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人工知能と機械学習 / Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

人工知能と機械学習 / Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

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人工知能と機械学習
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

本講義では人工知能と機械学習の基礎について解説する。いまの人工知能に何ができてどういう場面で活用されているのかを紹介する。また、大量のデータからルールを学習する技術である機械学習について、その仕組みを紹介する。
This is an introductory lecture on artificial intelligence and machine learning. You will learn what artificial intelligence can do and how artificial intelligence is impacting our everyday lives. Machine learning plays an important role in the current development of artificial intelligence. This lecture also teaches you how machine learning actually works.

馬場 雪乃 准教授(東京大学大学院総合文化研究科広域科学専攻)

Yukino Baba

October 19, 2023
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Transcript

  1. ஜ೾େֶڞ௨Պ໨ʢ৘ใʣ

    ʮσʔλαΠΤϯεʯ

    ਓ޻஌ೳͱػցֶश
    ౦ژେֶ૯߹จԽݚڀՊഅ৔ઇ೫

    ZVLJOPCBCB!HFDDVUPLZPBDKQ

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  2. ˔ ਓ޻஌ೳ͕Ͳ͏͍͏৔໘Ͱ׆༻͞Ε͍ͯΔͷ͔
    ˔ ͍·ͷਓ޻஌ೳʹ͸Կ͕Ͱ͖Δͷ͔
    ˔ ػցֶशͰ͸ͲͷΑ͏ʹσʔλ͔ΒͷֶशΛߦ͏ͷ͔
    ຊߨٛͰֶͿ͜ͱ
    ਓ޻஌ೳʹԿ͕Ͱ͖Δͷ͔ɾػցֶश͸Ͳ͏͍͏͘͠Έ͔ΛֶͿ
    2

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  3. ˔ ਓ޻஌ೳ͸

    ʮ஌తͳػցɼಛʹɼ஌తͳίϯϐϡʔλϓϩάϥϜΛ࡞ΔՊֶͱٕज़ʯ
    ˔ ैདྷͷίϯϐϡʔλϓϩάϥϜ͸஌తͰ͸ͳ͔ͬͨ
    ˔ ਓ͕ؒ஌ೳΛ࢖ͬͯͰ͖Δͷͱಉ͜͡ͱΛ

    ίϯϐϡʔλϓϩάϥϜͰ΋Ͱ͖ΔΑ͏ʹ͍ͨ͠
    ਓ޻஌ೳͱ͸
    ਓ޻஌ೳ͸ʮ஌తͳίϯϐϡʔλϓϩάϥϜʯ
    4
    https://www.ai-gakkai.or.jp/whatsai/AIfaq.html

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  4. ˔ ୯७ʹ͸ɼೝࣝϧʔϧΛ༻ҙͯ͠ίϯϐϡʔλϓϩάϥϜͱͯ͠هड़͢Δํ๏͕

    ߟ͑ΒΕΔ
    ˔ ͔͠͠ɼ༷ʑͳච੻ͷखॻ͖਺ࣈΛ໢ཏͨ͠ϧʔϧΛ࡞Δͷ͸ࠔ೉
    ਓ޻஌ೳͱ͸
    ྫɿखॻ͖਺ࣈΛೝࣝ͢ΔίϯϐϡʔλϓϩάϥϜ
    5
    1
    1
    ʮࠨӈࡾ෼ͷҰͷྖҬ͕ന৭ͳΒʯ
    खॻ͖਺ࣈͷग़యɿhttp://yann.lecun.com/exdb/mnist/

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  5. ˔ ਓؒ͸ϧʔϧΛֶश͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    ˙ ྫɿ೔ৗͰ਺ࣈΛݟΔதͰɼͦΕͧΕͷ਺ࣈΛଞͷ਺ࣈͱ۠ผ͢ΔͨΊͷಛ
    ௃తͳ෦෼Λݟ͚ͭϧʔϧΛߏஙͰ͖Δ
    ˔ ਓ͕ؒࣗવʹߦ͍ͬͯΔʮܦݧ͔ΒͷֶशʯΛίϯϐϡʔλͰ࣮ݱ͢Δٕज़͕

