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How cognitive biases and ranking can foster an ineffective architecture and design @ flowcon

How cognitive biases and ranking can foster an ineffective architecture and design @ flowcon

The power of collaborative modelling comes from having a diverse group of people who, together, have a lot of wisdom and knowledge. You would expect that all this knowledge will be put to use, co-creating, and to design a model. In reality, we don’t actually listen to all the available input and perspectives due to cognitive biases and ranking. Because not everything that needs to be said has been said, we will end up with sub-optimal models and architecture. Even worse, people don’t feel part of the solution and don’t commit to it. Good architecture and design needs all the insights and perception. If you are not aware, cognitive biases and ranking kills those insights and wisdom and kills the effectiveness of your models!

Join us in this talk where we will explore how we can improve our facilitation skills and focus on neuro-inclusiveness. We will dive into techniques and methods from Liberating Structures and Deep Democracy the Lewis Method. We will demonstrate how you can combine these inclusive techniques with well known collaborative modelling tools like EventStorming, Example Mapping, Impact Mapping, and User Story Mapping. We will let you leave with the knowledge on how to observe sabotage behaviour, battle oppression, and to create safety in exploring alternative perceptions. We will show you how you can really let the group say what needs to be said and take a collective autocratic decision in designing your software models.

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Kenny Baas-Schwegler

November 23, 2020
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Transcript

  1. How cognitive biases and ranking can foster an ineffective architecture

    and design Kenny Baas-Schwegler & Evelyn van Kelle Photo by Pedro Henrique Santos on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas
  2. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

  3. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Photo by Sandy Millar on Unsplash Complexity: When

    things go bad, endure and observe what you can change, and probe! don’t go chasing a happy to-be situation
  4. 4 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

  5. 5 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

  6. 6 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas We’re dealing with complex adaptive socio-technical systems.

    Those 3 aspects impact each other. Balance is key
  7. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Open office space to improve communication @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

  8. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas If you design a monolith or part of

    a software landscape without boundaries or the wrong boundaries, you just architected an open office space for software teams.
  9. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Kevlin Henny- Good code https://www.slideshare.net/Kevlin/good-code-73714882/16

  10. 10 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

  11. 11 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas “Architectural design is system design. System design

    is contextual design — it is inherently about boundaries (what’s in, and what’s out, what spans, what moves between), and about tradeoffs.” —Ruth Malan
  12. Photo by NASA on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

  13. Photo by NASA on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

  14. 14 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas “If the architecture of the system and

    the architecture of the organization are at odds, the architecture of the organization wins” —Ruth Malan
  15. Creating a shared sense of reality Photo by Matt Noble

    on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas
  16. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Collaborative modelling is a practice of using requirement

    analysis and modelling techniques to create a shared understanding.
  17. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Photo by Cedric Letsch on Unsplash technical architect

    Socio-technical architect (A role, not a function!) (and of course owned by a person or group)
  18. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Ensuring flow in meetings How to make sure

    everyone said what has to be said? How can we create and include new insights? Who decides on the architecture? How to get everyone on board on the decision? Who to invite? How diverse should the group be? Photo by Mike Lewis HeadSmart Media on Unsplash
  19. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Ensuring flow in meetings How to make sure

    everyone said what has to be said? Photo by Mike Lewis HeadSmart Media on Unsplash
  20. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas from: Decision-making practices for evolving and sustaining software

    architecture by Rebecca Wirfs-Brock and Ken Power
  21. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Ranking Photo by Sebastien LE DEROUT on Unsplash

    @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas
  22. Photo by NASA on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Ranking Why Kenny

    could start with the micro-story today… ➔ Explicit ranking ◆ your position in the org chart, your job title, your job description, level of power, etc. ➔ Implicit ranking ◆ Your gender, your skin colour, the level of charisma, how you communicate/treat others, the level of informal power you have, etc.
  23. Photo by NASA on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Ranking

  24. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Photo by Sebastien LE DEROUT on Unsplash Symbolic

    violence Photo by Zosia Korcz on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas
  25. Photo by NASA on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Symbolic Violence ➔

    Symbolic ideal ◆ Signs of wealth (Rolex, clothing, cars, etc.) ◆ Being from ‘rich’ countries ◆ The luxury of calmness ◆ Signals we take for ‘intelligence’ ◆ Extroversion ➔ We score others and others score us. Unconsciously! ➔ The higher the score, the more power we yield to that person. This is symbolic violence. ➔ This is NOT done by the ‘dominant’ person. We do this to ourselves.
  26. 26 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas “A Pair programming or mob session where

    one of the participants is hitting oneself is not a co-creation, it is submission..” ― Romeu Moura
  27. 27 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas https://twitter.com/manwhohasitall/status/1321550806869450752?s=20 How to deal with the impact

    of ranking? @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Turn it around mindgame
  28. 28 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Native language Skinny White skin colour Drink

    wine during lunch Male Straight Middle aged Born in ‘rich’ country Tall Has a job Mainstream political views High education Financially healthy No criminal record Attractive Confident No handicap No accent Extravert Mentally healthy Ranking Bingo Based on the Rankingtest by Arnold Mindell and inspired by Danielle Braun.
  29. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas So what?

