The Evolution of Social-Ecological Systems

7d3cf0465b50eaa48ffd2a9205455452?s=47 Tim Waring
November 29, 2017

The Evolution of Social-Ecological Systems

To solve the modern environmental predicament we must understand how humans created it. Beyond emitting carbon, over-populating, polluting, or over-consuming, humans have come to dominate the planet, surviving in all terrestrial environments from the tropics to the arctic. We have achieved this through a mix of cooperation and cumulative adaptation to the environment. Dr. Waring argues that the factors that make the human species special, ultrasociality and cumulative cultural adaptation, also present the best and only hope for surviving and managing modern ecological crises. This talk will explain how human culture and cooperation both evolve, and how the dynamics of cultural adaptation play out at multiple levels of social organization in different social ecological systems, with detailed examples from around the world. Finally, Dr. Waring explains how to harness the power of human cooperation and cultural adaptation to achieve environmental sustainability.

7d3cf0465b50eaa48ffd2a9205455452?s=128

Tim Waring

November 29, 2017
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  1. Dr. Timothy M. Waring Associate Professor of Social-Ecological Systems Modeling

    School of Economics, Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions University of Maine The Evolution of Social- Ecological Systems SEANET Speaker Series November 29, 2017 354 Aubert Hall
  2. Where are we?

  3. None
  4. anthropocene Waters et al., 2016. The Anthropocene is functionally and

    stratigraphically distinct from the Holocene. Science 351. Crutzen, Paul J. "The “anthropocene”." Earth system science in the anthropocene. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2006. 13-18.
  5. anthropocene

  6. anthropocene

  7. anthropocene

  8. planetary boundaries Rockström, Johan, et al. A safe operating space

    for humanity. nature 461.7263 (2009): 472-475.
  9. how did we get here? Oil Refinery Richmond California United

    States
  10. outline • how we got here (evolutionary history) • two

    superpowers (culture & cooperation) • how social-ecological systems evolve (examples) • learning to use our superpowers for good
  11. How did we get here?

  12. Going global: How humans conquered the world The New Scientist,

    2007
  13. Going global: How humans conquered the world The New Scientist,

    2007 Mathew, S. and Perreault, C. (2015) Behavioural variation in 172 small-scale societies indicates that social learning is the main mode of human adaptation, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282 (1810), p. 61.
  14. Inuit technology

  15. !kung technology

  16. industrial technology Oil Refinery Richmond California United States

  17. The first superpower

  18. The first superpower CULTURE

  19. Culture Evolves. behavior beliefs institutions technology

  20. Evolution Refresher variation + selection + inheritance

  21. Evolution Refresher variation + selection + inheritance = adaptation

  22. Genetic Evolution Cultural Evolution Variation random mutation guided innovation Transmission

    vertical parent -> offspring vertical, horizontal, oblique Selection environmental forcing strategic adoption of adaptive traits Types of Evolution Mesoudi, A., Whiten, A. & Laland, K.N., 2004. Perspective: is human cultural evolution Darwinian? Evidence reviewed from the perspective of the Origin of Species. Evolution, 58(1), pp.1–11.
  23. Cultural Evolution Faster Perreault, C. (2012) ‘The Pace of Cultural

    Evolution’, PLoS ONE, 7(9), p. e45150. More Group Structured Bell, A. V., Richerson, P. J. and McElreath, R. (2009) ‘Culture rather than genes provides greater scope for the evolution of large-scale human prosociality’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(42), p. 17671. Cumulative Dean, L. G. et al. (2014) ‘Human cumulative culture: a comparative perspective’. Biological Reviews, 89 (2) 284-301 Cultural Evolution is...
  24. Reticulate phylogenies Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Nunn, C. & Towner, M.C.,

    2006. Cultural macroevolution and the transmission of traits. Evolutionary Anthropology, 15, pp.52–64.
  25. The second superpower

  26. The second superpower COOPERATION

  27. Coordination Collective Action Cooperation Altruism

  28. Social Dilemma Prisoner’s Dilemma Player B Cooperate Defect Player A

    Cooperate 2 , 2 0 , 3 Defect 3 , 0 1 , 1
  29. Social Dilemma Prisoner’s Dilemma Player B Cooperate Defect Player A

    Cooperate 2 , 2 0 , 3 Defect 3 , 0 1 , 1
  30. Social Dilemma Prisoner’s Dilemma Player B Cooperate Defect Player A

    Cooperate 2 , 2 0 , 3 Defect 3 , 0 1 , 1
  31. Cooperation Evolves Nowak, M. A. (2006). Five Rules for the

    Evolution of Cooperation. Science • Kin selection • Reciprocity • Group selection
  32. cooperative selfish time 1

  33. cooperative selfish time 1 individual selection time 2

  34. Individual selection in a social dilemma favors selfish individuals cooperative

    selfish time 1 individual selection time 2
  35. None
  36. cooperative selfish time 1