    ػցֶश
    ˙ ྫɿͷखॻ͖਺ࣈͷྫɼͷखॻ͖਺ࣈͷྫʜΛڭࡐͱͯ͠༩͑Δ
    ˙ ਓؒ͸ɼڭࡐ͔Βͷֶशํ๏͚ͩΛίϯϐϡʔλϓϩάϥϜʹࢦࣔ͢Δ
    ਓ޻஌ೳͱ͸
    ػցֶशΛ༻͍Δ͜ͱͰσʔλ͔ΒϧʔϧΛֶशͤ͞Δ
    6
    1
    1
    9
    9
    7
    7
    ϧʔϧΛֶश
    ʜ

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  6. ˔ ਓؒ͸গ਺ͷϧʔϧ͔Βྨਪͯ͠൑அ͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    ˙ ྫɿ׆ࣈͰ֫ಘͨ͠ϧʔϧΛखॻ͖จࣈʹద༻͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    ˔ ྨਪ͸ίϯϐϡʔλʹ͸ࠔ೉Ͱ͋ΔͨΊɼ༷ʑͳࣄྫΛ໢ཏͨ͠େྔͷσʔλΛ
    ڭࡐͱͯ͠༩͑Δඞཁ͕͋Δ
    ˙ Πϯλʔωοτ΍ݸਓ޲͚୺຤ͷීٴʹΑΓ๲େͳσʔλ͕஝ੵ͞Εɼ

    ίϯϐϡʔλͷੑೳ޲্ʹΑΓେྔσʔλΛѻ͑ΔΑ͏ʹͳͬͨ͜ͱ͔Βɼ

    ػցֶशΛར༻ͨ͠ਓ޻஌ೳ͕ओྲྀͱͳͬͨ
    ਓ޻஌ೳͱ͸
    ෳࡶͳϧʔϧͷֶशʹ͸େྔσʔλ͕ඞཁ
    7

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  7. ˔ εϚʔτεϐʔΧʔ

    ਓؒͷԻ੠ࢦࣔʹै͍༷ʑͳಈ࡞Λߦ͏
    ˔ ϩϘοτ૟আػ

    ো֐෺Λආ͚ͳ͕Β෦԰શମΛ૟আ͢Δ
    ˔ إೝূ

    Χϝϥલͷਓ෺͕ొ࿥͞ΕͨਓͱಉҰਓ෺͔Ͳ͏͔Λ൑ఆ
    ˔ ίϯςϯπɾ঎඼ਪન

    Ӿཡཤྺ΍ߪങཤྺʹ΋ͱ͖ͮϢʔβ͕޷ΉΞΠςϜΛఏࣔ
    ೔ৗͷதͷਓ޻஌ೳ
    զʑͷ೔ৗͷ͞·͟·ͳ৔໘Ͱਓ޻஌ೳ͕׆༻͞Ε͍ͯΔ
    8

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  8. ˔ *#.8BUTPO

    ΞϝϦΧͷΫΠζ൪૊ʮ+FPQBSEZʯʹ௅ઓɼৗ࿈ग़ԋऀΛഁΓ༏উ
    ˔ ౦ϩϘ͘Μ

    େֶೖࢼ໛ࢼͷ਺ֶɾੈք࢙Ͱภࠩ஋௒͑Λୡ੒
    ˔ %FFQ#MVF

    νΣεͷੈքνϟϯϐΦϯʹউར
    ˔ "MQIB(P

    ғޟͷੈքτοϓع࢜ʹউར
    ೔ৗͷதͷਓ޻஌ೳ
    ΫΠζ΍ήʔϜͰਓؒΛ௒͑Δਓ޻஌ೳ͕ొ৔
    9

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  9. ˔ ਓ޻஌ೳ͸ʮಛԽܕʯͱʮ൚༻ܕʯͷೋछྨʹେผ͞ΕΔ
    ˔ ಛԽܕਓ޻஌ೳ͸

