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Cutting the fat

Cutting the fat

You can watch the video version here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6xzW-hwAZE

Rich, interactive web applications AKA fat clients are now commonplace. There are so many frameworks for building these rich client applications, and the debate among developers is which of these frameworks to use. As designers and developers we need to step back, and ask ourselves when and how we should enrich our client applications and when or why not. Let's dig in to the question: Why do we even want fat clients, and when should we use them? Let's examine the complications such clients introduce so we can weigh them against all the benefits.

The video embedded on page 92 can be viewed at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SsvIstTsQ6U

Updated and now speaker notes have been added!

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Tiffany Conroy

May 10, 2013
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Transcript

  1. CUTTING THE FAT When to use Ajax and when to

    reload
  2. @theophani TIFFANY CONROY All content licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ My name

    is Tiffany, and I work as an interaction designer and front-end developer at SoundCloud.
  3. CUTTING THE FAT When to use Ajax and when to

    reload When to use Ajax and when to reload ======================= This is a talk about being pragmatic. This is a talk is about how to reduce the technical complexity of web applications. This talk is about using interaction design to help make the choice between using Ajax and reloading the page.
  4. Last summer there was a conference called “Throne of JS”

    The conference had a very specific premise:
  5. “Throne of JS … is … focused on answering the

    question on every web developer’s mind: “Throne of JS is […] focused on answering the question on every web developer's mind: which framework?” Yes: rich, interactive web applications are now commonplace. There are so many frameworks for building these rich client applications, and the debate among developers is which of these frameworks to use.
  6. “Throne of JS … is … focused on answering the

    question on every web developer’s mind: which framework?” “Throne of JS is […] focused on answering the question on every web developer's mind: which framework?” Yes: rich, interactive web applications are now commonplace. There are so many frameworks for building these rich client applications, and the debate among developers is which of these frameworks to use.
  7. Question the premise. The premise of the question “which framework”

    is based on the idea that in a modern web application, the page should never be reloaded. But as designers and developers, we need to step back, and ask ourselves: why don’t we want to reload the page? When *can* we reload the page, and What is the benefit of Ajax? What is the cost of using Ajax? Frameworks help up to solve technical problems, but can we ever avoid those problems entirely?
  8. What to expect First I’m going to define some terminology.

    Then we examine the benefits and problems of fancy single-page web applications. Lastly, I want to show you one way of approaching your applications as a designer and developer that can help you reduce complexity, even before you choose a framework. Let’s get started.
  9. What to expect • Terminology First I’m going to define

    some terminology. Then we examine the benefits and problems of fancy single-page web applications. Lastly, I want to show you one way of approaching your applications as a designer and developer that can help you reduce complexity, even before you choose a framework. Let’s get started.
  10. What to expect • Terminology • Benefits and costs of

    Ajax First I’m going to define some terminology. Then we examine the benefits and problems of fancy single-page web applications. Lastly, I want to show you one way of approaching your applications as a designer and developer that can help you reduce complexity, even before you choose a framework. Let’s get started.
  11. What to expect • Terminology • Benefits and costs of

    Ajax • A pragmatic approach First I’m going to define some terminology. Then we examine the benefits and problems of fancy single-page web applications. Lastly, I want to show you one way of approaching your applications as a designer and developer that can help you reduce complexity, even before you choose a framework. Let’s get started.
  12. AJAX vs RELOAD A quick recap for everyone on what

    Ajax is and what we use it for, and how it differs from a page reload.
  13. In the early 90s, all web pages were static, and

    if you wanted to see new content, you followed a link or clicked on a form submit button …
  14. In the early 90s, all web pages were static, and

    if you wanted to see new content, you followed a link or clicked on a form submit button … … and the whole page would reload.
  15. Whole page reloads In the early 90s, all web pages

    were static, and if you wanted to see new content, you followed a link or clicked on a form submit button … … and the whole page would reload.
  16. In the second half of the 90s …

  17. JavaScript … after JavaScript was introduced, a JavaScript object called

  18. JavaScript and XMLHttpRequest … XMLHttpRequest was introduced, which allowed content

    to be sent and loaded …
  19. Asynchronous JavaScript and XMLHttpRequest asynchronously, without reloading the whole page.

