ͘͠

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  51. ͜ΕΒΛ౿·͑ͨ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ΁ͷऔΓ૊Έํ

    View full-size slide

  52. ᶃʮඞཁे෼ͳʯιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͰਐΉ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ΁ͷऔΓ૊Έํ

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  53. ʮඞཁे෼ͳʯιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ

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  54. l&OPVHIz%FTJHO6Q'SPOU
    #%61͸ྑ͘ͳ͍ͱͯ͠΋ɺ/%6'ʢ/P%FTJHO6Q'SPOUʣ͸͋·Γʹ΋ϦεΫ
    ͕ߴ͍ɻࢲͨͪ͸ɺ&/6'ʢ&OPVHI%FTJHO6Q'SPOUʣΛ໨ࢦ͍ͯ͠Δͷͩɻ
    Šฏು݈ࣇ
    l
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞγεςϜͷن໛ͱઌߦઃܭͷεΠʔτεϙοτͷؔ܎

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  55. .JOJNVN7JBCMF"SDIJUFDUVSFɿ࠷খݶͷ࣮ߦՄೳΞʔΩςΫνϟ
    IUUQTXXXTMJEFTIBSFOFU3BOEZ4IPVQNJOJNVNWJBCMFBSDIJUFDUVSFHPPEFOPVHIJTHPPEFOPVHIJOBTUBSUVQ

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  56. ᶃʮඞཁे෼ͳʯιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͰਐΉ
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ΁ͷऔΓ૊Έํ

    View full-size slide

  57. ᶃʮඞཁे෼ͳʯιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͰਐΉ
    ᶄιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͷϓϩηε͸ʮܧଓతʹʯճ͢
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ΁ͷऔΓ૊Έํ

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  58. $POUJOVPVTBSDIJUFDUVSF

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  59. ਐԽతΞʔΩςΫνϟ

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  60. ϞϊϦε͔Β࢝ΊͯΞʔΩςΫνϟΛਐԽ͍ͤͯ͘͞

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  61. Ϣʔβʔ͔Β͸ݟ͑ͳ͍Ձ஋ΛੜΈग़͢࡞ۀʹlz੫Λࢧ෷͏

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  62. ᶃʮඞཁे෼ͳʯιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͰਐΉ
    ᶄιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͷϓϩηε͸ʮܧଓతʹʯճ͢
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ΁ͷऔΓ૊Έํ

    View full-size slide

  63. ࠓ೔ɺ͓࿩͢͠Δ͜ͱ
    w ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ΁ͷऔΓ૊Έํ

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  64. ࠓ೔ͷ·ͱΊ

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  65. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͱ͸
    w ࣾձతߏங෺Ͱ͋Δ
    w ඼࣭ཁٻΛຬͨͨ͢ΊͷઃܭͰ͋Δ
    w γεςϜͷߏ੒ʹؔ͢ΔઃܭͰ͋Δ

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  66. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟʹӨڹΛ༩͑Δ΋ͷ
    ਤԿ͕ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹӨڹΛ༩͑Δʁ

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  67. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͰຬͨ͢΂͖ϓϩηε
    IUUQTXXXJQBHPKQQVCMJTIUOIUNM

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  68. ͞·͟·ͳࢹ఺͔ΒγεςϜͷߏ଄Λݕ౼͢Δ
    γφϦΦ
    ࿦ཧϏϡʔ
    ϓϩηεϏϡʔ
    ࣮૷Ϗϡʔ
    σϓϩΠϝϯτϏϡʔ
    ݕূ
    ؔ࿈
    ந৅֓೦ͷߏ଄
    ɾϞδϡʔϧߏ଄
    ɾ࿦ཧσʔλϞσϧ
    ɾʜ
    ࣮ߦ࣌ͷߏ଄
    ɾ௨৴ߏ଄
    ɾʜ
    σϓϩΠߏ଄
    ɾσϓϩΠϝϯτύΠϓϥΠϯ
    ɾ෺ཧߏ଄
    ɾʜ
    ̐ʴ̍Ϗϡʔ
    ͢΂ͯͷϏϡʔΛԣஅͯ͠ઃܭͷ੔߹ੑΛऔΓͳ͕Βߏ଄Λܾఆ͍ͯ͘͠
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞϞδϡʔϧͷߏ੒؅ཧ
    ɾσΟϨΫτϦߏ଄
    ɾϦϙδτϦߏ଄
    ɾϏϧυ୯Ґ
    ɾ෺ཧσʔλϞσϧ