    ͋Δಛఆͷঢ়گ΍໰୊ʹ͓͍ͯ஌తʹ;Δ·͏ਓ޻஌ೳ
    ˔ ൚༻ਓ޻஌ೳ͸

    ਓؒͱಉ༷ʹ༷ʑͳঢ়گɾ໰୊ʹ͓͍ͯ஌తͳ;Δ·͍͕Ͱ͖Δਓ޻஌ೳ
    ˔ ݱࡏͷਓ޻஌ೳ͸ಛԽܕਓ޻஌ೳͰ͋Γ

    ൚༻ਓ޻஌ೳ͸ະ࣮ͩݱ͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍

    ݱࡏͷਓ޻஌ೳʹͰ͖Δ͜ͱ
    ݱࡏͷਓ޻஌ೳ͸ಛఆͷ͜ͱ͚ͩͰ͖ΔಛԽܕਓ޻஌ೳ
    10

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  10. ˔ ը૾ೝࣝ

    ࣸਅʹ͍ࣸͬͯΔ΋ͷΛೝࣝ͢Δ
    ˔ ෺ମݕग़

    ࣸਅͷͲ͜ʹԿ͕͍ࣸͬͯΔͷ͔Λೝࣝ͢Δ
    ˔ ը૾ੜ੒

    ຊ෺ͷࣸਅͷΑ͏ͳը૾Λਓ޻తʹ࡞Γग़͢
    ˔ UFYUUPJNBHF

    ࣗવݴޠʹΑΔࢦࣔͰࣸਅ΍ΠϥετΛੜ੒
    ݱࡏͷਓ޻஌ೳʹͰ͖Δ͜ͱ
    ը૾ॲཧɿࣸਅʹ͍ࣸͬͯΔ΋ͷͷೝࣝ΍ը૾ͷੜ੒͕Ͱ͖Δ
    11
    ຊ෺ ਓ޻
    (*) ग़యɿhttp://cs231n.stanford.edu/slides/2019/cs231n_2019_lecture12.pdf

    (**) ग़యɿhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1711.09020

    (***) ग़యɿhttps://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stable_Diffusion#/media/ϑΝΠ
    ϧ:A_photograph_of_an_astronaut_riding_a_horse_2022-08-28.png
    (*)
    (**)
    ʠ"QIPUPHSBQIPGBO
    BTUSPOBVUSJEJOHB
    IPSTFʡͱ͍͏ࢦࣔʹΑ
    Γੜ੒͞Εͨը૾

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  11. ˔ จॻ෼ྨ

    จॻΛಛఆͷΧςΰϦʹ෼ྨ͢Δ
    ˔ ػց຋༁

    ͋ΔݴޠͰॻ͔ΕͨจষΛผͷݴޠʹ຋༁͢Δ
    ˔ ৘ใݕࡧ

    ಛఆͷ৘ใ͕ܝࡌ͞Ε͍ͯΔ΢ΣϒϖʔδΛݟ͚ͭΔ
    ˔ ࣭໰Ԡ౴

    จষͰ༩͑ΒΕ࣭ͨ໰ʹର͢Δ౴͑Λฦ͢
    ݱࡏͷਓ޻஌ೳʹͰ͖Δ͜ͱ
    ݴޠॲཧɿ຋༁΍࣭໰Ԡ౴Λ͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    12

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  12. ˔ ൚༻తͳݴޠӡ༻ೳྗΛ֫ಘͨ͠େن໛ݴޠϞσϧʢ-BSHFMBOHVBHF
    NPEFM--.
    ͕ొ৔
    ˙ େྔͷจॻσʔλΛ༻͍ͯจষதͷ୯ޠΛ༧ଌ͢ΔϞσϧΛࣄલֶश
    ˙ ͜ͷϞσϧ͸ɼ༩͑ΒΕͨจষͷଓ͖Λੜ੒Ͱ͖Δ
    ˔ --.ͷҰछͰ͋Δ(15 (FOFSBUJWFQSFUSBJOFEUSBOTGPSNFS
    Λɼ

