Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

Serverless without a fuss.

Serverless without a fuss.

How to develop and debug Lambda functions without going crazy. Deck from my AWS User Group Kyiv talk.


Volodymyr Rudyi

February 20, 2020


  1. ©2020 AgileVision Sp. Z O.O. Agilevision.io Serverless without a fuss.

    How to develop and debug lambda functions without going crazy.
  2. Agilevision.io 6. Application Structure 7. Deployment 8. Debugging & Tracing

    9. Q&A 2 Plan 1. About me 2. What is Serverless? 3. Why Serverless? 4. “Ideal Application Profile” 5. Serverless in AWS Necessary theory Takeaways
  3. AWS Certified Architect. Running an IT consulting company. Writing code.

    Love to share knowledge. About me 3
  4. Agilevision.io 4 Serverless is a cloud-computing execution model in which

    the developer is not responsible for provisioning and maintaining server resources. A.K.A. Function-as-a-Service (FaaS). What is Serverless?
  5. Agilevision.io Why Serverless? 5 • No maintenance • Flexible pricing

    • Seamless scaling
  6. Agilevision.io 6 “Ideal Application Profile” • Faster time-to-market is required

    • You want to focus on a business logic rather than on the infrastructure • You need to be prepared for a high-load • Your goal is to be cost-effective Go Serverless If 6
  7. Agilevision.io 7 “Ideal Application Profile” • Everyone in the team

    is trained properly • Application architecture is designed, discussed and validated by your team. • Everyone understands pricing, hard and soft limits of each AWS service that is going to be used • To do your homework, calculate costs projection based on theoretical growth of a user base Before using Serverless make sure 7
  8. Agilevision.io 8 Serverless in AWS - Compute Function-as-a-Service Lambda Serverless

    containers Fargate Application Blueprints SAR
  9. Agilevision.io 9 Serverless in AWS - DB Serverless SQL Aurora

    Serverless Managed NoSQL DynamoDB
  10. Agilevision.io 10 Serverless in AWS - Other Serverless Presto Athena

    Real-time data streaming Kinesis Data Streams Object Storage S3 User Sign-Up, Sign-In, and Access Control AWS Cognito … and many other
  11. Agilevision.io 11 Before we proceed • Further suggestions are based

    on a previous experience mixed with retrospective thinking • Do not overengineer Some notes 11
  12. Agilevision.io / 12 Application Structure

  13. Agilevision.io 13 Typical HTTP Handler Lambda Structure 13 API Endpoint

    Lambda Function Request Data Response Data HTTP Request HTTP Response /api/organization/1/devices
  14. Agilevision.io 14 ...and on a scale with a bit of

    encapsulation 14 /api/organization/1/devices /api/organization/1/devices/0001A231 /api/organization/1/users ...
  15. Agilevision.io 15 Simplified view on a scale 15 HTTP Request

    HTTP Request HTTP Request
  16. Agilevision.io Possible issues 16 • Each Lambda has its own

    cold start penalty • Each API endpoint requires a ton of AWS resources
  17. Agilevision.io 17 Short-term solution with long-term penalties 17 HTTP Request

    HTTP Request HTTP Request Request routing happens inside Lambda This is not the best approach in the long run. See next slide to understand why
  18. Agilevision.io What’s wrong with a single Lambda for multiple APIs?

    18 • Optimization opportunities are missed. • API Gateway routing and transformation capabilities are not used, thus you are wasting money (and time). • Code becomes more complicated(and it will result in more bugs) • Testing is more complicated
  19. Agilevision.io About missed optimization opportunities... 19 Init Unpack Logic Cold

    start Invocation Execution time Shared init = shared cold start time OR conditional init = waste of money and time
  20. Agilevision.io NodeJS vs Python vs Java HTTP Request Duration 20