  20. Asynchronous JavaScript and XMLHttpRequest In 2005, the technique of loading

    content asynchronously with JavaScript was given the name Ajax. Around that time Google released Gmail and Google Maps. (ps to big know-it-alls reading these speaker notes: yes, I know the X originally stood for XML, but making that distinction would just complicate things.)
  21. Just one part reloads Ajax allowed us to change the

    page content without a full page reload. But the more exciting use case was to make the page send and load content based on user interaction.
  22. Let’s look at an example using Facebook messages.

  23. I start to type a reply.

  24. In my reply, I enter a web address.

  25. Without me doing anything, and without interrupting me typing, the

    Facebook app uses Ajax to load information about the link I entered, and adds it to my message.
  26. When I send the message, the app uses Ajax to

    send my message without reloading the page. Ajax allowed us to maintain the context of what the user was doing, without reloading the page.
  27. Ajax → maintains context The web stopped being a collection

    of static web sites with fixed content, and allowed us to exchange data with the web server without reloading the page. Now, we rely heavily on Ajax to control the user's experience. To reiterate what I said before: Ajax allows us to maintain the context of what the user was doing, without reloading the page.
  28. CONTEXT What do I mean by “context”?

  29. “Context” is the answer to the question: where are you,

    and what are you doing. By this I am not talking about where you physically are while using a web application, but where you are *within* the web application, and what you are doing there.
  30. User Profile News Feed Store Checkout Slideshow Some examples of

    different contexts could be: user profile, a news feed, the checkout of a store, a slideshow. Within each of these contexts, we may not want to reload the page. Each distinct context could be its own “single-page app”, and a plain old browser refresh could be used to transition between these contexts.
  31. But two different instances of the same “screen” are in

    fact two different contexts. For example: The timeline of two different people are two different contexts.
  32. Two separate contexts But two different instances of the same

    “screen” are in fact two different contexts. For example: The timeline of two different people are two different contexts.
  33. ✓ Multiple parts of the same workflow can all happen

    in the same context. In this example, the context is filling out a form. While the user is in this context, we want to control the user’s experience as much as possible, so that the user doesn’t lose context.
  34. ✓ Same context Multiple parts of the same workflow can

    all happen in the same context. In this example, the context is filling out a form. While the user is in this context, we want to control the user’s experience as much as possible, so that the user doesn’t lose context.
  35. Your application may have lots of little components and features

    and bits of information, and you need to understand out how they all relate to each other.
  36. Then you need to define which components go together.

  37. Then you need to define which components go together.

  38. So when I say a context, I mean these different

    groupings of related bits organized into meaningful groupings. Designers need to understand, define and communicate the distinct contexts in any rich web application, being clear about the where boundaries between contexts are; where one stops and the next one starts.
  39. When we make a transition from one context to the

    next, we exit the boundary of one context and enter another. Ajax could be used to control the transition between contexts, if the designer and the developer can negotiate it by balancing the benefits against the technical costs.
  40. Designers need to understand, define and communicate the distinct contexts

    in any rich web application, being clear about the where boundaries between contexts are; where one stops and the next one starts.
  41. Ajax → maintains context So, Ajax allows us to maintain

    context for users.
  42. Lots of Ajax → “Fat Client” Web applications that use

    a lot of Ajax are sometimes called “fat client”
  43. FAT vs THIN What is a “fat” client? What do

    we mean by a “fat client”. How is it different from a “thin client”
  44. Client = code in the browser SERVER ----[ network ]---->

    CLIENT ## Server and client In this discussion, the code that runs in a web browser is the “client”, in contrast with code that runs on a web server.
  45. Thin client DATA + ALL THE LOGIC -------------------[ network ]---------------->