    ର࿩ܗࣜͰ࢖͏ͨΊʹௐ੔ͨ͠$IBU(15͸

    ࣭໰Ԡ౴ɼ຋༁ɼཁ໿ͳͲ༷ʑͳ༻్Ͱߴ͍ੑೳΛൃش͍ͯ͠Δ
    ˔ ը૾ॲཧͰ΋ɼେྔσʔλ͔Β൚༻తͳࢹ֮ಛ௃Λ֫ಘͨ͠ࣄલֶशࡁΈϞσϧ
    ͕׆༻͞Ε͍ͯΔ
    ˔ ༷ʑͳ༻్ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δେن໛Ϟσϧ͸ج൫Ϟσϧͱ΋ݺ͹ΕΔ
    ݱࡏͷਓ޻஌ೳʹͰ͖Δ͜ͱ
    େن໛ݴޠϞσϧ͸༷ʑͳ༻్ʹ׆༻Ͱ͖Δ
    13

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  13. ˔ Ի੠ೝࣝ

    ࿩͞Ε͍ͯΔ಺༰ΛจষͰॻ͖ى͜͢
    ˔ ࿩ऀಉఆ

    ొ࿥͞Εͨਓ෺ͱಉ͡ਓ͕࿩͍ͯ͠Δ͔൑ఆ͢Δ
    ˔ Ի੠߹੒

    ਓ͕ؒ࿩͍ͯ͠ΔΑ͏ͳ੠Λਓ޻తʹ࡞Γग़͢
    ݱࡏͷਓ޻஌ೳʹͰ͖Δ͜ͱ
    Ի੠ॲཧɿॻ͖ى͜͠΍Ի੠߹੒͕Ͱ͖Δ
    14

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  14. ˔ ؀ڥೝࣝ

    ηϯα৘ใ౳͔ΒपғʹԿ͕͋Δ͔Λೝࣝ͢Δ
    ˔ ܦ࿏ɾߦಈܭը

    Ҡಈɾಈ࡞ࢦࣔʹै͏ͨΊʹͲͷΑ͏ͳܦ࿏Λ௨Δ͔ɼ

    Ͳͷ෦෼ΛͲͷΑ͏ʹಈ͔͔͢Λܭը͢Δ
    ݱࡏͷਓ޻஌ೳʹͰ͖Δ͜ͱ
    ϩϘοτɿपғͷ؀ڥͷೝࣝ΍ߦಈܭըΛ͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    15

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  15. ˔ ྫεϚʔτεϐʔΧʔ
    ਓ޻஌ೳͷ׆༻ྫ
    ಛԽܕਓ޻஌ೳͷ૊߹ͤͰߴ౓ͳॲཧΛ࣮ݱͰ͖Δ
    16
    4UFQىಈΩʔϫʔυͷೝࣝ
    4UFQԻ੠ʹΑΔࢦࣔΛจষͱͯ͠ೝࣝ
    4UFQࢦࣔจ͔Β໨తΛೝࣝ
    4UFQࢦࣔΛ࣮ߦ

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  16. ਓ޻஌ೳͷ׆༻ྫ
    ಛԽܕਓ޻஌ೳͷ૊߹ͤͰߴ౓ͳॲཧΛ࣮ݱͰ͖Δ
    17
    ˔ ྫࣗಈӡస
    4UFQଞͷं྆΍าߦऀ౳ͷݕ஌
    4UFQଞͷं྆΍าߦऀ౳ͷߦಈ༧ଌ
    4UFQ໨త஍·Ͱͷܦ࿏Λܭը
    4UFQܦ࿏ʹै͏ͨΊͷಈ࡞Λܭը
    ը૾ͷग़యɿhttps://storage.googleapis.com/sdc-prod/v1/safety-report/waymo-safety-report-2017-10.pdf