  21. Agilevision.io NodeJS Duration 21

  22. Agilevision.io Python Duration 22

  23. Agilevision.io NodeJS vs Python vs Java Invocation Time 23

  24. Agilevision.io / 24 Duration

  25. Agilevision.io 25

  26. Agilevision.io / 26 Most expensive invocations

  27. Agilevision.io 27

  28. Agilevision.io So... 28 • Invocation duration != HTTP Request Processing

    Time • Some environment have longer cold start than others • Non-cold start request processing time is almost the same. But each environment has its own latency “base value”. This may matter for aggressive optimizations
  29. Agilevision.io Valid cases to use single Lambda + internal routing

    29 • Migration of an existing code • Incoming request routing is complicated and can’t be achieved using API Gateway • Quick and dirty proof of concept
  30. Agilevision.io Deployment 30

  31. Agilevision.io Lambda Deployment Approaches 31 Native External SAM CDK Serverless

    CloudFormation Terraform Semi-native
  32. Agilevision.io Native Deployment 32 • CloudFormation under the hood •

    AWS Way • Rollback support • Very flexible • IDE Integration
  33. Agilevision.io The Dark Side of Native Deployment 33 • Slow

    • Packaging is not included • Verbose
  34. Agilevision.io Semi-Native Deployment 34 • CloudFormation under the hood •

    Rollback support • Eloquent • Stuff not supported by AWS is implemented via plugins • There are tons of plugins
  35. Agilevision.io Horrors of Semi-Native Deployment 35 • Not supported by

    AWS • New resources support may appear with a delay • Freemium model
  36. Agilevision.io External Deployment 36 • No CloudFormation under the hood

    • Faster • No rollback/limited rollback • Super flexible
  37. Agilevision.io Pains of External Deployment 37 • No rollback •

    Super verbose • Constant release of incompatible tool versions • Latest resources may not be available • Not all resources may be available due to architecture/paradigm limitations
  38. Agilevision.io How to decide? 38 Choose Serverless framework for fast

    development Choose other options for sophisticated infrastructures and additional features
  39. Agilevision.io 39 Debugging and Tracing

  40. Agilevision.io 40 Invocation options • End-to-end invocation initiated by a

    trigger (e.g. HTTP request to API Gateway) • Lambda invocation (API or Lambda Console) • Local invocation
  41. Agilevision.io 41 Debugging options • Remote trial & error (

    a.k.a. invoke and check logs until problem disappears) • Local trial & error • Local debugging with breakpoints (a.k.a. normal development process)
  42. Agilevision.io 42 Trial & error debugging Trigger Lambda Check CloudWatch

    Update code
  43. Agilevision.io 43 Checking logs

  44. Agilevision.io 44 Trial & error pros • No configuration needed

    • Execution involves all services/resources and can be great for creating end-to-end tests
  45. Agilevision.io 45 Trial & error cons • Code is deployed

    and only then tested • Takes a lot of time (deployment, invocation and waiting for logs to arrive) • Exhausting and inefficient
  46. Agilevision.io 46 Local trial & error Trigger Lambda Check Output

    Update code
  47. Agilevision.io 47 Local invocation and output

  48. Agilevision.io 48 Local invocation pros • Speed • No need

    to deploy code before checking it works • Easy stubbing and mocking of external services
  49. Agilevision.io 49 Local invocation cons • Local environment is completely

    different from the cloud • You have to mock inputs from triggers • Execution environment support depends on a tool
  50. Agilevision.io 50 Local debugging Set breakpoints Invoke locally Analyze &

  51. Agilevision.io 51 Local debugging

  52. Agilevision.io 52 Local debugging pros • Predictable process • Fast

    • Smaller feedback loop • Debug context
  53. Agilevision.io 53 Local invocation cons • Local environment differs from

    the production • Execution environment support can be limited depending on a tool • Additional configuration required
  54. Agilevision.io 54 Pro Tip :) Lambda handler code should not

    have any business logic. Instead, it should extract input, pass it further and format response. Then you can easily replace the entry point and debug any function in any IDE.
  55. Agilevision.io 55 Tracing • Simple setup • Useful insights •

    Flexible configuration, including custom sub-segments to reflect application mission-critical modules
  56. Agilevision.io 56 Tracing example

  57. Agilevision.io / 57 Questions?