  37. cooperative selfish time 1 group selection time 2

  38. Group selection in a social dilemma favors groups of cooperative

    individuals cooperative selfish time 1 group selection time 2
  39. 160% increase in clutch size Muir, W., 1996. Group selection

    for adaptation to multiple-hen cages: selection program and direct responses. Journal of Poultry Science 75, 447– 458. Posted to Flickr by USDAgov at http://flickr.com/photos/41284017@N08/6354331371 Group Selection on Genes (very rare in nature)
  40. Social Dilemmas are Conflicts between Levels of Selection

  41. Social Dilemmas are Conflicts between Levels of Selection multilevel selection

    cooperative non-cooperative (‘selfish’)
  42. outcomes depend on the balance of selection Social Dilemmas are

    Conflicts between Levels of Selection multilevel selection cooperative non-cooperative (‘selfish’)
  43. Human cooperation is group-centric Apicella, Marlowe, Fowler & Christakis, (2012)

    Nature 481, 497–501. Group Selection on Genes
  44. The Battle of Agincourt. Choi, Bowles, 2007. The coevolution of

    parochial altruism and war. Science 318, 636–640.
  45. • docility, prosociality • specialization • language • cooperative breeding

    • technology • conformity • reputation • social marking • ethnocentrism • xenophobia Biological adaptations to group life
  46. • docility, prosociality • specialization • language • cooperative breeding

    • technology • conformity • reputation • social marking • ethnocentrism • xenophobia Biological adaptations to group life }negative factors
  47. Cooperation evolves culturally, too. [thankfully] Superpowers combined

  48. None
  49. None
  50. None
  51. Molly Hayden, U.S. Army Garrison Grafenwoehr Public Affairs Group selection

    selects for group-functional behaviors and institutions
  52. Cultural Group Selection 1. Proliferation, extinction, success of groups 2.

    Imitation between groups 3. Migration between groups Henrich, J. (2004). Cultural group selection, coevolutionary processes and large-scale cooperation. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 53(1), 3–35.
  53. Things that accelerate the evolution of cooperation • small group

    size • punishment • reciprocity • homogeneity • competition between groups • learning between groups • supporting institutions (via cultural group selection)
  54. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions

    for Collective Action. Cambridge University Press. Elinor Ostrom Courtesy of Indiana University Institutional Design Principles 1. Clear social boundaries 2. Fair rules 3. Collective-choice 4. Monitoring 5. Graduated sanctions 6. Conflict resolution 7. Self determination 8. Nested governance
  55. Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions

    for Collective Action. Cambridge University Press. Elinor Ostrom Courtesy of Indiana University Institutional Design Principles 1. Clear social boundaries 2. Fair rules 3. Collective-choice 4. Monitoring 5. Graduated sanctions 6. Conflict resolution 7. Self determination 8. Nested governance Evolution
  56. How social-ecological systems evolve.

  57. Research Questions 1. (theory) When does cultural group selection accelerate

    the emergence of behaviors and institutions of sustainable resource management? 2. (empirics) Can we find evidence in case studies? 3. (application) Can we design interventions for an applied science?
  58. Research Questions 1. (theory) When does cultural group selection accelerate

    the emergence of behaviors and institutions of sustainable resource management? 2. (empirics) Can we find evidence in case studies? 3. (application) Can we design interventions for an applied science?
  59. Manavanur, Tamil Nadu, India

  60. How does environmental cooperation evolve? individuals villages nations Multi-village Forest

  61. How does environmental cooperation evolve? individuals villages nations Multi-village Forest

  62. How does environmental cooperation evolve? individuals villages nations Multi-village Forest

  63. How does environmental cooperation evolve? individuals villages nations Multi-village Forest

    Village Irrigation System
  64. How does environmental cooperation evolve? individuals villages nations Multi-village Forest

    Village Irrigation System
  65. How does environmental cooperation evolve? individuals villages nations Multi-village Forest

    Village Irrigation System
  66. Lobster gangs learn from each other: • territorial defense •

    harvest limits • legal strategies • conservation practices Jim Acheson Waring, T., Acheson, J., 2017. Evidence of cultural group selection in territorial lobstering in Maine. Sustainability Science 1–14.
  67. rice irrigation in Bali Brooks, Jeremy, Victoria Reyes-García, and William

    Burnside. Re-examining balinese subaks through the lens of cultural multilevel selection. Sustainability Science: 1-13.
  68. rice irrigation in Bali Brooks, Jeremy, Victoria Reyes-García, and William

    Burnside. Re-examining balinese subaks through the lens of cultural multilevel selection. Sustainability Science: 1-13.
  69. blueberry industry Sam Hanes Producers cooperated: • voluntary research tax

