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Artisans and Apprentices

Artisans and Apprentices

Inspired by the medieval guild-and-apprentice system, the increasing popularity of bootcamps and apprenticeship programs in software development has great promise but may also bring with it some serious negative side effects. Let's explore the benefits of applying 12th century best practices to the challenge of preparing a new generation of developers, and discuss ways to avoid the mistakes of the past: technologically conservative monocultures comprising and serving a privileged few.

Coraline Ada Ehmke

April 23, 2014

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  1. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik Welcome to the age of

    wonder. I want to talk about a very unique period in history. It is a truly amazing time. A time of incredible change. The speed of progress is breathtaking. We’re redefining ourselves, our cultures, our values. We’re moving at breakneck speed.
  2. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik The world is shrinking. Boundaries

    are breaking down. We’re increasingly international in our economy and in our thinking.
  3. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik We’re well fed. Food is

    plentiful and is a major export. The era of subsistence farming is a dim memory at best.
  4. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik We’re urban. Jobs and populations

    are rapidly relocating from rural areas to urban centers.
  5. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik We’re growing. The population is

    exploding, projected to double in the next hundred years.
  6. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik We’re specialists. We’re increasingly focused

    on mastery of narrow but deep skill sets that put us in high demand.
  7. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik We’re well funded. Financiers from

    all over the world are backing the ideas and providing the capital for massive expansion and what amounts to the radical redefinition of business success.
  8. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik Poverty. But of course not

    everything is great. We still have problems to solve. The growing divide between the rich and the poor, for one.
  9. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik No safety nets. People are

    increasingly turning to religious institutions to provide basic social services. With younger generations moving to the cities and leaving their parents and grandparents behind, we don’t have a lot of safety nets in place any more to help people who are in need.
  10. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik Conservatism is on the rise.

    Small govt advocates are a vocal constituency that brings serious pressure to bear on politicians. Successful conservative economic policies are fueling a backlash against liberal social policies. Our government and our social institutions are growing increasingly conservative and moderates are called liberals.
  11. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik But we have incredible opportunities.

    Although these problems are very real, they don’t change the fact that there are now opportunities for success that are almost unimaginable to people from even two generations before.
  12. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik We’re redefining prosperity. The very

    definition of what it means to be wealthy has changed dramatically.
  13. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik The future is ours. was

    The world is changing, and it’s a great time to be alive.
  14. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik Until 1315, when everything fell

    apart. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik Things were definitely going great. Until the Great Famine of 1315, followed by the arrival of the Black Death in 1348. Then everything pretty much went to hell.
  15. Coraline  Ada  Ehmke  •  @bantik Everything old is new again.

    So we’re not living in as unique a time as we thought after all. This has happened before. And the past has some things to teach us. How did the period of rapid change in medieval century Europe create demand for a highly skilled workforce? And how did things change to accommodate this demand?
 Artisans & Apprentices: Growing a 21st Century Workforce Using

    12th Century Best Practices Coraline Ada Ehmke @bantik #TwelfthCenturyCoders We’re going to look at some of the strategies that emerged in 12th century Europe and see how they apply to the challenges we face in creating and sustaining a highly skilled workforce today.
  17. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Really, Really Early

    Childhood Education I want to start by exploring how we give young people the knowledge they need to enter the world as adults. We want young people to be prepared to enter the world with all of the skills they need to survive and thrive.
  18. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders H-G is earliest

    known form of social organization and still practiced in many parts of the world today. Psychologist Peter Gray. Studies of how young people learn in hunter-gatherer societies. Family and social groups responsible for passing down critical skills and knowledge. But young people learn primarily through imitation, experimentation, and play. Parallel social structures.
  19. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Works well as

    a way of transmitting basic information needed to sustain an individual and their a family or social group and as a way of preserving culture. Also flexible enough to accept and incorporate individual innovations.
  20. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders But as many

    cultures moved away from the mobile hunter-gatherer mode and began to form permanent settlements— mainly in pursuit of agriculture or trade— people began to specialize in skills.
  21. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Tools and technologies

    became more complex. Parents could no longer pass down the specialized knowledge of how to create and use technology effectively, so young people were sent to specialists for training.
  22. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders The relationship between

    young newcomers and older, seasoned specialists also ensured that critical expertise was passed from generation to generation.
  23. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Apprenticeships In time

    these relationships were formalized into apprenticeships.
  24. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Babylon 2100 BC