    PRESENTATION ## Thin Client [ DATA ] + [ ALL THE LOGIC ] ----[network]----> [PRESENTATION] All the logic is performed on the server-side. Static pages that rely on page reload are THIN. The browser, AKA the client, just displays the content.
  46. Fat client DATA -------------------[ network ]----------------> ALL THE LOGIC +

    PRESENTATION ## Fat Client [ DATA ] + [ ALL THE LOGIC ] ----[network]----> [PRESENTATION] All the logic is performed on the client-side. The server sends static content over the network, and all the logic is done in the browser AKA the client. These fat clients rely on a lot of JavaScript and Ajax.
  47. “Native Experience” People also talk about a “native experience” on

    the web. Ajax allows us to emulate a “native experience” on the web, meaning, it feels like an application not a web site.
  48. “Native Experience” and controlling transitions One of the most basic

    features of a ”native” experience is the controlled transitions between contexts, for example, the sliding left and right between screens. On the web, if you reload the page, you can’t define the transition. In every browser I’ve used, the transition is the same: the page goes white, the spinner spins, and then the page loads. Reloading can be jarring. We can get around this if we load the content with Ajax, and then transition to the new context. We call these sort of sites that exclusively use Ajax “single-page apps”.
  49. SINGLE-PAGE APPS Awesome or not awesome? So called “single-page apps”

    are very sexy these days. But people have begun to see that single-page apps are also nasty beasts that bring all sorts of technical complications with them.
  50. SINGLE-PAGE APPS Trying to recreate a native experience brings with

    it all kinds of technical problems. One upon a time, if the URL in the browser changed, the page reloaded. As we made rich applications using Ajax, we ran into the problem that we could reach a state in the application that we could not link to. We started to talk about how to “deep-link” to a context within an application. This wasn’t (usually) a problem before we started using Ajax.
  51. SINGLE-PAGE APPS back button Trying to recreate a native experience

    brings with it all kinds of technical problems. One upon a time, if the URL in the browser changed, the page reloaded. As we made rich applications using Ajax, we ran into the problem that we could reach a state in the application that we could not link to. We started to talk about how to “deep-link” to a context within an application. This wasn’t (usually) a problem before we started using Ajax.
  52. SINGLE-PAGE APPS deep-linking back button Trying to recreate a native

    experience brings with it all kinds of technical problems. One upon a time, if the URL in the browser changed, the page reloaded. As we made rich applications using Ajax, we ran into the problem that we could reach a state in the application that we could not link to. We started to talk about how to “deep-link” to a context within an application. This wasn’t (usually) a problem before we started using Ajax.
  53. SINGLE-PAGE APPS deep-linking #! hash-bang back button Trying to recreate

    a native experience brings with it all kinds of technical problems. One upon a time, if the URL in the browser changed, the page reloaded. As we made rich applications using Ajax, we ran into the problem that we could reach a state in the application that we could not link to. We started to talk about how to “deep-link” to a context within an application. This wasn’t (usually) a problem before we started using Ajax.
  54. SINGLE-PAGE APPS deep-linking JavaScript router #! hash-bang back button Trying

    to recreate a native experience brings with it all kinds of technical problems. One upon a time, if the URL in the browser changed, the page reloaded. As we made rich applications using Ajax, we ran into the problem that we could reach a state in the application that we could not link to. We started to talk about how to “deep-link” to a context within an application. This wasn’t (usually) a problem before we started using Ajax.
  55. SINGLE-PAGE APPS deep-linking JavaScript router #! hash-bang back button window.history

    Trying to recreate a native experience brings with it all kinds of technical problems. One upon a time, if the URL in the browser changed, the page reloaded. As we made rich applications using Ajax, we ran into the problem that we could reach a state in the application that we could not link to. We started to talk about how to “deep-link” to a context within an application. This wasn’t (usually) a problem before we started using Ajax.
  56. SINGLE-PAGE APPS deep-linking JavaScript router #! hash-bang back button frameworks

    window.history Trying to recreate a native experience brings with it all kinds of technical problems. One upon a time, if the URL in the browser changed, the page reloaded. As we made rich applications using Ajax, we ran into the problem that we could reach a state in the application that we could not link to. We started to talk about how to “deep-link” to a context within an application. This wasn’t (usually) a problem before we started using Ajax.
  57. Let’s pause for a moment: Why do we want to

    use Ajax? What problems are we trying to solve with Ajax? i.e. what **benefits** do we gain from using it?
  58. Problems a fat client solves: Problems a fat client solves:

    * The user can continue to interact (including simply viewing) while data is exchanged. * The designer can customize and control the loading and transition experience between contexts. * Information can be presented in a partial, incremental, incomplete form, thus context can be established while further information is retrieved. (Like a pan in a film, setting can be established in advance of details.) * The traffic between server and client can be reduced to data separate from the presentation, reducing network use and speeding up information transmission. Most of these are design problems. Even improved speed would result in a better experience for people.
  59. Problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction Problems a

    fat client solves: * The user can continue to interact (including simply viewing) while data is exchanged. * The designer can customize and control the loading and transition experience between contexts. * Information can be presented in a partial, incremental, incomplete form, thus context can be established while further information is retrieved. (Like a pan in a film, setting can be established in advance of details.) * The traffic between server and client can be reduced to data separate from the presentation, reducing network use and speeding up information transmission. Most of these are design problems. Even improved speed would result in a better experience for people.
  60. Problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction • Transitions

    between contexts Problems a fat client solves: * The user can continue to interact (including simply viewing) while data is exchanged. * The designer can customize and control the loading and transition experience between contexts. * Information can be presented in a partial, incremental, incomplete form, thus context can be established while further information is retrieved. (Like a pan in a film, setting can be established in advance of details.) * The traffic between server and client can be reduced to data separate from the presentation, reducing network use and speeding up information transmission. Most of these are design problems. Even improved speed would result in a better experience for people.
  61. Problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction • Transitions

    between contexts • Incremental loading Problems a fat client solves: * The user can continue to interact (including simply viewing) while data is exchanged. * The designer can customize and control the loading and transition experience between contexts. * Information can be presented in a partial, incremental, incomplete form, thus context can be established while further information is retrieved. (Like a pan in a film, setting can be established in advance of details.) * The traffic between server and client can be reduced to data separate from the presentation, reducing network use and speeding up information transmission. Most of these are design problems. Even improved speed would result in a better experience for people.
  62. Problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction • Transitions

    between contexts • Incremental loading • Reduced network traffic Problems a fat client solves: * The user can continue to interact (including simply viewing) while data is exchanged. * The designer can customize and control the loading and transition experience between contexts. * Information can be presented in a partial, incremental, incomplete form, thus context can be established while further information is retrieved. (Like a pan in a film, setting can be established in advance of details.) * The traffic between server and client can be reduced to data separate from the presentation, reducing network use and speeding up information transmission. Most of these are design problems. Even improved speed would result in a better experience for people.
  63. Problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction • Transitions

    between contexts • Incremental loading • Reduced network traffic → DESIGN PROBLEMS (mostly) Problems a fat client solves: * The user can continue to interact (including simply viewing) while data is exchanged. * The designer can customize and control the loading and transition experience between contexts. * Information can be presented in a partial, incremental, incomplete form, thus context can be established while further information is retrieved. (Like a pan in a film, setting can be established in advance of details.) * The traffic between server and client can be reduced to data separate from the presentation, reducing network use and speeding up information transmission. Most of these are design problems. Even improved speed would result in a better experience for people.
  64. Problems a fat client causes: Problems a fat client causes:

