The Art of Spontaneous Fermentation - Frank Boon

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August 05, 2017
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The Art of Spontaneous Fermentation - Frank Boon

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Zephyr Conferences

August 05, 2017
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  1. Lambic The wildest of all beer dreams By Frank Boon

    of the Boon Brewery - Belgium
  2. Lambic history To really understand what Lambic is, let’s have

    a look at the origins of this beer
  3. Lambic history § 98 AD: Belgium as a part of

    the germanic world 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  4. Lambic history § 98 AD: Belgium as a part of

    the germanic world 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  5. Lambic history § Cornelius Tacitus writes about the primitive tribes

    in this region: “They make a beverage from barley and/or wheat that ferments like wine” This is the discription of a primitive WITBEER 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  6. Lambic history This primitive WITBEER consisted of: § Malted Barley

    (wind malt) § Unmalted Wheat The wort was turbid : -Unboiled -No hops -Maybe spices/herbs -Spontaneous fermentation 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  7. Lambic history § Improvements in brewing around approx. 850 AD:

    § Kilning of malt (+/- brown) § Wort is boiled § Spices/herbs (myrtle) are added 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  8. Lambic history § Improvements in brewing around approx. 850 AD:

    § Kilning of malt (+/- brown) § Wort is boiled § Spices/herbs (myrtle) are added § 2 beertypes co-exist in the wide area around Brussels § Primitive Witbeer § called ‘KEUT’ (pronounced ‘cut’) § short brew, no boil § beer runs from the filtration vessel directly to coolship § this beer keeps for 5 to 6 days § Yellow / Brown beer § Spiced beer -> 1300 AD: ‘HOUPPE’ beer (spiced with hops) § This beer keeps in wintertime for several months 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  9. 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th

    century 21st century Lambic history KEUT (Cuyte) § Short brew, no boil § Windmalt + wheat § no hops § Spontaneous fermentation § Yeast added in winter time WITBEER § NEW! part of the brew is boiled with hops § Windmalt + wheat § Spontaneous fermentation § Yeast added in winter time (from previous brews) “YELLOW BEER” § Barley malt kilned § Unmalted wheat § Aged + new hops § Spontaneous fermentation § Brewed in 4 different strengths BLACK BEER § Barleymalt kilned brown § Small amount of wheat § Hops § Top fermented Disappeared PRINCIPALLY made in Hoegaarden and Louvain No longer brewed in the brussels area in the the 18th century Region of Brussels Around 1450, four beertypes co-existed in different strengths
  10. 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th

    century 21st century Lambic history
  11. Lambic history § Yellow Beer – 4 Strengths from the

    same brew § 14,4 °Pl Lambic (first mentioned 1794) § 12,7 °Pl Faro § 7,5°Pl Meerts § Last runnings, unboiled, prohibited in 1704 §Dobbel §Braspenning §½ Braspenning §Keut §Raspberries and cherries are sometimes added to lambic §Lambic vinegar is used to give some taste to the weakest beers 17th century End of 18th century 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  12. Lambic history 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th

    century 20th century 21st century
  13. Lambic history 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th

    century 20th century 21st century
  14. Lambic history § 19th century: § Lambic in bottles (mostly

    uncarbonated) § Lambic with suger sparks when it is bottled § The latter is called Geuze for the first time in 1817 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  15. Lambic history 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th

    century 20th century 21st century
  16. Lambic history § 19th century: § Lambic in bottles (mostly

    uncarbonated) § Lambic with suger sparks when it is bottled § The latter is called Geuze for the first time in 1817 § 1880: § Glass bottles are available on industrial scale § Geuze becomes the most important specialty beer in Belgium 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  17. Lambic history § 1914-1918: § Due to war conditions, brewers

    are forced to water down their lambic to 0,8 % Vol.Alc § Limited production due to the destruction of brewing facilities and equipment § 1919: § No Geuze until 1920 § More demand for bottled beer § Straight lambic disappears in a period of 20 years in most bars 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  18. Lambic history § 1920-1940: § Growth of Geuze sales §

    Kriek (Cherry Lambic) present in most bars § Non-traditional filtered Geuze appears 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  19. Lambic history 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th

    century 20th century 21st century
  20. Lambic history § 1920-1940: § Growth of Geuze sales §

