Basics of OAuth, OIDC, FAPI & CIBA

6016bb8c0740147bd8a43aeb507647a2?s=47 Taka
February 19, 2020

Basics of OAuth, OIDC, FAPI & CIBA

Presentation used in the Authlete Meetup held at Level39 in London on Feb 19, 2020.

OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect: Basics and Advanced Topics
https://www.meetup.com/Authlete-UK-Meetup-Group/events/268105864/

6016bb8c0740147bd8a43aeb507647a2?s=128

Taka

February 19, 2020
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  1. Basics of OAuth, OIDC, FAPI & CIBA Co-founder, Authlete, Inc.

    Takahiko Kawasaki <taka@authlete.com> Authlete Meetup @ Level39 on Feb 19, 2020
  2. 2 OAuth

  3. Client App Resource Server API "Give me the user's data."

    Data "Here you are." Data
  4. Malicious App Resource Server API "Give me the user's data."

    Data "Here you are." Data Even a malicious application can get the user's data. Need a mechanism to protect the API!
  5. Resource Server Client App API "Give me the user's data."

    Data "Here you are." An access token must be given to the client in advance. Need someone who issues access tokens! Access Token Access Token Access Token Data verify
  6. Someone who issues access tokens Authorization Server (AS) ||

  7. Client App Authorization Server Access Token generate issue Access Token

  8. "Give me the user's data." Client App Resource Server API

    Authorization Server Access Token Access Token Data "Here you are." Data Access Token Access Token generate issue verify
  9. "Give me an access token." Client App Authz Server User

    "Do you give the permissions to the client?" "Yes, please." generate Access Token issue "Here you are." RFC 6749 The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework Access token request & response Access Token Standardized
  10. 10 OpenID Connect (OIDC)

  11. Hi, I'm Donald Trump. Really? Prove it. Yes. This is

    my business card. President Donald Trump @White House No. It cannot be proof. Anyone can forge business cards.
  12. Wait a second. I'll verify it. Hi, I'm Donald Trump.

    This time I have a signed business card. President Donald Trump @White House 8IJUF )PVTF
  13. Hello, White House. Yes. What can I do for you?

    Give me the public key to verify the signature attached to a business card issued by you. Here you are. Wait a second. I'll verify it. Hi, I'm Donald Trump. This time I have a signed business card. President Donald Trump @White House 8IJUF )PVTF
  14. I've confirmed the business card has been issued by White

    House. Hello, White House. Yes. What can I do for you? Give me the public key to verify the signature attached to a business card issued by you. Here you are. Wait a second. I'll verify it. Hi, I'm Donald Trump. This time I have a signed business card. President Donald Trump @White House 8IJUF )PVTF
  15. “business card with signature” what corresponds to this concept ID

    Token President Donald Trump @White House 8IJUF )PVTF
  16. Someone who issues ID tokens OpenID Provider (IdP) ||

  17. Client App OpenID Provider ID Token generate issue ID Token

  18. "Give me an ID token." Client App IdP User"Issue an

    ID token? If so, provide info to authenticate you with." "Yes, and this is the info." generate ID Token issue "Here you are." OpenID Connect Core 1.0 (OIDC Core 1.0) ID token request & response ID Token Standardized
  19. OAuth 2.0 OpenID Connect Alike... http://openid.net/connect/ OpenID Connect 1.0 is

    a simple identity layer on top of the OAuth 2.0 protocol
  20. "Issue an ID token and an access token? If so,

    provide info to authenticate you. "Give me an ID token and an access token." Client App Authz Server "Yes, and this is the info. generate issue "Here you are" ID Token OpenID Provider and Access Token ID Token Access Token U s e r
  21. 21 Financial-grade API (FAPI)

  22. OAuth 2.0 API authorization OpenID Connect (OIDC) verifiable user identity

    Financial-grade API (FAPI) higher security The Financial-grade API (FAPI) Working Group has developed Financial-grade API (FAPI) on top of OAuth 2.0 and OpenID Connect. OpenID Foundation
  23. The specification was renamed from Financial API to Financial-grade API

    because the specification can apply to not only the financial industry but also other industries that need high security. 23 2017 2 Part 1 of Financial API Implementer's Draft 1 2017 7 Part 2 of Financial API Implementer's Draft 1 2018 10 Financial-grade API Implementer's Draft 2 History of FAPI
  24. 24 FAPI Certification OIDF started FAPI Certification Program on April

    1, 2019. (as of Feb 19, 2020)
  25. 25 FAPI-CIBA Certification OIDF started FAPI-CIBA Certification Program on Sep.