    • inspection system (But only after statewide industry crises) Hanes, S. P. and Waring, T. M. (2017) ‘Cultural evolution and US agricultural institutions: a historical case study of Maine’s blueberry industry’, Sustainability Science, pp. 1–10.
  70. Bhutan

  71. Ethnic diversity within Bhutan

  72. None
  73. or How to harness cooperation for sustainability. Learning to use

    our superpowers for good.
  74. Research Questions 1. (theory) When does cultural group selection accelerate

    the emergence of behaviors and institutions of sustainable resource management? 2. (empirics) Can we find evidence in case studies? 3. (application) Can we design interventions for an applied science?
  75. a recipe to grow sustainability

  76. 1. A social dilemma for environmental resources. a recipe to

    grow sustainability
  77. 1. A social dilemma for environmental resources. 2. A type

    of group that can solve the dilemma locally. a recipe to grow sustainability
  78. 1. A social dilemma for environmental resources. 2. A type

    of group that can solve the dilemma locally. 3. A population of those groups. a recipe to grow sustainability
  79. 1. A social dilemma for environmental resources. 2. A type

    of group that can solve the dilemma locally. 3. A population of those groups. 4. Within groups a recipe to grow sustainability
  80. 1. A social dilemma for environmental resources. 2. A type

    of group that can solve the dilemma locally. 3. A population of those groups. 4. Within groups 4.1.High stakes for successful management a recipe to grow sustainability
  81. 1. A social dilemma for environmental resources. 2. A type

    of group that can solve the dilemma locally. 3. A population of those groups. 4. Within groups 4.1.High stakes for successful management 4.2.Strong group culture & institutions (Ostrom’s rules) a recipe to grow sustainability
  82. 1. A social dilemma for environmental resources. 2. A type

    of group that can solve the dilemma locally. 3. A population of those groups. 4. Within groups 4.1.High stakes for successful management 4.2.Strong group culture & institutions (Ostrom’s rules) 4.3.Reward cooperation, punish exploitation. a recipe to grow sustainability
  83. 1. A social dilemma for environmental resources. 2. A type

    of group that can solve the dilemma locally. 3. A population of those groups. 4. Within groups 4.1.High stakes for successful management 4.2.Strong group culture & institutions (Ostrom’s rules) 4.3.Reward cooperation, punish exploitation. 5. Between groups a recipe to grow sustainability
  84. 1. A social dilemma for environmental resources. 2. A type

    of group that can solve the dilemma locally. 3. A population of those groups. 4. Within groups 4.1.High stakes for successful management 4.2.Strong group culture & institutions (Ostrom’s rules) 4.3.Reward cooperation, punish exploitation. 5. Between groups 5.1.Peaceful competition to protect & enhance resources a recipe to grow sustainability
  85. 1. A social dilemma for environmental resources. 2. A type

    of group that can solve the dilemma locally. 3. A population of those groups. 4. Within groups 4.1.High stakes for successful management 4.2.Strong group culture & institutions (Ostrom’s rules) 4.3.Reward cooperation, punish exploitation. 5. Between groups 5.1.Peaceful competition to protect & enhance resources 5.2.Strategy imitation a recipe to grow sustainability
  86. problems

  87. 1. global commons (climate change) problems

  88. 1. global commons (climate change) 2. ethnocentric “solutions” too easy

    problems
  89. nimbios.org/workinggroups/WG_sustainability Tim Waring, University of Maine Karolina Safarzyńska, Warsaw University

    Marco Janssen, Arizona State University
  90. Jeremy Brooks, Ohio State University Tim Waring, University of Maine

    sesync.org/project/ventures/evolution-of-sustainability
  91. THEORY Waring et al. (2015) A multilevel evolutionary framework for

    sustainability analysis. Ecology and Society, 20 (2): 34 MODEL Waring, Goff, & Smaldino (2017) The coevolution of economic institutions and sustainable consumption via cultural group selection. Ecological Economics, 131 524–532 SPECIAL ISSUE, CASE STUDIES Sustainability Science, Special Feature: Applying Cultural Evolution to Sustainability Challenges, ISSN: 1862-4065 (Print) 1862-4057 (Online) DOWNLOAD: timwaring.wordpress.com
  92. THEORY Waring et al. (2015) A multilevel evolutionary framework for

    sustainability analysis. Ecology and Society, 20 (2): 34 MODEL Waring, Goff, & Smaldino (2017) The coevolution of economic institutions and sustainable consumption via cultural group selection. Ecological Economics, 131 524–532 SPECIAL ISSUE, CASE STUDIES Sustainability Science, Special Feature: Applying Cultural Evolution to Sustainability Challenges, ISSN: 1862-4065 (Print) 1862-4057 (Online) With Examples, Strategies !!! DOWNLOAD: timwaring.wordpress.com
  93. Thank You!

  94. Thank You! Questions?