    Kriek (Cherry Lambic) present in most bars § Non-traditional filtered Geuze appears § 1940-1945: § Gravity of Geuze drops from 14.4°Pl to 10°Pl § 1945-1970: § Consolidation of lambic breweries § 45 brewers, 120 blenders in 1945 § 11 brewers, 12 blenders in 1970 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  21. Lambic history § 1975-1995: § Creation of Geuze museum in

    Brussels § BOON: First lambic craft brewery in 1975 § No more lambic breweries closed after 1994 § 1995-2010: § Two new lambic blenders § Oude Geuze/Oude Kriek is protected by the EU in 1997 (Appellation Contrôlée) § Sales of Oude Geuze: tenfold increase § Introduction of better equipment in many breweries results in a quality level that is never attained before 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  22. Lambic history 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th

    century 20th century 21st century
  23. Lambic history § 2010 … : § Stocks of lambic

    in oak casks more than 25 times the volumes of 1990 § Total stock of lambic in oak casks at all breweries and blenders is to be estimated at 45,000 hectoliters (Approx. 38,700 US barrels). About 60,000 hectoliters are kept in stainless steel by some lambic breweries specialised in fruitbeers 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
  24. Lambic history 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th

    century 20th century 21st century
  25. Lambic history 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th

    century 20th century 21st century
  26. Lambic history 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th

    century 20th century 21st century
  27. Lambic history 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th

    century 20th century 21st century
  28. Some Lambic facts

  29. Some Lambic facts 1194: Peace of Lembeek § The city

    of Lembeek becomes a FREETOWN “only depending on GOD and the SUN”. § The city will be “tax free” until 1794 and neither excise on alcohol and beer nor ‘right of way’ are to be paid § About 34 breweries and distrilleries are operating tax free in Lembeek § The strong beer keeps for many years and can be transported taxfree over a long distance 1794: § In Lembeek: First use of the name Lambic for the dobbel beer
  30. Some Lambic facts 1560: Ordinance of Halle (Today one city

    with Lembeek) § Concerns Keute and Houppe (the latter to be called lambic in 1794) § Specifies the proper proportion of wheat and barley (50/50 in weight) “Nobody shall make a wort without 16 raziers of grain, 6 raziers of wheat and 10 raziers of barley and oats, in total 16 raziers, according to custom and to be measured in the mill upon request from the major and the members of the municipal executive.”
  31. Some Lambic facts § 1830: Important export of bottled Lambic

    to the U.S.A. (As reported by C. Leuchs, Braukunde, Nurnberg 1831)
  32. Some Lambic facts § 1850: About 80 Lambic breweries and

    230 blenders active in and around Brussels
  33. Some Lambic facts

  34. Some Lambic facts § 1850: About 80 Lambic breweries and

    230 blenders active in and around Brussels § 1870: Analysis on Lambic’s wild yeasts by Max Rees (Germany) § 1891: first research on Lambic and Geuze by Belgian Professor H. Van Laer § Discription of Torula yeasts in Lambic. The name changed to Brettanomyces in 1904 when Claussen discovered this yeast in English stock-ale.
  35. Some Lambic facts § 1891: Tasting notes by Prof. H.

    Van Lear § Young Lambic contains considerable amounts of lactic acid. While lambic is ageing, the level of lactic acid decreases while esters are formed. § Prof. Van Laer: “What confirms this vision, is that lambics containing low levels of acids, and most important, few acetic acid are the most esteemed, because of the taste and the perfume.”
  36. Some Lambic facts § 1913: Annual production: +/- 1 million

    HL spontaneous, 92% is sold as cask conditioned lambic and faro, 8% of this is bottle conditioned Geuze
  37. Some Lambic facts

  38. Some Lambic facts § 1913: Annual production: +/- 1 million

    HL spontaneous, 92% is sold as cask conditioned lambic and faro, 8% of this is bottle conditioned Geuze § World War I: 1914-1918 § Destruction of all copper brewing equipment § +/- 800,000 casks of Lambic in stock in 1914 § +/- 100,000 empty casks left in 1918
  39. Some Lambic facts § 1921: Identification of 2 brett yeasts

    : “Brettanomyces Lambicus” & “Brettanomyces Bruxellensis” by Prof. M. Van Laer and Prof. Kufferath
  40. Some Lambic facts Brettanomyces Lambicus