    1, 2019. (as of Feb 19, 2020)
  26. 26 FAPI Parts Financial-grade API consists of the following parts:

    • Part 1: Read-Only API Security Profile • Part 2: Read and Write API Security Profile • Part 3: Client Initiated Backchannel Authentication Profile From the foreword of FAPI specification: 2019 2 CIBA Core 1.0 NEW CIBA specification adds new authorization flows.
  27. 27 Enhanced Security ü Entropy Requirement for Client Secret ü

    JWT-Based Client Authentication ü Certificate-Based Client Authentication ü Key Size Requirement for Client Authentication ü Proof Key for Code Exchange ü Redirect URI Pre-registration ü Redirect URI Mandatory Request Parameter ü Redirect URI Exact Match ü Level of Assurance for End-User Authentication ü Explicit Consent for Requested Scopes ü Prohibition of Authorization Code Reuse ü Scope Mandatory Response Parameter ü Entropy Requirement for Access Token ü Access Token Revocation ü Claimed HTTP Scheme URI Redirection ü Prohibition of Access Token in Query Part ü Detached Signature ü State Hash ü Certificate-Bound Access Token ü Token Binding ü Request Object Mandatory Request Parameter ü Request Object including All Request Parameters ü Request Object EXP Claim ü Request Object Mandatory Signing ü Essential ACR Claim ü JWT Secured Authorization Response Mode ü TLS Cipher Suite Restriction ü JWS Signature Algorithm Restriction Topics covered in this talk
  28. Client Authentication 28

  29. 29 Token Endpoint Authorization Server token request Client Application Client

    Authentication is required when a confidential client accesses the token endpoint. Client Type public confidential
  30. POST {Token Endpoint} HTTP/1.1 Host: {Authorization Server} Authorization: Basic {BASE64-encoded

    Credentials} Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded (abbrev) 30 The traditional ways described in RFC 6749 use Client ID and Client Secret for client authentication. 1. Basic Authentication "{Client ID}:{Client Secret}" {BASE64-encoded Credentials} Encode by BASE64 (client_secret_basic)
  31. 31 2. Form Parameters (client_secret_post) POST {Token Endpoint} HTTP/1.1 Host:

    {Authorization Server} Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded client_id={Client ID}& client_secret={Client Secret}& (abbrev) These traditional ways (client_secret_basic and client_secret_post) are not allowed in FAPI.
  32. 32 Client Authentication Method Part 1 Part 2 client_secret_basic ×

    × client_secret_post × × client_secret_jwt ◦ × private_key_jwt ◦ ◦ tls_client_auth ◦ ◦ self_signed_tls_client_auth ◦ ◦ JWT-based certificate-based traditional
  33. 33 ü Generate JWT and pass it to the token

    endpoint JWT-based Client Authentication (RFC 7523) instead of passing a pair of client ID & client secret directly. ü The JWT is passed as the value of client_assertion. ü The JWT is signed using either (a) the client's client secret (client_secret_jwt), or (b) the client's private key (private_key_jwt).
  34. 34 POST {Token Endpoint} HTTP/1.1 Host: {Authorization Server} Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

    client_assertion_type= urn:ietf:params:oauth:client-assertion-type:jwt-bearer& client_assertion={JWT}& (abbrev) { "iss": "{Client ID}", "sub": "{Client ID}", "aud": "{Token Endpoint}", "jti": "{JWT ID}", "exp": {Expiration Time}, "iat": {Issue Time} } payload The iss claim and the sub claim in the JWT hold the client ID.
  35. 35 ü Establish mutual TLS connection to the token endpoint.

    Certificate-based Client Authentication ü The client certificate presented in the connection is used ü The client certificate is either (a) PKI certificate (tls_client_auth), or (b) self-signed certificate (self_signed_tls_client_auth). for client authentication.
  36. 36 Token Endpoint Authorization Server Mutual TLS Client Application client

    certificate A client certificate is sent through the TLS connection. Authorization server uses the client certificate for client authentication. client certificate
  37. Certificate-Bound Access Tokens 37

  38. 38 Web API Resource Server Client Application access token access

    token API call 1 extract 2 verify 3 API response 4 Malicious Client stolen API call access token
  39. Certificate-Bound Access Token 39 Authorization Server Client Application token request

    (Mutual TLS) check the binding issue an access token client certificate access token Resource Server generate an access token and bind the certificate to it access token client certificate API call (Mutual TLS) access token client certificate The same client certificate as used in the token request 1 2 3 4 5
  40. JWT Secured Authorization Response Mode (JARM) 40

  41. 41 JARM is a specification to pack response parameters from

    the authorization endpoint into a JWT. HTTP/1.1 302 Found Location: https://client.example.com/callback? response={JWT} HTTP/1.1 302 Found Location: https://client.example.com/callback? code={Authorization Code}&state={State} In normal cases In JARM
  42. 42 HTTP/1.1 302 Found Location: https://client.example.com/cb?response=eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ 9.eyJpc3MiOiJodHRwczovL2FjY291bnRzLmV4YW1wbGUuY29tIiwiYXVkIjoiczZCaGRSa3F0MyIsImV4cC I6MTMxMTI4MTk3MCwiY29kZSI6IlB5eUZhdXgybzdRMFlmWEJVMzJqaHcuNUZYU1FwdnI4YWt2OUNlUkRTZD BRQSIsInN0YXRlIjoiUzhOSjd1cWs1Zlk0RWpOdlBfR19GdHlKdTZwVXN2SDlqc1luaTlkTUFKdyJ9.HkdJ_ TYgwBBj10C-aWuNUiA062Amq2b0_oyuc5P0aMTQphAqC2o9WbGSkpfuHVBowlb-zJ15tBvXDIABL_t83q6aj