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  17. ˔ ਓ޻஌ೳ͸஌తͳίϯϐϡʔλϓϩάϥϜͰ͋Δ
    ˙ ଟ͘ͷਓ޻஌ೳ͸ɼػցֶशʹΑΓσʔλ͔ΒϧʔϧΛֶश͍ͯ͠Δ
    ˔ ͍·ͷਓ޻஌ೳ͸ɼಛఆͷ໰୊͔͠ղ͚ͳ͍ಛԽܕਓ޻஌ೳͰ͋Δ
    ˙ ༷ʑͳ෼໺ͰಛԽܕਓ޻஌ೳͷݚڀ͕ਐΊΒΕ

    ͦΕΒͷ૊߹ͤͰɼΑΓߴ౓ͳਓ޻஌ೳ͕࣮ݱ͞Εͭͭ͋Δ
    ˙ େن໛ݴޠϞσϧͷΑ͏ͳɼ

    ༷ʑͳ༻్Ͱ׆༻Ͱ͖Δਓ޻஌ೳ΋ొ৔͍ͯ͠Δ
    ਓ޻஌ೳͷ·ͱΊ
    ͍·ͷਓ޻஌ೳ͸ಛԽܕ͕༷ͩʑͳ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    18

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  18. ˔ ػցֶश͸ɼ

    ίϯϐϡʔλϓϩάϥϜʹσʔλ͔ΒϧʔϧΛֶशͤ͞Δٕज़

    ˔ େྔͷೖग़ྗྫͷσʔλΛڭࡐͱͯ͠༩͑ɼ

    ೖྗͱग़ྗΛରԠ͚ͮΔϧʔϧΛֶशͤ͞Δ
    ػցֶशͱ͸
    ػցֶश͸ೖྗͱग़ྗΛରԠ͚ͮΔϧʔϧΛֶश͢Δ
    20
    (*) ຊߨٛͰऔΓ্͛Δػցֶश͸ɼݫີʹ͸ʮڭࢣ෇͖ػցֶशʯͱݺ͹ΕΔ
    ػցֶश ϧʔϧ
    5 8 7
    ೖྗྫ
    ग़ྗྫ
    ϧʔϧ
    ೖྗ ༧ଌ
    8
    ֶश

    ೖग़ྗྫΛ࢖ͬͯϧʔϧΛֶश͢Δ
    ਪ࿦

    ֶशͨ͠ϧʔϧ͸ɼ৽͍͠ೖྗʹର͢Δग़ྗΛ

    ༧ଌ͢Δͷʹ༻͍Δ

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  19. ػցֶशͱ͸
    ػցֶश͸ೖྗͱग़ྗΛରԠ͚ͮΔϧʔϧΛֶश͢Δ
    21
    ෺ମݕग़
    Ի੠߹੒
    ػց຋༁
    5FYUUP*NBHF
    ೖྗ ग़ྗ
    Imagine the Future
    C'est la vie. That's life.
    ਓ޻஌ೳ
    (*) ग़యɿhttps://bakeryscan.com/bakeryscan

    (**) ग़యɿhttps://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stable_Diffusion#/media/ϑΝΠϧ:A_photograph_of_an_astronaut_riding_a_horse_2022-08-28.png
    A photograph of
    an astronaut riding
    a horse
    (*) (*)
    (**)

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  20. ˔ εϚʔτϑΥϯɾηϯαɾΠϯλʔωοτɾ΢ΣϒαʔϏε౳ͷීٴͰ

    σʔλ͕૿େͨ͠ͷ͕ػցֶशͷൃలͷ͖͔͚ͬ
    ˔ ιʔγϟϧϝσΟΞ΁ͷ౤ߘ΍

    ΢ΣϒαʔϏε্Ͱͷਓʑͷߦಈϩά΋ػցֶशͷڭࡐͱͯ͠༻͍ΒΕΔ
    ˔ ޿ࠂ഑৴ͳͲͰ΢ΣϒαʔϏεӡӦاۀ͸རӹΛ্͛ɼ

    ແྉͰ΢ΣϒαʔϏεΛఏڙ͠ͳ͕Βڭࡐ༻ͷσʔλΛऩू͍ͯ͠Δ
    ػցֶशͱ͸
    ͋ΒΏΔ΋ͷ͕σʔλԽ͞ΕػցֶशͰ࢖ΘΕΔ
    22

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  21. ܇࿅σʔλ
    ྫ୊ɿϖϯΪϯͷ෼ྨϧʔϧͷֶश
    23
    ϖϯΪϯ෼ྨͷϧʔϧ
    ཌྷͷ௕͞