  41. How to brew Lambic

  42. How to brew lambic § Ingredients: § Water § Lambic

    Malt § Wheat § Aged hops § Micro-organisms from the air of the Zenne valley § A lot of patience
  43. How to brew lambic

  44. How to brew lambic

  45. How to brew lambic

  46. How to brew lambic Lambic blenders

  47. How to brew lambic

  48. How to brew lambic Cheers!

  49. How to brew lambic

  50. Qualities and flaws of Oude Geuze

  51. Qualities and flaws of Oude Geuze § Vieille Gueuze /

    Oude Geuze is the EU protected name for bottle conditioned Lambic. § What are the characteristics of a good bottle of Geuze ?
  52. Qualities and flaws of Oude Geuze The characteristics of a

    good bottle of Geuze § Color: Gold to medium amber § Clarity: Cloudiness is to be avoided, as Geuze is to be decanted straight into the glasses.
  53. Qualities and flaws of Oude Geuze The characteristics of a

    good bottle of Geuze § Hop Aroma & Flavor: Not to be perceived to very low, aged hops enhance the complexity of the taste. § Bitterness: no alpha bitterness, only oxidized beta bitterness § Wood influence : some vanilla, some spicyness and body from oak casks can be present moderately. The use of more or less new casks is a tool for the blender
  54. Qualities and flaws of Oude Geuze The characteristics of a

    good bottle of Geuze § Spontaneous Fermentation : § intense fruity-estery, moderately sour, and acidic aromas and flavors are typical. § horsey, leathery and phenolic aromas and flavors derived from Brettanomyces yeast be are present at very moderate levels. § some goaty bitterness is accepted, but fatty acids C6–C10 should be well esterified to grapefruit and citrus-like aromas. § taste may be very dry and are characterized by intense white wine-like flavors.
  55. Qualities and flaws of Oude Geuze The characteristics of a

    good bottle of Geuze § Carbonation should be 6,5>9 g/lit CO2 § Body: No body from residual sugars, but well- structured body from other components, with a dry mouthfeel. § Traditional Geuze has an apparent attenuation between +/- 90 and 100 %. § No sweetness either from malt, sugar or other sweeteners is present, although alcohol, esters and oak components can give a warming, sweet suggestion.
  56. Qualities and flaws of Oude Geuze Old Standard of original

    gravity for Geuze is 8° Beaumé = 5.6 ° Belg = 14.4°Plato Today: traditonal Geuze of different strength: § Original Gravity (°Plato) 1.050-1.069(12.5-16.8 °Plato) § Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (°Plato) 1.000-1.010 (0-2.6 °Plato) § Alcohol by Weight (Volume) 4.6%-7.0% (5.85% - 8.9%) § Bitterness (IBU) 11-23 • § Color SRM (EBC) 6-13(12-26 EBC)
  57. Qualities and flaws of Oude Geuze Flaws in Geuze to

    be avoided § Old hop character: tastes and smells like ripe cheese. § Diacetyl: should not be present and to be reduced by bottle refermentation. § High levels of lactic and/or butyric acid (tastes like sour butter, smells like dairy) § Perceivable acetic acid (vinegar). § High levels of ethyl acetate and acetone (smells like solvents) § Horse sweat. “Nose” should be clean, no 4 EP and H2S should dominate the aroma § Goaty and waxy aromas and flavors (from too large amounts of young lambic in the blend) § Phenolic aromas reminding burnt rubber (e.g. from bacteria while brewing in the summer season). § Lack of carbonation: bottle refermentation should result in 6,5 > 9 g/lit CO2 § Floating particles in the bottle: the sediment should stick well on the bottom of the bottle § Cork taste or moldy taste from unclean casks
  58. Today’s tasting Today we’ve tasted 5 different Boon lambic beers

    in the following order:
  59. Boon & World beer cup In the last 10 years,

    the Boon brewery has always won the gold medal at the World Beer Cup in the category of ‘Belgian Style Sour Ale’ Oude Geuze Boon Geuze Boon Mariage Parfait Oude Geuze Boon Oude Kriek Boon Oude Geuze Boon Black Label
  60. Coming soon…

  61. Thank you for your attention! Thank you Global Beer Network,

    importers of Boon lambic beers Questions? Feel free to E-mail Frank’s son Karel: karel.boon@boon.be