    Established in the Code of Hammurabi in 2100 BC: Artisans were required by law to teach their crafts to youth.
  25. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Egypt 2000 BC

    Continued to be practiced in Egypt in 2000 BC. Young people were sent as apprentices to scribes, who taught them the twin arts of reading and writing.
  26. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Han Dynasty 200

    BC Apprenticeships were a common means of educating new physicians in the Western Han Dynasties. These apprenticeships were mostly handed down through families because this insured a steady and reliable income. The prestige of the doctor was based on how many generations the family had been practicing medicine. In fact, one medical book from that period warned against taking medication from a physician if his family had been practicing medicine for less than three generations. There was an emphasis placed on the careful selection of the apprentice since his success would bring the master fame.
  27. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Roman Empire 20

    BC Roman families provided basic education and moral training to their children, but job training was largely provided— to boys at least— through apprenticeships.
  28. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders England 1100 AD

    So by the time it was firmly established in Europe in the 12th century, the apprenticeship pattern was very well practiced worldwide. Over time it was ingrained in the culture that it became a legal prerequisite for practicing as a craftsman.
  29. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Guilds We can’t

    really understand medieval apprenticeships without first talking about the guild system.
  30. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Merchants were the

    first professionals to form guilds, primarily for the purposes of mutual protection from theft and standardizing the prices of goods. The word “guild” derives from the Saxon “gilden” meaning “to pay”, referring to the subscription fees paid by members.
  31. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Artisans soon followed

    suit, and by the 12th century fraternal orders corresponding to most professions were widespread throughout Europe.
  32. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Establish standards. Goals

    Guilds wanted to ensure baseline standards to ensure that only craftsmen with appropriate qualifications could practice their craft.
  33. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Promote high quality

    practices. Goals Guilds worked to normalize the quality of the work of artisans by establishing and preserving best practices.
  34. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Protect vested interests.

    Goals Standardizing on qualifications and quality meant that local demand could be met with local talent, which protected the interests of craftsman who settled in and served a fixed location.
  35. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Limit competition. Goals

    By controlling the number of people entering a profession and establishing territories in which artisans could practice their craft, competition was kept to a minimum.
  36. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders An important thing

    to note is that guilds were essentially associations of employers banded together to foster their own self-interests. They created local monopolies that acted to divide the market to the benefit of its members. There were positive benefits brought about by the guild system but these were largely happy accidents and unintended side-effects.
  37. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Peter’s Tale I’d

    like to introduce Peter Anselm… father is a merchant in a rural village a day’s travel from the nearest city.
  38. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders His parents wanted

    him to have a better lot than they had and so encouraged him to join the priesthood.
  39. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders But Peter was

    more interested in building churches than preaching in them.
  40. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders So his parents

    arranged to enter him into indenture with John Teodor, a Master Stonemason.
  41. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders His parents had

    to pay a fee to Teodor to accept Peter into his service and sign the indenture agreement. It guaranteed that Peter would stay with Teodor for two full years, promising not to leave without permission and not to marry; in exchange, Teodor would provide food, shelter, and training to Peter, and care for him in sickness or health.
  42. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Peter was by

    Teodor’s side every day, imitating the master’s work and producing crude work, but gradually improving over time.
  43. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders One day Peter

    had an idea for improving the design of the mallet that he used. He worked for several nights to implement his design, and proudly showed it to his master the next day. Far from being pleased, Teodor beat the boy and told him to concentrate on learning what he was being taught.
  44. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders The next winter