  30. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Shadow IT

  31. 31 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Deep Democracy the lewis method

  32. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Photo by TRI WISNU HADI on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle

    @kenny_baas Every autocratic decision, supressess knowledge and wisdom and creates resistance.
  33. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas foto: Hideta Nagai) credit: Corporate tribe book by

    Danielle Braun, Jitske Kramer @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas
  34. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas foto: Hideta Nagai) credit: Corporate tribe book by

    Danielle Braun, Jitske Kramer @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas “And those who were seen dancing were thought to be insane by those who could not hear the music”
  35. 35 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas “If you are always trying to be

    normal, you will never know how amazing you can be” ― Maya Angelou
  36. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Photo by Neil Thomas on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

    How to make sure everyone said what has to be said? Own, play and share your rank
  37. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Ensuring flow in meetings How can we create

    and include new insights? Photo by Mike Lewis HeadSmart Media on Unsplash
  38. Photo by NASA on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Quiz A man

    driving with his son besides him gets into a car accident. The Father dies instantly, the son is being transferred by ambulance to the hospital. The surgeon walks into the operating room, sees the child and says: I cannot do the operation, since this is my son. How is that possible? From Kramer, Jitske - Jam Cultures: https://www.bu.edu/articles/2014/bu-research-riddle-reveals-the-depth-of-gender-bias/
  39. Cognitive bias @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

  40. Photo by NASA on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Cognitive Bias -

    Example ➔ Functional Fixedness Getting stuck in what you know. A mental block against using something in a new way that is required to solve a problem. What we know hinders us to take on new perspectives.
  41. Photo by NASA on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Cognitive Bias -

    Example ➔ Anchoring Effect We think relatively, rather than objectively. Relying too heavily on the first piece of information you receive (the anchor). We adjust our decisions based on this anchor. “This shouldn’t take more than 2 weeks, right?” (This is why the post-its are so effective…)
  42. Photo by NASA on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Cognitive Bias -

    Example ➔ False consensus effect “This is the best model in the world, right?” Overestimating the extent in which others share your beliefs, opinions or enthusiasm. Always check your assumptions.
  43. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas How can we create and include new insights?

    ➔ Embrace the Harry’s in your team/organization to counter functional fixedness. ➔ Drop your anchor consciously. ➔ Leave room for individual contribution to counter the anchoring effect. ➔ Identify & check assumptions. And make them explicit to counter the false consensus effect. ◆ Consider the possibility that your model is not the best...
  44. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Ensuring flow in meetings Who decides on the

    architecture? How to get everyone on board on the decision? Photo by Mike Lewis HeadSmart Media on Unsplash
  45. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas https://www.today.com/home/toilet-paper-over-or-under-debate-resolved-1891-patent-t9776

  46. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Accurate vs Completeness

  47. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Accurate vs Completeness

  48. 48 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Discussion Dialogue Actions, thinking fast Insights, thinking

    slow Convince, take a stand Understanding, listen Think against other (yes, but..) Think together with others (Yes, and…) Answer are central The questions are central Attack and defence Investigate and check Opinions and arguments Principles, values and norms Judgement postpone judgment Finding solutions find the underlying reason Risk: false consensus, powerplay Risk: responsible abstraction, woolly
  49. 49 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas https://twitter.com/RonJeffries/status/1128329696012378114

  50. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Photo by Tamara Gak on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

    “Peace is not the absence of conflict. Conflict are the status quo, it is how you manage them is what makes peace.” - Bart Brandsma
  51. 51 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas From Kramer, Jitske - Jam Cultures Conversational

    constraints theory 1. Clarity: Do people understand what I am saying 2. Feelings of others: Am I hurting people, or being rude? 3. Own image: Do people see me the way I like them to see me. 4. Space: Don’t I take to many or too little verbale and non-verbale space. 5. Effectiveness: How do I get what I want. How can I not get rejected.
  52. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Photo by Markus Spiske on Unsplash “We must

    be able to identify all the parts in a system and allow them to speak. All the parts in a group, even those we do not like or believe to be useless, must be present and supported.” - Arnold Mindell
  53. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Photo by Kevin Erdvig on Unsplash credit: Corporate

    Tribe by Danielle Braun, Jitske Kramer Meetings as campfires
  54. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas credit: human dimensions

  55. 55 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas 1. Gain all views 2. Make it

    safe to to say alternative views 3. Spread the why ----- VOTE ---- 4. Ask: What would it take for you to go along? Deep Democracy the lewis method steps
  56. 56 @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas 1. Idea: You have an idea, but

    nothing is certain 2. Suggestion: You have a clear intention, but other insights are more than welcome 3. Proposal: You have a concretely worked out proposal. Only serious objections can influence the decision 4. Command: Decision is made, what does it take for you to go along? How much space do you give?
  57. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Who decides on the architecture? How to get

    everyone on board on the decision? Use the Deep Democracy the lewis method steps. Be clear on how much power people have on decision making. Photo by Mike Lewis HeadSmart Media on Unsplash
  58. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Ensuring flow in meetings Who to invite? How

    diverse should the group be? Photo by Mike Lewis HeadSmart Media on Unsplash
  59. Exclusion comes from having to much inclusion. Inclusion always leads

    to exclusion @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Photo by Brett Jordan on Unsplash
  60. Inclusion paradox: Be yourself, but act accordingly @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

  61. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Photo by Tamara Gak on Unsplash @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

    & ! |
  62. Photo by Rikki Chan on Unsplash Who to invite is

    about thinking in perceptions instead of people. Invite especially people with annoying perceptions. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas
  63. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas

  64. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Polarity mapping

  65. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Polarity mapping

  66. @EvelynvanKelle @kenny_baas Ensuring flow in meetings Create awareness of people

    their ranks in the group Own, play and share your rank Be aware and make explicit the biases at play Use Deep Democracy the lewis method in your decision making Start managing polarities with the group by using polarity mapping Photo by Mike Lewis HeadSmart Media on Unsplash
  67. @kenny_baas #CatTax @kenny_baas Baasie.com xebia.com/blog/author/kbaas/ https://speakerdeck.com/baasie @EvelynvanKelle evelynvankelle@gmail.com https://www.evelynvankelle.com Leave

    the judging to cats.