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  69. ᶃʮඞཁे෼ͳʯιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͰਐΉ
    ᶄιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟͷϓϩηε͸ʮܧଓతʹʯճ͢
    ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟ΁ͷऔΓ૊Έํ

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  70. ιϑτ΢ΣΞΞʔΩςΫνϟʹରͯ͠
    ແؔ৺ͩͱԿ͕ى͜Δ͔

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  71. "SDIJUFDUVSFJOEJGGFSFOUEFTJHO
    ։ൃऀ͕ΞʔΩςΫνϟΛؾʹͤͣʹઃܭΛਐΊΔ͜ͱ
    ΞʔΩςΫνϟʹແؔ৺ͳઃܭ
    ಛʹߟ͑ͳ͠ʹΞʔΩςΫνϟ͕ܾఆ͞ΕΔ
    㾎աڈͷϓϩδΣΫτͷΞʔΩςΫνϟΛ୯ʹίϐʔ͢Δ
    㾎Α͋͘ΔΞʔΩςΫνϟ͔ͩΒͱ͔ձࣾͷඪ४͔ͩΒͱ
    ͍͏ཧ༝ͰΞʔΩςΫνϟ͕બ͹ΕΔ

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  72. "SDIJUFDUVSFJOEJGGFSFOUEFTJHOʹΑͬͯҾ͖ى͜͞ΕΔ͜ͱ
    ඼࣭ಛੑ͕໰୊ʹͳͬͯ͘Δͷ͸ɺγεςϜ͕ӡ༻͞Ε࢝Ίͨޙ

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  73. "SDIJUFDUVSFJOEJGGFSFOUEFTJHOʹΑͬͯҾ͖ى͜͞ΕΔ͜ͱ
    ඼࣭ಛੑ͕໰୊ʹͳͬͯ͘Δͷ͸ɺγεςϜ͕ӡ༻͞Ε࢝Ίͨޙ
    💭γεςϜ͕ظ଴͞ΕΔύϑΥʔϚϯεΛຬ͍ͨͯ͠ͳ͍ͱͨ͠Βʜ
    💭γεςϜ͕ຬ଍ͳอकੑΛຬ͍ͨͯ͠ͳ͍ͱͨ͠Βʜ
    💭γεςϜʹे෼ͳՄ؍ଌੑ͕උΘ͍ͬͯͳ͍ͱͨ͠Βʜ

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  74. "SDIJUFDUVSFJOEJGGFSFOUEFTJHOʹΑͬͯҾ͖ى͜͞ΕΔ͜ͱ
    ඼࣭ಛੑ͕໰୊ʹͳͬͯ͘Δͷ͸ɺγεςϜ͕ӡ༻͞Ε࢝Ίͨޙ
    ❌ຊདྷͰ͋Ε͹γεςϜΛ௨ͯ͠ਓ͕ࣗવʹߦ͍͑ͯͨ͜ͱ͕ߦ͑ͳ
    ͘ͳ͍ͬͯ͘

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  75. "SDIJUFDUVSFJOEJGGFSFOUEFTJHOʹΑͬͯҾ͖ى͜͞ΕΔ͜ͱ
    ඼࣭ಛੑ͕໰୊ʹͳͬͯ͘Δͷ͸ɺγεςϜ͕ӡ༻͞Ε࢝Ίͨޙ
    ❌ຊདྷͰ͋Ε͹γεςϜΛ௨ͯ͠ਓ͕ࣗવʹߦ͍͑ͯͨ͜ͱ͕ߦ͑ͳ
    ͘ͳ͍ͬͯ͘
    γεςϜͷར༻ऀεϜʔζʹ໨తΛՌͨ͢
    γεςϜͷ։ൃऀεϜʔζʹγεςϜΛϝϯςφϯε͢Δ
    γεςϜͷӡ༻ऀεϜʔζʹγεςϜͷঢ়ଶΛ؍࡯͢Δ

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  76. "SDIJUFDUVSFJOEJGGFSFOUEFTJHOʹΑͬͯҾ͖ى͜͞ΕΔ͜ͱ
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