    Peter fell gravely ill and was unable to continue his studies. His master arranged a doctor to see him and paid for the herbs prescribed to bring his fever down. After several weeks of recovery, he was healthy enough to resume work.
  45. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders At last Peter’s

    two-year indenture was an at end and he was introduced to the Master’s guild. After an examination, a brief but emotional ceremony was conducted to reward Peter with the title of Journeyman Stonemason.
  46. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Teodor did not

    want competition, so arrangements were made for Peter to travel two days west to another city to work on the construction of a new church under another master stonemason.
  47. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Peter performed his

    job very well and was rewarded with the opportunity to build the doorway of the priory. He did a good job and requested that the master write a letter of recommendation indicating the arch as a masterwork, but the master declined. TESTING.
  48. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Stung by the

    master’s refusal, Peter spent the next several years traveling from city to city and working on the construction of various buildings. It was always his guild that gave him his destination and directed him from master to master for employment.
  49. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Years passed. One

    spring he was told that Teodor, his first master, was on his deathbed. He traveled back to his home city to comfort him and say goodbye. As a farewell gift, Teodor recommended to the guild that Peter be accepted as a master craftsman.
  50. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders As a master

    stone mason, Peter was allowed to set up shop in his home city and was entitled to oversee all local building projects. In time he even took on his own apprentice. After many years of study, toil, and travel, Peter had earned a high place in his profession.
  51. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Ethan’s Tale I’d

    like to introduce Ethan Woodward… from Indiana.Single, from an upper-middle-class family.
  52. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Dropped out of

    college and moved to Chicago. Joined a tech support team at a local startup. Took some programming classes and read some books, but soon decided he needed something more formal and structured.
  53. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Heard about a

    bootcamp that was starting downtown and filled out an application. Got accepted. Had to ask his parents to pay the $12k fee for the 9 week program. Quit his job.
  54. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Spent the next

    month working on prerequisite exercises, reading the recommended books, and getting his computer ready for development.
  55. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders When the bootcamp

    started, he would spend 11 hours a day in class and another 4-6 hours or so studying and practicing with other people in his cohort.
  56. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Busy learning tools

    and techniques. Pace of learning did not lend itself to experimentation or asking a lot of questions about the ‘why’ of what they were studying.
  57. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Weeks without a

    good night’s sleep wore down his immune system. Got the flu which kept him home for over a week. His teachers were accommodating but didn’t think it was realistic for him to catch up, so they arranged for him to restart in a few weeks with the next cohort.
  58. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Formed strong bonds

    with his fellow students and got to meet several prominent developers from local tech companies.
  59. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Finished the program

    and met with several potential employers at the end-of-training job fair. In just a few short weeks, got hired on as a junior developer.
  60. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Joined a team

    with two other juniors and a mid-level developer. Juniors were more or less left to fend for themselves.
  61. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Hired at a

    larger, more established company. Even less support for growth and continued learning, but made enough money to pay his parents back and get a decent apartment.
  62. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Worked his way

    up to mid-level developer, eventually became a team lead, married and had a child. In time got burned out by 60 hour work weeks and began looking for a product management position.
  63. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders He pretty much

    left behind his dream of building his own software and launching his own startup. Maybe things would have been different if he had had some kind of support from his employers, his peers, his community. But he was still happy.
  64. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Apprenticeships: Then and

    Now Apprenticeships today are not the same as those in the twelfth century, but there are definitely some strong similarities.
  65. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Indenture fee 1100

    Initial Investment Tuition 2014 Indenture fee beyond the reach of those without moneyed families. Tuition that is almost 25% of the average median income in America.
  66. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Impossible Outside Activities

    Impractical 2014 1100 Forbidden to move, be idle, or marry during indenture period. Time commitment makes outside activities or
 family obligations impractical.
  67. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Guild approved Formal