    * Routing becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> deep-linking * History management becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> back button * Caching (what and for how long) becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> reusing previously-fetched data and templates to achieve improved speed * Improvements from the speedy transmission are eroded by computation within the client i.e. instead of doing computation in an environment we can control (the server) we push it to the client, which is notoriously out of our control. These are technical problems. From a design perspective, these become trade-offs that are “someone else’s problem”.
  65. Problems a fat client causes: • Routing Problems a fat

    client causes: * Routing becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> deep-linking * History management becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> back button * Caching (what and for how long) becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> reusing previously-fetched data and templates to achieve improved speed * Improvements from the speedy transmission are eroded by computation within the client i.e. instead of doing computation in an environment we can control (the server) we push it to the client, which is notoriously out of our control. These are technical problems. From a design perspective, these become trade-offs that are “someone else’s problem”.
  66. Problems a fat client causes: • Routing • History Problems

    a fat client causes: * Routing becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> deep-linking * History management becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> back button * Caching (what and for how long) becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> reusing previously-fetched data and templates to achieve improved speed * Improvements from the speedy transmission are eroded by computation within the client i.e. instead of doing computation in an environment we can control (the server) we push it to the client, which is notoriously out of our control. These are technical problems. From a design perspective, these become trade-offs that are “someone else’s problem”.
  67. Problems a fat client causes: • Routing • History •

    Caching and garbage collection Problems a fat client causes: * Routing becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> deep-linking * History management becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> back button * Caching (what and for how long) becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> reusing previously-fetched data and templates to achieve improved speed * Improvements from the speedy transmission are eroded by computation within the client i.e. instead of doing computation in an environment we can control (the server) we push it to the client, which is notoriously out of our control. These are technical problems. From a design perspective, these become trade-offs that are “someone else’s problem”.
  68. Problems a fat client causes: • Routing • History •

    Caching and garbage collection • Computation is outside of our control Problems a fat client causes: * Routing becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> deep-linking * History management becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> back button * Caching (what and for how long) becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> reusing previously-fetched data and templates to achieve improved speed * Improvements from the speedy transmission are eroded by computation within the client i.e. instead of doing computation in an environment we can control (the server) we push it to the client, which is notoriously out of our control. These are technical problems. From a design perspective, these become trade-offs that are “someone else’s problem”.
  69. Problems a fat client causes: • Routing • History •

    Caching and garbage collection • Computation is outside of our control → TECHNICAL PROBLEMS Problems a fat client causes: * Routing becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> deep-linking * History management becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> back button * Caching (what and for how long) becomes the responsibility of the client-side script instead of the browser --> reusing previously-fetched data and templates to achieve improved speed * Improvements from the speedy transmission are eroded by computation within the client i.e. instead of doing computation in an environment we can control (the server) we push it to the client, which is notoriously out of our control. These are technical problems. From a design perspective, these become trade-offs that are “someone else’s problem”.
  70. Design problems a fat client solves: Let’s look again at

    the interaction design problems that a fat client can solve.
  71. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction Let’s

    look again at the interaction design problems that a fat client can solve.
  72. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts Let’s look again at the interaction design problems that a fat client can solve.
  73. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts • Incremental loading Let’s look again at the interaction design problems that a fat client can solve.
  74. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts • Incremental loading Let’s look again at the interaction design problems that a fat client can solve.
  75. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts • Incremental loading Maintain context Let’s look again at the interaction design problems that a fat client can solve.
  76. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts • Incremental loading Maintain context Let’s look again at the interaction design problems that a fat client can solve.
  77. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts • Incremental loading Maintain context Establish context Let’s look again at the interaction design problems that a fat client can solve.
  78. Ajax → controls context Ajax allows us to establish and

    maintain the context for the user, without jarring reloads. BUT …
  79. Ajax → adds complexity Ajax also introduces all lot of

    technical complications. This is complication that you as designer don’t have to think about, but creates a lot of extra work for developers. And that extra work might not be worth it. How can designers help developers be pragmatic about when to use Ajax and when not to?
  80. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts • Incremental loading When we look at the problems that a fat client can solve, we can ask which one is the most important? -> Continuous interaction is the primary reason we use Ajax. We use it during form validation, live chatting, commenting while watching a video
  81. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts • Incremental loading Most important When we look at the problems that a fat client can solve, we can ask which one is the most important? -> Continuous interaction is the primary reason we use Ajax. We use it during form validation, live chatting, commenting while watching a video
  82. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts • Incremental loading Most important When we look at the problems that a fat client can solve, we can ask which one is the most important? -> Continuous interaction is the primary reason we use Ajax. We use it during form validation, live chatting, commenting while watching a video
  83. Continuous interaction Continuous interaction is the primary reason we use