    ମॏ 03
    ©bluegio
    ΞσϦʔ

    ϖϯΪϯ
    δΣϯπʔ

    ϖϯΪϯ
    ݸମ൪߸ ཌྷͷ௕͞ ମॏ छྨ
    1 181 3750 ΞσϦʔ
    2 186 3800 ΞσϦʔ
    3 195 3250 ΞσϦʔ
    4 193 3450 ΞσϦʔ
    5 190 3650 ΞσϦʔ

    ݸମ൪߸ ཌྷͷ௕͞ ମॏ छྨ
    152 211 4500 δΣϯπʔ
    153 230 5700 δΣϯπʔ
    154 210 4450 δΣϯπʔ
    155 218 5700 δΣϯπʔ
    156 215 5400 δΣϯπʔ

    ཌྷͷ

    ௕͞
    ܇࿅σʔλ
    ֶश
    (*)ग़యɿhttps://www.deviantart.com/bluegio/art/Adelie-Chinstrap-and-Gentoo-867439280


    (**) ग़యɿhttps://www.galapagos.org/blog/the-measure-of-a-penguin/

    (***) σʔλͷग़యɿhttps://allisonhorst.github.io/palmerpenguins/
    (*)
    (**)
    (***)

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  22. ܇࿅σʔλ
    ܇࿅σʔλ͸਺஋Ͱදݱ͞Εͳ͍ͱ͍͚ͳ͍
    24
    211 220 223 … 213
    217 217 220 … 210
    214 217 216 … 205
    … … … … …
    216 217 214 … 181
    The quick brown fox jumps
    over the lazy dog
    aardvark … brown … dog … zzzat
    0 … 1 … 1 … 0
    (*)
    (*) ग़యɿhttp://cs231n.stanford.edu/slides/2019/cs231n_2019_lecture12.pdf

    View full-size slide

  23. ମॏ
    ཌྷͷ௕͞

    ͱ͍͏ϧʔϧΛڥքઢͰදݱ
    ≥ 4000
    ମॏ ͳΒδΣϯπʔ
    ϧʔϧ
    ϖϯΪϯͷ෼ྨϧʔϧΛڥքઢͰදݱ
    25
    ମॏ
    ཌྷͷ௕͞
    ΞσϦʔ δΣϯπʔ
    ܇࿅σʔλͷਤࣔ
    ཌྷͷ௕͞ʹΑͬͯ͸ɼମॏʾHͰ΋

    ΞσϦʔͷ৔߹͕͋Δ

    View full-size slide

  24. ϧʔϧ
    ϧʔϧ͸਺ࣜͰදݱ͞ΕΔ
    26
    ମॏ
    ཌྷͷ௕͞
    ମॏͱཌྷͷ௕͞ͷ྆ํΛ༻͍ͨϧʔϧΛ

    ڥքઢͰදݱ
    88× + ≥ 22249
    ཌྷͷ௕͞ ମॏ
    ͳΒδΣϯπʔ
    ˔ ϧʔϧΛද͢਺ࣜΛϞσϧͱ͍͏
    ˔ ೖྗͷσʔλͦΕͧΕΛఆ਺ഒͯ͠଍
    ͠߹ΘͤͨϞσϧΛઢܗϞσϧͱ͍͏