    Training WYSIWYG 2014 1100 Provided by guild-approved masters. Varies from university degree programs to self-learning to bootcamps.
  68. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Comprehensive Material Support

    Not so much 2014 1100 Tools, room, board, and medical care provided as part of the training agreement. Provide your own laptop, cover your own room and board, fend for yourself with regard to health insurance.
  69. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Formal Mentoring Informal

    2014 1100 Structured mentorships for apprentices and journeymen. Varying degrees of informal mentorship mainly supporting junior developers.
  70. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Systemized Career Progression

    No standards 2014 1100 Today there is no clear demarcation between levels of mastery; there are no standards defining the boundaries between junior, mid-level, and senior positions. The book “Apprenticeship Patterns” by Dave Hoover and Ah-de-wall-ay Ocean-ay describe the career progression of a developer as “a gradual but not discrete transition from one state to another”. Question re: what makes someone a senior developer.
  71. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Bootcamps Guilds provided

    a formal and sanctioned entrance into a skilled profession. How are we addressing the demand for skilled technologists today?
  72. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Let’s establish just

    what that demand looks like. In 2002, there were an estimated 611,000 sw dev jobs. In 2012 there were over a million. Job growth in our field over the next ten years is projected at 22%. This is twice the average growth in the general job market.
  73. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders As time moves

    on the half-life of specific technologies, languages, and toolkits becomes shorter than the time it takes universities to update their curriculum. As a result, CS programs are going to start producing fewer candidates ready at graduation to start their careers. Government analysists recently estimated that less than 30% of college graduates find in jobs directly related to their degrees.
  74. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders As technology jobs

    become more lucrative, a significant population of people are also becoming interested changing careers and seeking inroads into software development as a new profession, a second career.
  75. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders In response to

    these demands, intensive training programs and trade schools, often referred to as boot camps, are springing up across the country, around the world. Cost around $1000 a week for generally 9-12 week programs. Success in job placement varies, but some cite success rates of well over 80%.
  76. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders They have the

    advantage of little or no regulation, much less administrative overhead than universities, and the ability to rapidly change or tune their curriculums.
  77. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Most bootcamp students

    are males in their twenties. It is pretty widely accepted that there is a long way to go in recruiting women and minorities to these schools. Some are starting to offer scholarships to address these gaps.
  78. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Some collect payment

    after the student gets a job (e.g. app academy 18% of salary). Some are starting to offer stipends (hungry academy and ada developers academy). Some refund tuition if a student doesn’t get a job within a certain amount of time. Refund part of tuition when you get a job (DBC).
  79. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders State regulators are

    beginning to pay attention and calling for standards, accountability, and transparency. Measure and document job placement statistics. Publish course catalogs. Graduates tend to agree with this idea, as they want to preserve the reputation of the orgs from which they graduated. Bootcamps tend to want to avoid regulation so that they can remain agile and competitive.
  80. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Shared Goals Standards

    Define and enforce baseline standards, minimum qualifications and general-purpose toolkits in response to demand from employers. IN many ways responding to and even representing local employers. Not unlike guilds.
  81. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Shared Goals Stability

    Seek to become a reliable means of preserving and transmitting skills and knowledge in a given field.
  82. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Shared Goals Managing

    demand Not just meeting it. Impacting local job markets through their selection processes, how many people they bring in from other parts of the country, companies they choose to work with, and the number of new developers they produce in a year. Guilds and bootcamps both serve as stabilizing forces by providing a constant flow of professionals carefully calibrated to meet the needs of local markets.
  83. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Common Problems Guilds

    and bootcamps also share a set of common problems.
  84. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Common Problems Competition

    Competing guilds or competing bootcamps create confusion about the skills, tools, and practices are considered standards— essentially, what criteria a new practitioner must meet.
  85. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Common Problems Conservatism

    Conservative approach to institutional knowledge. Adjusting a curriculum is time-consuming and expensive. Requires retraining instructors or providing them with ongoing career development opportunities. The lowest friction path is to settle on lowest-common-denominator tools and specialize in them.
  86. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Common Problems Privilege

