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Serverless containers on fully managed infrastructure

Serverless containers on fully managed infrastructure

Presented at Container Camp 2020 Virtual (https://2020.container.camp/). This talk is about the concept of serverless, whether containers can be serverless and then goes on to explain Knative, Cloud Run and how do these technologies work under the covers.

Ahmet Alp Balkan

May 21, 2020
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  1. Senior Software Engineer google_l Cloud

  2. Working on container-based experiences and services such as Kubernetes/GKE, Cloud

    Run and Knative. Maintainer for some popular open source projects in the Kubernetes operator productivity space. Prior to Google, worked at Microsoft,on porting Docker to Windows, bringing docker-{machine,registry} to Azure cloud, and was an ex-Docker maintainer.
  3. I can write my code, and “git push”. It deploys

    to a self-scaling managed infrastructure. HOW DID WE LOSE THE SIGHT OF THIS?
  4. Heroku and App Engine would later be dubbed as: .

  5. Let’s attempt to define serverless...

  6. No infra management, Autoscaling based on demand, Managed security Pay

    only for usage, no cost if unused Event-driven or request-driven services PROVOCATIVE FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONS Can databases be serverless? (Google Cloud Firestore, Google Cloud PubSub, Amazon Aurora DB ...) Can containers be serverless?
  7. Containers Flexibility Serverless Velocity

  8. Can be ?

  9. developer experience • Build a container image • Deploy the

    application • Expose at an endpoint • Request-level load balancing • Set up SSL/TLS • Scale up based on demand • Scale down to zero • Canary deployments • Monitor metrics
  10. developer experience • Build a container image→ Dockerfile/pack • Deploy

    the application → Deployment • Expose at an endpoint → ClusterIP svc • Request-level load balancing → Ingress • Set up SSL/TLS → Ingress+cert-manager? • Scale up based on demand → HPA (CPU/mem) • Scale down to zero → ??? • Canary deployments → DIY? • Monitor metrics → DIY Prometheus
  11. Bringing “serverless-like” features to Kubernetes

  12. • Source-to-URL deploys Kubernetes needs container images built/pushed • Request-based

    load balancing and rapid autoscaling Kubernetes load-balancing only happens at TCP layer among Pods Overloaded pods will crash during traffic spikes, dropping other traffic • Scale-to-zero Kubernetes cannot do natively • Canary deployments, rollouts/rollbacks Kubernetes cannot natively split traffic (lack of L7 HTTP load balancing) Kubernetes has no notion of immutable revisions to cleanly rollback • Out-of-the box application monitoring metrics Kubernetes doesn’t provide monitoring signals beyond CPU/memory
  13. AHMET’S DEFINITION: Open source implementation (and API) that supercharges Kubernetes

    cluster to run stateless services more effectively. Heavily customizable and pluggable. Strong open source community involving Google, Red Hat, IBM, VMware, SAP and others.
  14. • Rapid autoscaling w/ request-layer load balancing Knative performs request/RPC-level

    (Layer 7) load balancing. Knative is designed to handle without overloading pods. • Can scale-to-zero Knative can shut down unused applications, and wake them up on first request • Can do canary deployments, rollouts/rollbacks Each Knative deployment creates a new “immutable” Revision. You can split traffic among Revisions based on percentages. • Out-of-the box application monitoring metrics Knative exposes HTTP golden signals (request count, latency, error codes metrics) for all applications over Prometheus or other telemetry drivers. • Still Kubernetes. :) Knative Kubernetes
  15. But is still and is not ?

  16. None
  17. Container image to production URL in a few seconds Runs

    applications or binaries in any language Fully-managed, rapid autoscaling Cloud Run Pay during requests, idle time is free
  18. DEMO

  19. • Container must be serving on given $PORT Single port

    number, but you can customize the port number) • Container must serve plain HTTP. (or unencrypted h2c for gRPC) • Container should do things only while serving requests. Background CPU usage is throttled to ~0. • Only Linux x86_64 executables. No 32-bit support.
  20. concurrency = 1 concurrency = 50 Most serverless platforms Cloud

    Run
  21. None
  22. Cloud Run (fully managed) Cloud Run for Anthos • Implements

    Knative API • Runs on Google’s infrastructure • Pay per request • Designed go from 0 qps to tens of thousands of qps very quickly. • Hosted open source Knative • Runs next to other Kubernetes workloads in your GKE clusters anywhere (GCP/AWS/Azure/on-prem) • Same serverless developer experience • Tunable/extensible for your needs, as Knative is heavily customizable and pluggable.
  23. GKE on AWS or Azure GKE On-prem Google’s infra Cloud

    Run for Anthos Knative Anthos/GKE (Kubernetes) UI CLI YAML Cloud Run Developer & Operator GKE on GCP Knative API gVisor
  24. e.g. Azure Container Instances (ACI) and AWS Fargate • Cloud

    Run only runs stateless HTTP server workloads Only HTTP or event-triggered, no background batch processing. • Cloud Run has rapid autoscaling out of the box. No network configuration, autoscaling configuration etc. • Pricing model is “pay only during requests”.
  25. DEMO

  26. • Knative ◦ Domain name per service ◦ Automatic TLS

    for domains ◦ Configurable min/max instances ◦ Declarative events support • Cloud Run ◦ Configurable max instances ◦ gRPC/streaming support ◦ Support for VPC networks, CDN, configurable L7 LB • Google Cloud Buildpacks github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/buildpacks
  27. • Get started to deploy your serverless containers to Cloud

    Run. • Learn more about the Knative open source project. • github.com/ahmetb/ Answers to most of your questions about Cloud Run. twitter.com/ahmetb github.com/ahmetb