    View full-size slide

  25. ϧʔϧͷֶश
    ܇࿅σʔλʹ౰ͯ͸·ΔϧʔϧΛݟ͚ͭΔͷ͕ʮֶशʯ
    27
    ମॏ
    ཌྷͷ௕͞
    ମॏ
    ཌྷͷ௕͞
    ޡ෼ྨ͕ଟ͍ɼѱ͍ϧʔϧ ޡ෼ྨ͕গͳ͍ɼྑ͍ϧʔϧ
    ޡ෼ྨ͕ଟ͍΄Ͳେ͖͘ͳΔʮଛࣦʯͰɼϧʔϧͷѱ͞Λ఺਺Խ͢Δ
    ଛࣦ0.707 ଛࣦ0.164

    View full-size slide

  26. ϧʔϧͷֶश
    ଛࣦ͕࠷খͱͳΔϧʔϧΛޯ഑߱Լ๏ʹΑΓݟ͚ͭΔ
    28
    (*) https://playground.tensor
    fl
    ow. org/ Λ༻͍ͯ࡞੒

    (**) https://medium.com/in-pursuit-of-arti
    fi
    cial-
    intelligence/data-visualization-in-
    python-9aa1d9c2baec
    ֶश͕ਐΉʹͭΕͯɼϧʔϧʹΑΔޡ෼ྨ͕ݮΔʢଛࣦ͕খ͘͞ͳΔʣ
    S
    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
    !(w)
    ※؆୯
    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
    F1
    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
    F2
    ޯ഑߱Լ๏ɿ

    ద౰ͳ஍఺͔Β࢝Ί

    ଛࣦΛ࠷΋ݮΒ͢ํ޲ʹগͣͭ͠ਐΈ

    ଛࣦΛ࠷খԽ͢ΔϧʔϧΛݟ͚ͭΔ
    (*)
    (**)

    View full-size slide

  27. ਂ૚ֶश
    ਂ૚ֶशΛ༻͍ΔͱෳࡶͳϧʔϧΛֶशͰ͖Δ
    29
    x
    1
    x
    2
    (*) https://playground.tensor
    fl
    ow. org/ Λ༻͍ͯ࡞੒
    ୯७ͳϧʔϧͰ͸෼ྨ͕೉͍͠ྫ
    x
    1
    x
    2
    ਂ૚ֶशͰֶशͨ͠ϧʔϧͷྫ
    (*)
    ༷ʑͳσʔλʹରͯ͠

    ਂ૚ֶशͰֶशͨ͠ϧʔϧͷྫ

    View full-size slide

  28. ਂ૚ֶश
    ਂ૚ֶश͸ෳ਺ͷඇઢܗؔ਺Λଟ૚ʹॏͶͯෳࡶͳϞσϧΛදݱ
    30
    ཌྷͷ௕͞
    ମॏ
    ΞσϦʔ

    ·ͨ͸

    δΣϯπʔ
    ୯७ͳϧʔϧͷ໛ࣜਤ
    ཌྷͷ௕͞
    ମॏ
    ΞσϦʔ

    ·ͨ͸

    δΣϯπʔ
    ਂ૚ֶशʹΑΔϧʔϧͷ໛ࣜਤ

    View full-size slide

  29. ˔ ֶशͷ໨త͸

    ʮ܇࿅σʔλʹͳ͍৽͍͠ೖྗʹରͯ͠ਖ਼͍͠ग़ྗΛฦ͢ʯϧʔϧͷֶश
    ˔ ܇࿅σʔλ΁ͷ౰ͯ͸·Γ͚ͩΛߟྀ͢Δͱ

    ϧʔϧ͕܇࿅σʔλʹ౰ͯ͸·Γ͗ͯ͢ະ஌ͷೖྗͰ͸ؒҧ͑ΔڪΕ͕͋Δ
    ˙ ໰୊ू͸׬ᘳʹղ͚Δ͕ຊ൪ͷࢼݧ͕·ΔͰղ͚ͳֶ͍शํ๏
    ˔ ϧʔϧ͕܇࿅σʔλʹ౰ͯ͸·Γ͗͢Δݱ৅Λաֶशͱ͍͏
    ˙ ਂ૚ֶशͷΑ͏ͳෳࡶͳϞσϧͰաֶश͕ੜ͡΍͍͢
    ˔ աֶशΛ๷͙खஈɿ

