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From Instances to Functions: Going Serverless

From Instances to Functions: Going Serverless

Serverless is a hot topic in the software architecture world. A serverless architecture approach replaces long-running virtual machines with ephemeral compute power that comes into existence on request and disappears immediately after use. Pay for the hamburger, not the cow!

Yos Riady

May 18, 2017
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  1. From Instances to Functions
    Going Serverless
    Yos Riady
    yos.io
    goo.gl/hvrw9s

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  3. Serverless:
    Moving away from servers and
    infrastructure concerns & allowing
    developers to primarily focus on code

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  5. How We Got Here
    Pros & Cons of the
    Serverless Architecture
    Background Why Concepts Code Next Steps
    Intro to Serverless Summary
    Walkthrough of a
    real Serverless
    application

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  6. How We Got Here

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  9. Cloud Computing Evolution

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  10. Software Architecture Evolution

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  11. Functions as a Service
    ● FaaS / Serverless platforms are compute services that
    runs your code in response to events.

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  13. Anatomy of a Lambda Function
    exports.myFunction = function(event, context, callback) {
    console.log("value1 = " + event.key1);
    console.log("value2 = " + event.key2);
    var result = event.key1 + event.key2;
    callback(null, { result: result, success: true });
    }

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  15. How do FaaS platforms execute your code?
    ● When a lambda function is invoked,
    ○ A container (execution environment) is provisioned
    ● It takes time to set up the container
    ○ “Cold start”
    ● After execution, the container is maintained for some time (e.g. 5 minutes)
    ● “Warm” container reuse for subsequent invocations
    ○ Significantly faster

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  17. How We Got Here
    Pros & Cons of the
    Serverless Architecture
    Background Why Concepts Code Next Steps
    Intro to Serverless Summary
    Walkthrough of a
    real Serverless
    application

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  18. Why Serverless

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  23. Benefits of Serverless
    ● Scalability baked in and high availability
    ○ No need for capacity planning
    ● Less Ops
    ○ No infrastructure to manage
    ● Low cost
    ○ Billed in 100ms increments
    ○ Pay only for what you use!

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  24. Drawbacks of Serverless
    ● Vendor lock-in
    ● Limited degree of customization & control
    ○ Memory
    ○ Timeouts
    ○ Disk space
    ● Decentralization
    ○ Debugging / Monitoring challenges
    ○ Integration testing can be hard

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  25. Serverless Use Cases
    ● Web / Mobile backend APIs
    ● Image / Asset Processing
    ● Webhooks
    ● DevOps automation
    ● Log processing
    ● ETL / Batch processing
    ● Big data / Machine learning
    ● Bots
    ● Web scraping & automation

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  26. Serverless Backend

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  27. Serverless Asset Processing

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  28. How We Got Here
    Pros & Cons of the
    Serverless Architecture
    Background Why Concepts Code Next Steps
    Intro to Serverless Summary
    Walkthrough of a
    real Serverless
    application

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  30. Introduction to the Serverless Framework
    ● CLI that helps you develop and deploy your AWS Lambda functions, along with
    the AWS infrastructure resources they require. You get:
    ○ Structure & best practices
    ○ Automation
    ○ Plugin ecosystem
    ● Provider and runtime agnostic
    ○ AWS
    ○ Azure
    ○ OpenWhisk
    ○ GCP

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  31. Events Functions Resources

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  32. Deployable units of code
    Single Responsibility Principle
    (think Unix Philosophy)
    Languages and runtimes vary
    Functions
    Executable snippets of code

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  33. AWS Lambda Runtimes (May 2017)
    ● Node.js – v4.3.2 and 6.10
    ● Java – Java 8
    ● Python – Python 3.6 and 2.7
    ● .NET Core – .NET Core 1.0.1 (C#)

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  34. Anatomy of an AWS Lambda Node.js Function
    exports.myHandler = function(event, context, callback) {
    console.log("value1 = " + event.key1);
    console.log("value2 = " + event.key2);
    callback(null, "some success message");
    // or
    // callback("some error type");
    }

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  35. HTTP request
    SNS notification
    DB events
    S3 events
    Scheduled events
    On-demand invocation
    Events
    Triggers functions

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  36. AWS Lambda Events (May 2017)
    ● HTTP (API Gateway)
    ● Kinesis
    ● DynamoDB
    ● S3
    ● SNS
    ● Alexa Skill
    ● IoT
    ● CloudWatch Event
    ● CloudWatch Log
    ● Schedule

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  37. NoSQL / SQL Databases
    File storage
    REST APIs
    Third-party APIs
    Legacy services
    etc.
    Resources
    Supporting cloud services

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  38. serverless.yml
    # serverless.yml
    service: users
    functions: # Your "Functions"
    usersCreate:
    events: # The "Events" that trigger this function
    - http: post users/create
    usersDelete:
    events:
    - http: delete users/delete
    resources: # The "Resources" your "Functions" use. Raw AWS CloudFormation goes in here.

