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Voxxed Keynote 2016: Out of the Fire Swamp

6fb292826ed5ca167629b80525873651?s=47 Adrian Colyer
February 25, 2016

Voxxed Keynote 2016: Out of the Fire Swamp

This talk is primarily based around my 'Out of the Fire Swamp' and 'All Change Please' blog posts: http://blog.acolyer.org/2015/09/08/out-of-the-fire-swamp-part-i-the-data-crisis/, http://blog.acolyer.org/2016/01/22/all-change-please/

6fb292826ed5ca167629b80525873651?s=128

Adrian Colyer

February 25, 2016
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Transcript

  1. Out of the Fire Swamp Adrian Colyer @adriancolyer

  2. blog.acolyer.org 350 Foundations Frontiers

  3. 01 02 03 Questioning your Integrity The Art of the

    Possible All Change Please The Data Crisis and What we Can Do About it Out of the Fire Swamp 3
  4. The Gold Standard Serializable 4 t1 t2 t3 t4

  5. Anomalies due to weaker isolation 5 Dirty Writes P0 Dirty

    Reads P1 Cursor Lost Updates P4C Lost Updates P4 Fuzzy (Non-repeatable) Reads P2 Phantoms P3 Read Skew A5A Write Skew A5B
  6. Write Skew Example 6

  7. Theory & Practice 7

  8. Feral Concurrency Control Results 8

  9. The Gold Standard Linearizable 9

  10. Anomalies due to weaker consistency 10 Non-monotonic reads L1 Non-monotonic

    writes L2 Non-monotonic transactions L3 Not reading your writes L4 Monotonic Reads Monotonic Writes Writes Follow Reads Read Your Writes Monotonic Reads + Monotonic Writes + Writes Follow Reads = PRAM PRAM + Read Your Writes = Causal Consistency
  11. Non-Monotonic Read Example 11

  12. Expectations and Reality 12 The ALPS

  13. Probabilistically Bounded Staleness 13

  14. Frequently Not Supported Multi-entity / Multi-partition Transactions? 14 t1 t2

    t3 t4
  15. None
  16. Eventual Consistency at Google 16 “We [also] have a lot

    of experience with eventual consistency systems at Google. In all such systems, we find developers spend a significant fraction of their time building extremely complex and error-prone mechanisms to cope with eventual consistency and handle data that may be out of date. We think this is an unacceptable burden to place on developers and that consistency problems should be solved at the database level.” - F1: A Distributed SQL Database That Scales (2012)
  17. 01 02 03 Questioning your Integrity The Art of the

    Possible All Change Please The Data Crisis and What we Can Do About it Out of the Fire Swamp 17
  18. Causal Consistency 18 “No consistency stronger than real-time causal consistency

    (RTC) can be provided in an always available, one-way convergent system, and RTC can be provided in an always available one-way convergent system.”
  19. What can’t we protect against assuming HA? 19 Cursor Lost

    Updates P4C Lost Updates P4 Write Skew A5B Stale Reads Not reading your writes L4 Can provide Read Your Writes with sticky sessions Recency Guarantees
  20. So What Can We Do? 20 Memories, Guesses, Apologies &

  21. and I-Confluence Analysis Coordination Avoidance 21 TPC-C

  22. 22

  23. 23 01 02 03 Avoid coordination when you can Use

    Causal+ Consistency when you can’t Detect, and apologise for, what you can’t prevent + Dimmer Switches
  24. Multi-Partition Transactions at Scale 24

  25. Computing at the Edge 25

  26. 01 02 03 Questioning your Integrity The Art of the

    Possible All Change Please The Data Crisis and What we Can Do About it Out of the Fire Swamp 26
  27. Human computers at Dryden by NACA (NASA) - Dryden Flight

    Research Center Photo Collection http://www.dfrc.nasa. gov/Gallery/Photo/Places/HTML/E49-54.html. Licensed under Public Domain via Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File: Human_computers_-_Dryden.jpg#/media/File: Human_computers_-_Dryden.jpg
  28. Computing on a Human Scale 28 10ns 70ns 10ms 10s

    1:10s 116d Registers & L1-L3 File on desk Main memory Office filing cabinet HDD Trip to the warehouse
  29. Compute HTM Persistent Memory NI FPGA GPUs Memory NVDIMMs Persistent

    Memory Networking 100GbE RDMA Storage NVMe Next-gen NVM Next Generation Hardware All Change Please 29
  30. 30

  31. 2-10m Computing on a Human Scale 31 10s 1:10s 116d

    File on desk Office filing cabinet Trip to the warehouse 4x capacity fireproof local filing cabinets 23-40m Phone another office (RDMA) 3h20m Next-gen warehouse
  32. The New ~Numbers Everyone Should Know 32 Latency Bandwidth Capacity/IOPS

    Register 0.25ns L1 cache 1ns L2 cache 3ns 8MB L3 cache 11ns 45MB DRAM 62ns 120GBs 6TB - 4 socket NVRAM’ DIMM 620ns 60GBs 24TB - 4 socket 1-sided RDMA in Data Center 1.4us 100GbE ~700K IOPS RPC in Data Center 2.4us 100GbE ~400K IOPS NVRAM’ NVMe 12us 6GBs 16TB/disk,~2M/600K NVRAM’ NVMf 90us 5GBs 16TB/disk, ~700/600K
  33. Low Latency - RAMCloud 33 Reads 5μs Writes 13.5μs Transactions

    20μs 5-object Txns 27μs TPC-C 33tps
  34. No Compromises - FaRM 34 TPC-C (90 nodes) 4.5M tps

    99%ile 1.9ms KV (per node) 6.3M qps at peak throughput 41μs
  35. No Compromises 35 “This paper demonstrates that new software in

    modern data centers can eliminate the need to compromise. It describes the transaction, replication, and recovery protocols in FaRM, a main memory distributed computing platform. FaRM provides distributed ACID transactions with strict serializability, high availability, high throughput and low latency. These protocols were designed from first principles to leverage two hardware trends appearing in data centers: fast commodity networks with RDMA and an inexpensive approach to providing non-volatile DRAM.”
  36. DrTM The Doctor will see you now 36 5.5M tps

    on TPC-C 6-node cluster.
  37. Some things Change, Some stay the Same 37

  38. A Brave New World 38 Fast RDMA networks + Ample

    Persistent Memory + Hardware Transactions + Enhanced HW Cache Management + Super-fast Storage + On-board FPGAs + GPUs + … = ???
  39. 01 02 03 Questioning your Integrity The Art of the

    Possible All Change Please The Data Crisis and What we Can Do About it Out of the Fire Swamp 39
  40. A new paper every weekday Published at http://blog.acolyer.org. 01 Delivered

    Straight to your inbox If you prefer email-based subscription to read at your leisure. 02 Announced on Twitter I’m @adriancolyer. 03 Go to a Papers We Love Meetup A repository of academic computer science papers and a community who loves reading them. 04 Share what you learn Anyone can take part in the great conversation. 05
  41. THANK YOU ! @adriancolyer