    vjtq_pqsByiRK2dLVdUwKhW3P_9wjvI0K20gdoTNbNlP9Z41mhart4BqraIoI8e-L_EfAHfhCG_DDDv7Yg { "iss": "https://accounts.example.com", "aud": "s6BhdRkqt3", "exp": 1311281970, "code": "PyyFaux2o7Q0YfXBU32jhw.5FXSQpvr8akv9CeRDSd0QA", "state": "S8NJ7uqk5fY4EjNvP_G_FtyJu6pUsvH9jsYni9dMAJw" } Example of an authorization response in JARM Decoded payload
  43. 43 To use JARM, include the response_mode parameter with *.jwt.

    response_mode=query.jwt |fragment.jwt |form_post.jwt |jwt GET {Authorization Endpoint} ?response_type={Response Type} &client_id={Client ID} &response_mode=jwt HTTP/1.1 Host: {Authorization Server}
  44. 44 Client Initiated Backchannel Authentication (CIBA)

  45. 45 CIBA (Client Initiated Backchannel Authentication) defines new authorization flows.

    1 CIBA POLL Mode 2 CIBA PING Mode 3 CIBA PUSH Mode The flows enable to separate the authentication device on which a user is authenticated and API authorization is granted from the consumption device on which a client application that calls APIs runs.
  46. 46 smart speaker Purchase ABC. backend system authorization server that

    supports CIBA asks for the permission authentication device consumption device resource server that provides APIs grants the permission The system is asking for the permission. Approve? calls APIs 4 1 2 3 5 6 7 backchannel authentication request
  47. 47 Every CIBA flow starts from a backchannel authentication request.

    Client sends a backchannel authentication request to the backchannel authentication endpoint of the authorization server. Backchannel Authentication Endpoint Client Application Authorization Server NEW A new endpoint defined by CIBA Backchannel authentication request
  48. 48 Backchannel Authentication Endpoint Client Application Authorization Server Authentication Device

    Backchannel Authentication Endpoint returns a response immediately. Authorization Server delegates the tasks of end-user authentication and consent confirmation to the Authentication Device. Authentication Device passes the result to the authorization server. 1 2 3
  49. 49 Authorization Server Client Backchannel Authentication Endpoint token request Token

    Endpoint Authentication Device communicate End-User token response backchannel authentication request backchannel authentication response CIBA POLL mode 1 2 3 4 5 (4)-(5) is repeated until (3) finishes.
  50. 50 Authorization Server Client notification Backchannel Authentication Endpoint token request

    Token Endpoint Client Notification Endpoint Authentication Device communicate End-User token response backchannel authentication request backchannel authentication response CIBA PING mode 1 2 3 4 5 6
  51. 51 Authorization Server Client notification Backchannel Authentication Endpoint Token Endpoint

    Client Notification Endpoint Authentication Device communicate End-User backchannel authentication request backchannel authentication response CIBA PUSH mode 1 2 3 4 This notification includes an access token & an ID token.
  52. References 52

  53. 53 ü Financial-grade API, Part 1: Read-Only Security Profile https://openid.net/specs/openid-financial-api-part-1-ID2.html

    ü Financial-grade API, Part 2: Read and Write API Security Profile https://openid.net/specs/openid-financial-api-part-2-ID2.html ü Financial-grade API: JWT Secured Authorization Response Mode for OAuth 2.0 (JARM) https://openid.net/specs/openid-financial-api-jarm-ID1.html ü OpenID Connect Client Initiated Backchannel Authentication Flow – Core 1.0 https://openid.net/specs/openid-client-initiated-backchannel- authentication-core-1_0.html ü OAuth 2.0 Mutual TLS Client Authentication and Certificate Bound Access Tokens https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-ietf-oauth-mtls/ ü RFC 7523 – JSON Web Token (JWT) Profile for OAuth 2.0 Client Authentication and Authorization Grants https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7523 Specifications ü Financial-grade API (API), explained by an implementer https://medium.com/@darutk/financial-grade-api-fapi- explained-by-an-implementer-d09fcf2ff932 ü "CIBA", a new authentication/authorization technology in 2019, explained by an implementer https://medium.com/@darutk/ciba-a-new-authentication- authorization-technology-in-2019-explained-by-an- implementer-d1e0ac1311b4 ü OAuth 2.0 Client Authentication https://medium.com/@darutk/oauth-2-0-client- authentication-4b5f929305d4 Articles Others ü Financial-grade API (FAPI) Working Group https://openid.net/wg/fapi/ ü Official Conformance Suite https://gitlab.com/openid/conformance-suite
  54. 54 Thank You G en era l info@authlete.com S ales

    sales@authlete.com P R pr@authlete.com Technical support@authlete.com Contact https://www.authlete.com/contact/ @authlete