in this region: “They make a beverage from barley and/or wheat that ferments like wine” This is the discription of a primitive WITBEER 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
§ Kilning of malt (+/- brown) § Wort is boiled § Spices/herbs (myrtle) are added § 2 beertypes co-exist in the wide area around Brussels § Primitive Witbeer § called ‘KEUT’ (pronounced ‘cut’) § short brew, no boil § beer runs from the filtration vessel directly to coolship § this beer keeps for 5 to 6 days § Yellow / Brown beer § Spiced beer -> 1300 AD: ‘HOUPPE’ beer (spiced with hops) § This beer keeps in wintertime for several months 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
century 21st century Lambic history KEUT (Cuyte) § Short brew, no boil § Windmalt + wheat § no hops § Spontaneous fermentation § Yeast added in winter time WITBEER § NEW! part of the brew is boiled with hops § Windmalt + wheat § Spontaneous fermentation § Yeast added in winter time (from previous brews) “YELLOW BEER” § Barley malt kilned § Unmalted wheat § Aged + new hops § Spontaneous fermentation § Brewed in 4 different strengths BLACK BEER § Barleymalt kilned brown § Small amount of wheat § Hops § Top fermented Disappeared PRINCIPALLY made in Hoegaarden and Louvain No longer brewed in the brussels area in the the 18th century Region of Brussels Around 1450, four beertypes co-existed in different strengths
same brew § 14,4 °Pl Lambic (first mentioned 1794) § 12,7 °Pl Faro § 7,5°Pl Meerts § Last runnings, unboiled, prohibited in 1704 §Dobbel §Braspenning §½ Braspenning §Keut §Raspberries and cherries are sometimes added to lambic §Lambic vinegar is used to give some taste to the weakest beers 17th century End of 18th century 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
uncarbonated) § Lambic with suger sparks when it is bottled § The latter is called Geuze for the first time in 1817 § 1880: § Glass bottles are available on industrial scale § Geuze becomes the most important specialty beer in Belgium 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
are forced to water down their lambic to 0,8 % Vol.Alc § Limited production due to the destruction of brewing facilities and equipment § 1919: § No Geuze until 1920 § More demand for bottled beer § Straight lambic disappears in a period of 20 years in most bars 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
Kriek (Cherry Lambic) present in most bars § Non-traditional filtered Geuze appears § 1940-1945: § Gravity of Geuze drops from 14.4°Pl to 10°Pl § 1945-1970: § Consolidation of lambic breweries § 45 brewers, 120 blenders in 1945 § 11 brewers, 12 blenders in 1970 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
Brussels § BOON: First lambic craft brewery in 1975 § No more lambic breweries closed after 1994 § 1995-2010: § Two new lambic blenders § Oude Geuze/Oude Kriek is protected by the EU in 1997 (Appellation Contrôlée) § Sales of Oude Geuze: tenfold increase § Introduction of better equipment in many breweries results in a quality level that is never attained before 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
in oak casks more than 25 times the volumes of 1990 § Total stock of lambic in oak casks at all breweries and blenders is to be estimated at 45,000 hectoliters (Approx. 38,700 US barrels). About 60,000 hectoliters are kept in stainless steel by some lambic breweries specialised in fruitbeers 98 AD 850 AD 1450 18th century 19th century 20th century 21st century
of Lembeek becomes a FREETOWN “only depending on GOD and the SUN”. § The city will be “tax free” until 1794 and neither excise on alcohol and beer nor ‘right of way’ are to be paid § About 34 breweries and distrilleries are operating tax free in Lembeek § The strong beer keeps for many years and can be transported taxfree over a long distance 1794: § In Lembeek: First use of the name Lambic for the dobbel beer
with Lembeek) § Concerns Keute and Houppe (the latter to be called lambic in 1794) § Specifies the proper proportion of wheat and barley (50/50 in weight) “Nobody shall make a wort without 16 raziers of grain, 6 raziers of wheat and 10 raziers of barley and oats, in total 16 raziers, according to custom and to be measured in the mill upon request from the major and the members of the municipal executive.”
230 blenders active in and around Brussels § 1870: Analysis on Lambic’s wild yeasts by Max Rees (Germany) § 1891: first research on Lambic and Geuze by Belgian Professor H. Van Laer § Discription of Torula yeasts in Lambic. The name changed to Brettanomyces in 1904 when Claussen discovered this yeast in English stock-ale.
Van Lear § Young Lambic contains considerable amounts of lactic acid. While lambic is ageing, the level of lactic acid decreases while esters are formed. § Prof. Van Laer: “What confirms this vision, is that lambics containing low levels of acids, and most important, few acetic acid are the most esteemed, because of the taste and the perfume.”
HL spontaneous, 92% is sold as cask conditioned lambic and faro, 8% of this is bottle conditioned Geuze § World War I: 1914-1918 § Destruction of all copper brewing equipment § +/- 800,000 casks of Lambic in stock in 1914 § +/- 100,000 empty casks left in 1918
good bottle of Geuze § Hop Aroma & Flavor: Not to be perceived to very low, aged hops enhance the complexity of the taste. § Bitterness: no alpha bitterness, only oxidized beta bitterness § Wood influence : some vanilla, some spicyness and body from oak casks can be present moderately. The use of more or less new casks is a tool for the blender
good bottle of Geuze § Spontaneous Fermentation : § intense fruity-estery, moderately sour, and acidic aromas and ﬂavors are typical. § horsey, leathery and phenolic aromas and ﬂavors derived from Brettanomyces yeast be are present at very moderate levels. § some goaty bitterness is accepted, but fatty acids C6–C10 should be well esterified to grapefruit and citrus-like aromas. § taste may be very dry and are characterized by intense white wine-like ﬂavors.
good bottle of Geuze § Carbonation should be 6,5>9 g/lit CO2 § Body: No body from residual sugars, but well- structured body from other components, with a dry mouthfeel. § Traditional Geuze has an apparent attenuation between +/- 90 and 100 %. § No sweetness either from malt, sugar or other sweeteners is present, although alcohol, esters and oak components can give a warming, sweet suggestion.
be avoided § Old hop character: tastes and smells like ripe cheese. § Diacetyl: should not be present and to be reduced by bottle refermentation. § High levels of lactic and/or butyric acid (tastes like sour butter, smells like dairy) § Perceivable acetic acid (vinegar). § High levels of ethyl acetate and acetone (smells like solvents) § Horse sweat. “Nose” should be clean, no 4 EP and H2S should dominate the aroma § Goaty and waxy aromas and flavors (from too large amounts of young lambic in the blend) § Phenolic aromas reminding burnt rubber (e.g. from bacteria while brewing in the summer season). § Lack of carbonation: bottle refermentation should result in 6,5 > 9 g/lit CO2 § Floating particles in the bottle: the sediment should stick well on the bottom of the bottle § Cork taste or moldy taste from unclean casks
the Boon brewery has always won the gold medal at the World Beer Cup in the category of ‘Belgian Style Sour Ale’ Oude Geuze Boon Geuze Boon Mariage Parfait Oude Geuze Boon Oude Kriek Boon Oude Geuze Boon Black Label