    ܇࿅σʔλΛ૿΍͢ɼਖ਼ଇԽʹΑΓϞσϧͷෳࡶ౓ΛݮΒ͢
    ൚Խೳྗͱաֶश
    ܇࿅σʔλʹ౰ͯ͸·Γ͗͢ΔͱաֶशͱͳΔ
    31

    View full-size slide

  30. ˔ ৽͍͠ೖྗʹରͯ͠ਖ਼͍͠ग़ྗΛฦ͢ೳྗΛ൚Խೳྗͱ͍͏
    ˔ աֶशΛى͍ͯ͜͠ͳ͍͔Λ֬ೝ͢ΔͨΊʹɼ

    ܇࿅σʔλͱ͸ผͷςετσʔλ͕༻͍ΒΕΔ
    ˙ ςετσʔλ͸໛ٖࢼݧʹ૬౰͢Δ
    ˔ ܇࿅σʔλͰͷޡ൑ఆͷଟ͞ɹɿ܇࿅ޡࠩ

    ະ஌ͷσʔλͰͷޡ൑ఆͷଟ͞ɿ൚Խޡࠩ
    ˔ ςετσʔλͰͷޡ൑ఆͷଟ͞͸൚ԽޡࠩͷۙࣅͱΈͳͤΔ
    ൚Խೳྗͱաֶश
    ςετσʔλΛ༻͍ͯաֶश͕ੜ͍ͯ͡ͳ͍͔֬ೝ͢Δ
    32

    View full-size slide

  31. ˔ ػցֶशͷ࣮૷ʹ͸ɼϓϩάϥϛϯάݴޠ1ZUIPO͕޿͘࢖ΘΕ͍ͯΔ
    ˔ ྫ͑͹TDJLJUMFBSOͱ͍͏1ZUIPOϥΠϒϥϦΛ࢖͏ͱɼ

    ਺ߦͷίʔυͰػցֶशΛ࣮૷͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    ˔ ͍͔ͭ͘ͷαϯϓϧσʔλ΋TDJLJUMFBSOͰఏڙ͞Ε͍ͯΔ
    ػցֶशͷ࣮૷
    ༷ʑͳϥΠϒϥϦ͕ެ։͞Ε؆୯ʹ࣮૷͕Ͱ͖Δ
    33
    ϧʔϧͷֶश
    ϧʔϧͷద༻

    View full-size slide

  32. ˔ ,BHHMFͳͲͷػցֶशίϯϖςΟγϣϯͰ͸

    ࣮ફతͳػցֶशͷ՝୊ɾσʔλ͕ఏڙ͞Εଞऀͱڝ͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    ػցֶशͷ࣮૷
    ػցֶशίϯϖςΟγϣϯͰྗࢼ͕͠Ͱ͖Δ
    34
    https://www.kaggle.com/c/titanic/leaderboard

    View full-size slide

  33. ˔ ػցֶशͰ͸ɼେྔͷೖग़ྗྫͷσʔλΛ܇࿅σʔλͱͯ͠࢖͍

    ೖྗͱग़ྗΛରԠ͚ͮΔϧʔϧΛֶश͢Δ
    ˔ ܇࿅σʔλʹͰ͖Δ͚ͩ౰ͯ͸·Δϧʔϧ

    ʢଛࣦͷখ͍͞ϧʔϧʣΛޯ഑߱Լ๏Λ༻͍ͯݟ͚ͭΔ
    ˔ ϧʔϧ͕܇࿅σʔλʹ౰ͯ͸·Γ͗͢Δݱ৅Ͱ͋Δաֶशʹ஫ҙ͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δ
    ػցֶशͷ·ͱΊ
    ܇࿅σʔλΛ༻͍ͯೖྗͱग़ྗΛରԠ͚ͮΔϧʔϧΛֶश
    35

    View full-size slide