    Draw from a limited population of people who can afford to not draw a salary for 9-12 weeks and can pay $1000 a week or more for training.
  87. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Common Problems Monoculture

    Social capital of shared norms, common information, mutual sanctions, and collective action benefit members to the exclusion of outsiders. This is a recipe for systemic monoculture.
  88. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Common Problems Oligarchy

    Highlighting distinctions between levels of developers, perpetuating the idea that mastery of software development is even possible, and holding up people who represent and support that ideal, we essentially create a class system.
  89. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Common Problems This

    class system that puts certain senior members of the community on a pedestal, insulates them from personal responsibility, and amplifies their voices, no matter what they say or do.
  90. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Common Problems This

    amplification of their voices means that with very little effort, just a few keystrokes really, they can undermine efforts by others in the community to make positive changes. Their platform enforces the status quo. It’s a tool of conservatism, and is far too easy to abuse.
  91. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Common Problems De-facto

    leaders are given an incredible platform to say and do things that the members of the community know to be wrong, outdated, or downright offensive, and without an equivalently influential platform for their critics there’s really no recourse.
  92. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Artisanal Citizenship It’s

    important as we talk about bringing new people into our community that we are deliberate about what we teach them. And I don’t just mean teaching them Javascript or TDD or Ruby.
  93. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Values-driven development Artisinal

    Citizenship Encourage them to explore and articulate their core values are and find a way to live them. Show them that it’s OK to be authentic. That they don’t have to compromise their values to be successful.
  94. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Amplify dissent Artisinal

    Citizenship Healthy communities are about dialog. Dialog without dissent is an echo chamber. Critics of the status quo tend to not have 25k followers on twitter. Don’t just favorite criticism, retweet it.
  95. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Insist on accountability

    Artisinal Citizenship If our so-called community leaders say something racist, sexist, transphobic, ableist, otherwise discriminatory, or even just downright stupid, it is our responsibility to call them out on it. No one is above scrutiny.
  96. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Pass down your

    values Artisinal Citizenship If you are a mentor, teacher, speaker, don’t just share your technical knowledge with the people you are reaching out to. Share the values that drive you and stress the importance of citizenship. Don’t let the culture you care about erode or decay. Your values are a more important legacy than your code.
  97. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Establish and follow

    best practices for helping newcomers to the field master the tools and techniques required to not only perform their jobs but to understand, contribute, grow and thrive. Less focus on specific technologies and more on problem solving.
  98. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Ensure that we’re

    not only passing knowledge along, but also fostering and encouraging values like empathy, community, and openness.
  99. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Listen and learn

    from the experiences of new people entering our field. Pay attention to the questions they ask and the ideas they bring with them. Be open to new ways of doing things.
  100. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Establish clear success

    criteria so that an apprentice knows when she is ready to advance.
  101. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Create long-term mentoring

    relationships to guide people through all phases of their careers.
  102. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Increase diversity by

    lowering financial barriers to entry, providing flexible learning schedules, and reaching out to underrepresented populations (the pipeline problem)
  103. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Open the door

    to innovation by encouraging discovery, questioning the status quo and experimentation.
  104. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Provide basic health

    care. People can’t learn, work, grow effectively if they can’t pay the price for their health.
  105. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Continue providing learning

    opportunities, mentoring, and other support services to students beyond the job placement stage.
  106. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Let’s help each

    other realize the promise of the era that we live in. Let’s reach out to those who are new and offer them our support; let’s turn to our peers for support and seek out opportunities for learning and growth; let’s create resources and institutions that help us all get better at our chosen craft; and most importantly let’s hold our leaders accountable for embracing change and reinforcing the values that we collectively share.
  107. Coraline Ada Ehmke • @bantik • #TwelfthCenturyCoders Thanks! Once more

    we find ourselves living and working in a very exciting era. Let’s do our best to get it right this time around. I’m Coraline Ada Ehmke. Thank you.