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ADDC 2018 - Ricardo Vazquez: Wicked Problems

ADDC 2018 - Ricardo Vazquez: Wicked Problems

Big or small, problems are all around us. Unlike ‘tame’ problems – which can be solved using traditional problem solving methods – wicked problems are a beast of its own. These problems are reactive, they are multi-threaded, and they are never-ending. Having coined the term in 1969, Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber sought out to address the crisis of public confidence in experts and planners at a time of rising affluence and inequality. After more than forty years, wicked problems are as relevant as they were then.

In this workshop, we will delve into the history, properties, and approaches to solving a wicked problem. Through our time together, we will come to the conclusion that in order to create unprecedented outcomes, we must take into consideration our qualities, necessities, and opportunities, coupled with an appreciation of how they are interrelated. The opportunity to analyze, question, and invent is afforded to any creative individual who understands the full system in which they operate. We will discuss the concept of the adjacent possible as a model for explaining how ideas develop and innovations are envisioned. Through the model of the adjacent possible, we will learn of some of history’s most innovative advances.

Moving past the conceptual rhythm of wicked problems, we will discuss and share real case-studies of how 3 organizations/individuals solved a wicked problem in their own domain. Through the lens of Integrative Thinking, we will discuss how to take a design thinking approach to solving hard problems. During the latter part of the lecture, we will uncover the common thread these three approaches have: all of these thinkers possess empathy and observation at their core. Design empathy unlocks the creative capacity for innovation. For us designers, tackling wicked problems as if they were design problems – even though they are outside of the traditional realm of design – leads to outcomes that are not only functional but emotionally meaningful.

Get ready to spend some time uncovering the power of design thinking, and how you can best apply this thinking to solve some of your world’s most wicked problems.

More about the talk, authors & slides: https://addconf.com/2018/schedule/design-workshop-wicked-problems/
Read about the conference: https://addconf.com

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Transcript

  1. WICKED PROBLEMS Ricardo Vazquez 1

  2. Problems are all around us • None of us here

    are foreign to problems, big or small. • Wicked problems are a little bit different. • Unlike 'tame' problems – which can be always be solved – wicked problems are just plain hard. Ricardo Vazquez 2
  3. Wicked Problems • Reactive. • Never-ending • Multi-threaded • The

    parameters of the problem itself is often half the challenge. Ricardo Vazquez 3
  4. Horst Rittel Melvin Webber Ricardo Vazquez 4

  5. DILEMMAS IN GENERAL THEORY OF PLANNING Ricardo Vazquez 5

  6. PROPERTIES OF WICKED PROBLEMS Ricardo Vazquez 6

  7. 1. There is no definitive formulation for a wicked problem

    Ricardo Vazquez 7
  8. In order to anticipate all questions, knowledge of all conceivable

    solutions is required — Rittel and Webber Ricardo Vazquez 8
  9. 2. Wicked Problems have no stopping rule Ricardo Vazquez 9

  10. 3. Every wicked problem is essentially unique Ricardo Vazquez 10

  11. Part of the art of dealing with wicked problems is

    the art of not knowing too early which type of solution to apply — Rittel and Webber Ricardo Vazquez 11
  12. 4. Wicked problem can be treated as a symptom of

    another problem Ricardo Vazquez 12
  13. Ricardo Vazquez 13

  14. Ricardo Vazquez 14

  15. Ricardo Vazquez 15

  16. Ricardo Vazquez 16

  17. The higher the level of a problem's formulation, the broader

    and more general it becomes: and the more difficult it becomes to do something about it. — Rittel and Webber Ricardo Vazquez 17
  18. How can we fix global warming? Ricardo Vazquez 18

  19. How do we provide healthcare to developing countries? Ricardo Vazquez

    19
  20. What do we do when oil resources run out? Ricardo

    Vazquez 20
  21. How can we solve income inequality? Ricardo Vazquez 21

  22. How do we successfully address obesity? Ricardo Vazquez 22

  23. THE SILHOUETTE OF OUR PROBLEMS Ricardo Vazquez 23

  24. QUALITIES NECCESITIES OPPORTUNITIES Ricardo Vazquez 24

  25. GRACEFUL RETHINKING Ricardo Vazquez 25

  26. THE ADJACENT POSSIBLE Ricardo Vazquez 26

  27. STEVEN JOHNSON Ricardo Vazquez 27

  28. STUART KAUFMAN Ricardo Vazquez 28

  29. Adjacent Possible: A label for fundamental atomic commbinations required for

    biological development. Ricardo Vazquez 29
  30. Evolution occurs one step at a time Ricardo Vazquez 30

