vertical parent -> offspring vertical, horizontal, oblique Selection environmental forcing strategic adoption of adaptive traits Cultural Evolution is Different Mesoudi, A., Whiten, A. & Laland, K.N., 2004. Perspective: is human cultural evolution Darwinian? Evidence reviewed from the perspective of the Origin of Species. Evolution, 58(1), pp.1–11.
Evolution’, PLoS ONE, 7(9), p. e45150. More Group Structured Bell, A. V., Richerson, P. J. and McElreath, R. (2009) ‘Culture rather than genes provides greater scope for the evolution of large-scale human prosociality’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(42), p. 17671. Cumulative Dean, L. G. et al. (2014) ‘Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective’. Biological Reviews, 89 (2) 284-301 Cultural Evolution is also... ...compared to genetic evolution.
(ontogeny) • cultural group selection • cooperation, group structure, institutions • cultural phylogenies • ethnic & social identity, diversiﬁcation, ethnogenesis, quantitative history • gene-culture coevolution (dual inheritance) • e.g. adult lactose absorption
(a) functional and (b) the symbolic aspects of canoe design. For functional traits, the average delta score was 0.46 and the average Q-residual = 0.03. For symbolic traits, the average delta score was 0.37 and the average Q-residual = 0.05. Scale bar, 0.01. symbolic functional Gray, R.D., Bryant, D. & Greenhill, S.J., 2010. On the shape and fabric of human history. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 365(1559), pp.3923–3933. Canoe design aspects
2007 Mathew, S. and Perreault, C. (2015) Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social learning is the main mode of human adaptation, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282 (1810), p. 61.
with non-relatives Culture and Cooperation -> Special role of groups Boyd, R. and Richerson, P. J. (2009) ‘Culture and the evolution of human cooperation’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1533), pp. 3281–3288.
processes and large-scale cooperation. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 53(1), 3–35. 1. Differential proliferation & extinction of groups 2. Differential success of groups 3. Selective imitation of between groups 4. Differential migration of individuals between groups
for adaptation to multiple-hen cages: selection program and direct responses. Journal of Poultry Science 75, 447– 458. Posted to Flickr by USDAgov at http://flickr.com/photos/41284017@N08/6354331371 Group Selection on Genes (very rare in nature)
the statistical requirements for evolution (Frank 1995). expressed as where w is ﬁtness, and z is the trait under selection across individuals i. The multi-level extension of the price equation for individuals i and groups g (McElreath & Boyd 2007). individual selection group selection
group selection. Co-evolutionary process and large-scale cooperation. J. Econ. Behav. Organ. 53, 85–88. • Traulsen, A., Nowak, M.A., 2006. Evolution of cooperation by multilevel selection. PNAS 103, 10952–10955. • Van den Bergh, J., & Gowdy, J. M. (2009). A group selection perspective on economic behavior, institutions and organizations. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 72, 1-20.