    Ajax. We use it during form validation, live chatting, commenting while watching a video, performing a search.
  84. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts • Incremental loading So what benefit of Ajax is the least important? -> Transitions between contexts
  85. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts • Incremental loading Least important So what benefit of Ajax is the least important? -> Transitions between contexts
  86. Design problems a fat client solves: • Continuous interaction •

    Transitions between contexts • Incremental loading Least important So what benefit of Ajax is the least important? -> Transitions between contexts
  87. New context? → Reload! When the user switches to a

    new context, the page can just be reloaded.
  88. NO TRANSITIONS!? What about transitions? Transition are nice to have

    but not essential for most cases.
  89. “The cool kids are doing it!” You might say: BUT

    BUT BUT … all the cool kids are doing it! My product is also cool! Maybe, but some of the cool kids still use page reload.
  90. Case study: Github

  91. On github.com: a profile is a context, the repo file-browser

    is a context, and each pull request is one context, with page reloads in between.
  92. On github.com: a profile is a context, the repo file-browser

    is a context, and each pull request is one context, with page reloads in between.
  93. As we saw, Github is a collection of single-page apps,

    one per context, with page reloads in between.
  94. AJAX vs RELOAD? So, when should you use Ajax and

    when should you use reload? Let’s recap:
  95. Limit your demand for Ajax Limit your demand for asynchronous

    communication to only within the contexts that matter. Only use it when you can afford it. “Single-page apps” are often made as single-page apps for the wrong reasons. I have made this mistake. Where is our need for Ajax? -- at the interaction points.
  96. Find the interaction points Find the interaction points. Everywhere the

    user will click, type, hover or otherwise engage with the interface. For each, ask: what benefit vs cost does Ajax have at that interaction point? Can we afford the cost? Where can we eliminate our need for Ajax?
  97. Find the context boundaries Know where the boundaries between contexts

    are, and communicate them to developers, because these are important for designing the application architecture. Using Ajax in at these interaction points give us the least benefit. Lastly, for developers:
  98. Does your framework minimize your technical costs? Does your framework

    help solve the design problems while minimizing the technical costs?
  99. Single-page apps? YES: we can help our users maintain context

    so they can focus without jarring interruptions. These means: use Ajax for each context, and each of those is its own single-page app. Monolithic apps? NO: or at least, they aren’t nearly as useful as they are technically hard, and you should be very clear of the costs. You may get so much benefit, or have so many people working in the problems, that you can overcome the costs. Your *entire web app* does *not* need to be one single front-end app.
  100. Single-page apps? → YES Single-page apps? YES: we can help

    our users maintain context so they can focus without jarring interruptions. These means: use Ajax for each context, and each of those is its own single-page app. Monolithic apps? NO: or at least, they aren’t nearly as useful as they are technically hard, and you should be very clear of the costs. You may get so much benefit, or have so many people working in the problems, that you can overcome the costs. Your *entire web app* does *not* need to be one single front-end app.
  101. Single-page apps? → YES Monolithic apps? → NO Single-page apps?

    YES: we can help our users maintain context so they can focus without jarring interruptions. These means: use Ajax for each context, and each of those is its own single-page app. Monolithic apps? NO: or at least, they aren’t nearly as useful as they are technically hard, and you should be very clear of the costs. You may get so much benefit, or have so many people working in the problems, that you can overcome the costs. Your *entire web app* does *not* need to be one single front-end app.
  102. QUESTIONS? and discussion @theophani speakerdeck.com/theophani/cutting-the-fat

  103. THANKS! All content licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/