  31. Ricardo Vazquez 31

  32. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IDEAS Ricardo Vazquez 32

  33. Adjacent Possible • Our collective ideas advance with the same

    limitation. • Most advancements are logical – smaller phone, more powerful computer. • Some ideas, however, come out of nowhere. • And they are actually quite easy to spot out. Ricardo Vazquez 33
  34. 1955: TELEVISION Ricardo Vazquez 34

  35. 1969: MOON LANDING Ricardo Vazquez 35

  36. 1903: FLYING Ricardo Vazquez 36

  37. 2007: THE SMARTPHONE Ricardo Vazquez 37

  38. Ricardo Vazquez 38

  39. [Reassess] the objectives of the work in light of new

    opportunities. — Frank Chimero Ricardo Vazquez 39
  40. How can horses be better? Ricardo Vazquez 40

  41. Why are horses important? Ricardo Vazquez 41

  42. • We need to iterate on how we answer our

    needs, and not necessarily on the way our old solutions have taken shape. • Wicked problems are just this. We can begin to solve them by always asking the Why. Ricardo Vazquez 42
  43. THE PURPOSE OF WICKEDNESS Ricardo Vazquez 43

  44. Pull, don't push. Ricardo Vazquez 44

  45. ASSESS THE EDGES OF THE ADJACENT POSSIBLE Ricardo Vazquez 45

  46. Case Study Ricardo Vazquez 46

  47. WALMART Ricardo Vazquez 47

  48. ELECTRICITY Ricardo Vazquez 48

  49. 19.1 MILLION METRIC TONS Ricardo Vazquez 49

  50. HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PROBLEM Ricardo Vazquez 50

  51. 1. BUSINESS AS USUAL Ricardo Vazquez 51

  52. 2. LEADERSHIP Ricardo Vazquez 52

  53. 3. COMPROMISE Ricardo Vazquez 53

  54. CHALLENGE Ricardo Vazquez 54

  55. 1. Boost low prices 2. Fix the PR problem 3.

    Help the environment Ricardo Vazquez 55
  56. They did it. Ricardo Vazquez 56

  57. But how? Ricardo Vazquez 57

  58. SUSTAINABLE VALUE NETWORK Ricardo Vazquez 58

  59. 1. Enforced sustainability standards 2. Stopped buying from those who

    didn't meet standards 3. Pushed suppliers to reduce packaging, increase use of recycled material Ricardo Vazquez 59
  60. INTEGRATIVE THINKING Ricardo Vazquez 60

  61. DECOMPOSITION Ricardo Vazquez 61

  62. DR. VICTORIA HALE Ricardo Vazquez 62

  63. BIG PHARMA Ricardo Vazquez 63

  64. Ricardo Vazquez 64

  65. PUBLIC HEALTH Ricardo Vazquez 65

  66. 1. Public health model cannot afford development of drugs 2.

    Big Pharma is too expensive to be used in cases where patients cannot pay Ricardo Vazquez 66
  67. OBVIOUS COMPROMISE Ricardo Vazquez 67

  68. DECOMPOSITION 1. Drugs developed by Big Pharma would never go

    to market 2. Orphan drugs might treat related diseases serendipitously 3. Take compounds and apply them to diseases in the developing world 4. Test and deliver drugs using a public health approach Ricardo Vazquez 68
  69. BIG PHARMA vs. PUBLIC HEALTH Ricardo Vazquez 69

  70. DOUBLE-DOWN INTEGRATION Ricardo Vazquez 70

  71. Ricardo Vazquez 71

  72. HIDDEN GEM INTEGRATION Ricardo Vazquez 72

  73. TADDY BLECHER Ricardo Vazquez 73

  74. A UNIVERSITY Ricardo Vazquez 74

  75. APPROACHES Ricardo Vazquez 75

  76. CREATE A TRADITIONAL UNIVERSITY Ricardo Vazquez 76

  77. EMBRACE DISTANCE LEARNING Ricardo Vazquez 77

  78. • Virtual classrooms • Less powerful learning environment for students

    in need of mentoring or support. Ricardo Vazquez 78
  79. HIGHEST QUALITY EDUCATION FOR THE LOWEST PRICE Ricardo Vazquez 79

