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Introduction to research

Introduction to research

Why do we do research and how to start?

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Jamalludin Ab Rahman

November 11, 2019
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Transcript

  1. Introduction to research Prof. Dr. Jamalludin Ab Rahman B.Med.Sc., MD,

    MPH, FPHM, AMM Department of Community Medicine Kulliyyah of Medicine International Islamic University Malaysia
  2. Why we do research? =Answers curiosity? =Forced by superior =For

    promotion 11 November 2019 2
  3. 3 Start with end in mind (Bijaksana) 11 November 2019

  4. 4 Idea Justify Explore Strategize Collect Analyse Report Publish Initiation

    Planning & strategize (proposal) Data collection Reporting & sharing Study design Sampling plan Sample size determination Plan for data collection Plan for statistical analysis 11 November 2019
  5. The 4 Critical Strategies 1. Clear conceptual framework 2. SMART

    objectives 3. Detail data dictionary 4. Expected dummy table 5 11 November 2019
  6. Organise your research idea Jamalludin Ab Rahman MD MPH 11

    November 2019 6
  7. Identify variables involved 11 November 2019 7 Exposure Outcome Confounder

    Explanatory variables (independent) Outcome variable (dependant) Confounding variables
  8. 11 November 2019 8

  9. 11 November 2019 9 Alcohol- based mouth wash Oral Cancer

    Smoking
  10. 11 November 2019 10

  11. 11 November 2019 11 Varkevisser, C. M., Pathmanathan, I., &

    Brownlee, A. T. (2003). Designing and conducting health systems research projects: Kit Publishers.
  12. Thornley S (2012) Causation and Statistical Prediction: Perfect Strangers or

    Bedfellows? J Biom Biostat 3:e115. doi:10.4172/2155- 6180.1000e115 11 November 2019 12
  13. Figure 3 Structural Equation Model Showing the Relationship Between Family

    Processes, Child Characteristics, and Achievement for Girls Aged 6 to 11 years 11 November 2019 13
  14. 11 November 2019 Huang C, Guo C, Yu S, et

    al Smoking behaviours and cessation services among male physicians in China: evidence from a structural equation model Tobacco Control 2013;22:ii27-ii33.
  15. Phrasing objectives Jamalludin Ab Rahman MD MPH 11 November 2019

    15
  16. SMART =Specific – What you really want to do =Measurable

    – Must be able to be measured =Attainable – Achievable =Relevant – Relevant to you =Timely – Can be done within the time you have 11 November 2019 16
  17. e.g. = To determine the prevalence of breastfeeding among mothers

    Can rephrase to: = To measure the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among working mothers attending post-natal clinic in Pahang = To measure the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and factors related with it among working mothers attending post-natal clinic in Pahang 11 November 2019 17
  18. Format 1. General-Specific 2. Primary-Secondary Outcomes Do not write both

    format in a proposal 11 November 2019 18
  19. General-Specific = Specific objectives are subset of General objective =

    Specific objectives sorted chronologically Primary-Secondary = Mutually exclusive = Sorted by importance
  20. General-Specific General To measure the survival of hypertensive patients &

    its related factors Specific 1. Describe baseline characteristics 2. To measure survival rate 3. To describe factors related to survival Primary-Secondary Primary To determine significant predictors to all cause death of hypertensive patients Secondary 1. To determine relationship between CVD among hypertensive patients
  21. Summary

  22. Summary 1. Motivated to do research 2. Begin with ENDS

    in mind 3. Understand ‘causality’ 4. Correct objectives