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The Application of Game Mechanics to a VLE

8c4793f6df1fcc56eab8db2ca5b6ed4c?s=47 Steve Urmston
September 03, 2009

The Application of Game Mechanics to a VLE

8c4793f6df1fcc56eab8db2ca5b6ed4c?s=128

Steve Urmston

September 03, 2009
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  1. The Application of Game Mechanics to a VLE Steven Urmston

    York University - September 2009
  2. Rationale VLEs do not always engage students (or staff). [Hramiak

    2007] Often low levels of participation = less useful system Other systems which engage people? Both use Game Mechanics (varying quantities) [Kim 2007] - VLE? Games (Video) Web 2.0
  3. Game Mechanics Rule-based feedback loops of player interaction with the

    game world. [Cook 2006, Sicart 2008, me] Feedback Loops = Flow [McGinnis 2008] Rewards = Conditioning [Hopson 2001] Learning = Fun [Koster 2004] Action Rules Tokens Feedback Synthesis Goals Other Mechanics ++ x3 (+ Rewards)
  4. Outside of Games? Game Mechanics applied to functional software: Ebay

    Ratings, Facebook Friends, Amazon Reviews, VLE actions? Action Rules Tokens Feedback Synthesis Goal Other Mechanics Submit Quiz = 10 Points 100 Points = Trophy 10 Points 10 Pts (+ Rewards) Other actions get points? Useless Info Don't need points
  5. None
  6. Game Version is identical apart from: Game Rules & Rewards

    as Feedback Standard Actions = Game Mechanics Text
  7. Game Version is identical apart from: Game Rules & Rewards

    as Feedback Standard Actions = Game Mechanics
  8. Game Version is identical apart from: Game Rules & Rewards

    as Feedback Standard Actions = Game Mechanics
  9. Scoring Ranks Trophies Scoring system grades actions in value Rewards

    are the sugar in the loops
  10. Results Engagement Significantly higher Logins and Page Views. Mann Whitney,

    p = < 0.01 and 0.015 Contributions Low, with no diff. in Forum Posts, Votes or Quizzes. But slightly higher overall. Chi Squared, p = 0.07 Levels of Participation improved? Student Experience more positive? Questionnaire No obvious difference, very positive for both versions Interviews Again, both groups very positive, however ...
  11. Results (2) Contributions Lots of Voting for debate posts, several

    participants voted for everything. Some participants were gaming the system (Votes) Interviews Mentioned by several interviewees, both instigators and voyeurs. Voting = low effort for high reward (points) More difficult to motivate meaningful contributions e.g. (good) Forum Posts 1% Heavy Contributors 9% Intermittent 90% Lurkers [Nielsen 2006]
  12. Conclusions Game Mechanics have potential to engage, and with playtesting

    might improve contributions. But are (clearly) not a silver bullet to fix VLEs
  13. Thanks for listening. Questions?

  14. References • Cook, D. (2006). “What are Game Mechanics”. http://lostgarden.com/2006_10_01_archive.html

    • Hramiak, A. (2007). “Evaluation and Analysis of Post Graduate Trainees’ Use of a Virtual Learning Environment”. • Kim, A. J. (2007). “Putting the Fun in Functional” (Presentation) (Various sources: see YouTube, Slideshare) • Koster, R. (2004). “A theory of fun for game design”. • McGinnis et al. (2008). “Enhancing E-Learning Engagement Using Design Patterns from Computer Games”. • Nielsen, J. (2006). “Participation Inequality: Encouraging More Users to Contribute”. http://www.useit.com/alertbox/participation_inequality.html • Sicart, M. (2008). “Defining Game Mechanics”. http://gamestudies.org/0802/articles/sicart