  80. SENSE OF COMMUNITY AND SUPPORT Ricardo Vazquez 80

  81. ECONOMIES OF SCALE Ricardo Vazquez 81

  82. COST PER STUDENT Ricardo Vazquez 82

  83. • $50 in the 1st year • Students come to

    central campus in Johannesburg • Work-study within the university • Direct connection to corporate community Ricardo Vazquez 83
  84. • After graduation, students are expected to give back to

    the school Ricardo Vazquez 84
  85. FIND THE HIDDEN GEM Ricardo Vazquez 85

  86. THE COMMON THREAD Ricardo Vazquez 86

  87. EMPATHY OBSERVATION Ricardo Vazquez 87

  88. WICKED PROBLEMS Ricardo Vazquez 88

  89. DESIGN PROBLEMS Ricardo Vazquez 89

  90. EMOTIONALLY MEANINGFUL Ricardo Vazquez 90

  91. Thinking and feeling, rigorously and deeply. — Battarbee, Fulton Suri,

    Gibbs Howard Ricardo Vazquez 91
  92. DESIGN THINKING Ricardo Vazquez 92

  93. Ricardo Vazquez 93

  94. Ricardo Vazquez 94

  95. Ricardo Vazquez 95

  96. UNDERSTAND THE WHY Ricardo Vazquez 96

  97. PETER SENGE Ricardo Vazquez 97

  98. The images, assumptions, and stories we carry in our minds

    about ourselves, other people [...] and every aspect of the world — Peter Senge Ricardo Vazquez 98
  99. WE MADE IT TO THE END! Ricardo Vazquez 99

  100. Ricardo Vazquez 100

  101. EMPATHY Ricardo Vazquez 101

  102. EMPATHY FRAMING Ricardo Vazquez 102

  103. EMPATHY FRAMING THE ADJACENT POSSIBLE Ricardo Vazquez 103

  104. EMPATHY FRAMING THE ADJACENT POSSIBLE INTEGRATIVE THINKING Ricardo Vazquez 104

  105. THANK YOU ... and now, and activity! Ricardo Vazquez 105

  106. Q&A Ricardo Vazquez 106

  107. BE KIND REWIND Ricardo Vazquez 107

  108. 1991 Ricardo Vazquez 108

  109. Ricardo Vazquez 109

  110. Ricardo Vazquez 110

  111. YOUR STORE HAS A PROBLEM Ricardo Vazquez 111

  112. 30% DON'T BOTHER Ricardo Vazquez 112

  113. • Incentives • Penalties • 'Be Kind, Rewind' reminders •

    Rewinding machines at the store Ricardo Vazquez 113
  114. Non-negotiable conditions 1. 100% customer accountability 2. No additional burden

    to customer 3. Extremely low cost – pennies per tape at most 4. Easy to implement Ricardo Vazquez 114
  115. EMPATHY MAP Ricardo Vazquez 115

  116. Empathy Map Canvas Designed for: Designed by: Date: Version: WHO

    are we empathizing with? What do they need to DO? What do they need to do differently? What job(s) do they want or need to get done? What decision(s) do they need to make? How will we know they were successful? Who is the person we want to understand? What is the situation they are in? What is their role in the situation? GOAL What do they SEE? What do they SAY? What do they DO? What do they HEAR? What do they THINK and FEEL? What do they see in the marketplace? What do they see in their immediate environment? What do they see others saying and doing? What are they watching and reading? What have we heard them say? What can we imagine them saying? What do they do today? What behavior have we observed? What can we imagine them doing? What are they hearing others say? What are they hearing from friends? What are they hearing from colleagues? What are they hearing second-hand? © 2017 Dave Gray, xplane.com Last updated on 16 July 2017. Download a copy of this canvas at http://gamestorming.com/empathy-map/ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PAINS GAINS What are their fears, frustrations, and anxieties? What are their wants, needs, hopes and dreams? What other thoughts and feelings might motivate their behavior? Ricardo Vazquez 116
  117. 40 MIN, THEN WE MOVE ON GROUPS OF 5 THINKERS

    Ricardo Vazquez 117
  118. 20 MIN, THEN WE DEBRIEF GROUPS OF 5 THINKERS Ricardo

    Vazquez 118
  119. DEBRIEF Ricardo Vazquez 119

  120. THIS IS A TRUE STORY Ricardo Vazquez 120

  121. Let's hear some of your ideas Ricardo Vazquez 121

  122. THE LEAP OF SOLUTIONS Ricardo Vazquez 122

  123. ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS Ricardo Vazquez 123

  124. YOU WERE MAKING AN ASSUMPTION Ricardo Vazquez 124

  125. THE SOLUTION Ricardo Vazquez 125

  126. NO ADDITIONAL BURDEN Ricardo Vazquez 126

  127. WHEN Ricardo Vazquez 127

  128. ... if we observed first, and designed second, we wouldn't

    need most of the things we build. — Ben Hamilton-Baillie Ricardo Vazquez 128
  129. THANK YOU @iamrvazquez Ricardo Vazquez 129