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  39. Serverless Development Workflow
    1. serverless create to bootstrap a Serverless project
    2. Write your functions
    3. serverless deploy to deploy the current state of the project
    4. serverless invoke to test the live function
    5. serverless logs to view function logs
    6. Write and run unit tests for your functions locally with mocks

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  40. Hands-On

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  41. How We Got Here
    Pros & Cons of the
    Serverless Architecture
    Background Why Concepts Code Next Steps
    Intro to Serverless Summary
    Walkthrough of a
    real Serverless
    application

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  42. Kids these days

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  43. What we’re building
    ● An image processing backend for a photo filter app
    ○ Users supply an image URL
    ○ Images are analyzed and processed to add relevant emojis
    ○ Users can view the processed images

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  44. What we’re building it with
    ● AWS and the Serverless framework
    ○ Lambda: Compute service
    ○ S3: File Storage
    ○ DynamoDB: NoSQL Database
    ○ Rekognition: Image Recognition API

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  46. Problem decomposition
    ● Divide-and-conquer: Serverless applications are composed of many granular
    functions, each solving a distinct sub-problem.
    ○ downloadImage
    ○ analyzeImage
    ○ processImage
    ○ viewImage

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  47. Events Functions Resources

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  48. HTTP Event AWS S3
    downloadImage
    Function #0: Download Image

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  49. Function #0: Download Image
    ● Sub-problem: How do we save the image supplied by a user?
    ● Solution: Create a new downloadImage function
    ○ Triggered by an HTTP event
    ○ Saves image from URL to an S3 bucket
    ○ Returns an ID back to the client

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  50. S3 Event AWS Rekognition
    AWS DynamoDB
    analyzeImage
    Function #1: Analyze Image

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  51. Function #1: Analyze Image
    ● Sub-problem: How do we analyze what’s in the image?
    ● Solution: Create a new analyzeImage function
    ○ Triggered by an S3 event
    ○ Calls the AWS Rekognition DetectFaces API
    ○ Writes analysis results to DynamoDB

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  52. AWS S3
    DynamoDB processImage
    Function #2: Process Image

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  53. Function #2: Process Image
    ● Sub-problem: How do we add emojis to the image?
    ● Solution: Create a new processImage function
    ○ Triggered by a DynamoDB event
    ○ Processes the image using ImageMagick
    ○ Saves the processed image to S3

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  54. Function #3: View Image
    AWS DynamoDB
    AWS S3
    HTTP viewImage

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  55. Event-Driven Pipelines
    downloadImage
    analyzeImage
    processImage
    viewImage

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  56. Result: A scalable image processing backend
    ● Less Ops: No servers to provision, faster development
    ● Scalable: AWS Lambda will execute as many functions as needed
    ● Cheap: You only pay for real customer usage

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  57. Serverless Architectures

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  58. Serverless Asset Processing

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  59. Serverless Backend

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  60. Serverless Node.js
    const serverless = require('serverless-http');
    const koa = require('koa');
    // construct your app as normal
    const app = koa();
    // register your middleware as normal
    app.use(/* ... */);
    // this is it!
    module.exports.handler = serverless(app);
    https://github.com/dougmoscrop/serverless-http

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  61. Migrating Legacy: Strangler Pattern

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  62. Serverless GraphQL

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  63. How We Got Here
    Pros & Cons of the
    Serverless Architecture
    Background Why Concepts Code Next Steps
    Intro to Serverless Summary
    Walkthrough of a
    real Serverless
    application

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  64. Next Steps
    ● Serverless is the next natural progression of cloud computing
    ● To get started, start small
    ○ Extract a single feature from your monolith
    ○ Rewrite it in Serverless

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  65. Further Learning

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  66. leanpub.com/going-serverless

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  67. meetup.com/Serverless-Singapore

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  68. Thanks
    Yos Riady
    yos.io

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  69. From Instances to Functions
    Going Serverless
    Yos Riady
    yos.io
    goo.gl/hvrw9s

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  70. Appendix A: AWS Lambda Pricing
    ● If you allocated 128MB of memory to your function, executed it 30 million times
    in one month, and it ran for 200ms each time:
    ○ $5.83 / month
    ● Requests
    ○ $0.20 per 1 million requests
    ● Duration (100ms increments)
    ○ $0.00001667 for every GB-second used
    ● Charges also depend on your Lambda’s allocated memory
    ○ 256MB lambdas are 2x as expensive as 128MB lambdas per 100ms
    ● API Gateway
    ○ $3.50 per million API calls received, plus the cost of data transfer out,

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  72. Appendix B: FaaS Code Execution
    ● When a lambda function is invoked,
    ○ A container (execution environment) is provisioned
    ● It takes time to set up and initialize the container
    ○ “Cold start” ⛄
    ● After execution, the container is maintained for some time (e.g. 5 minutes)
    ● “Warm” container reuse for subsequent invocations
    ○ Significantly faster

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  73. Appendix D: Debugging Serverless
    ● It’s a challenge to debug distributed systems
    ● Helpful techniques:
    ○ Logs! Logs! Logs!
    ○ Correlation ID (AWS Request ID)
    ○ Unit tests
    ● Helpful tools:
    ○ AWS X-Ray

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  74. Appendix E: Serverless Auth
    ● How do you do Authentication and / or Authorization with Serverless?
    ● JSON Web Tokens
    ○ An authorization provider issues an identity token
    ○ Services can verify the token without communicating with an authorization
    server, via a shared secret

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  75. Appendix F: AWS Lambda Limits

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  76. Appendix H: AWS Step Functions

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