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Web Conf Asia, Hong Kong, 3 June 2017

Web Conf Asia, Hong Kong, 3 June 2017

bruce lawson

June 03, 2017

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Other Decks in Technology


  1. World-Wide Web, not Wealthy Western Web Bruce Lawson, @brucel

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  3. @brucel My pledge to the Web ▪ Never gonna give

    you up ▪ Never gonna let you down ▪ Never gonna run around and desert you ▪ Never gonna make you cry ▪ Never gonna say goodbye ▪ Never gonna tell a lie and hurt you (Words and music Stock Aitken Waterman)
  4. @brucel Make the web better for… Consumers Business owners The

    next 4 billion 4bn Developers
  5. @brucel

  6. ICT access by population Total 
 global population ~7.4 billion

 internet 1.1 billion Total 
 internet users 3.2 billion Mobile phones 5.2 billion Within mobile coverage 7 billion Source: World Bank, Digital Dividends.
  7. The world’s offline population Total 
 internet users 3.2 billion

 internet 1.1 billion India 1.063 billion Countries outside of the top 20 China 755 million Indonesia 213 million Pakistan 165 million Bangladesh 148 million Nigeria 111 million Brazil 98 million Ethiopia 95 million Mexico 70 million Congo, Dem. Rep. 68 million Philippines 63 million Russian Federation 55 million Iran, Islamic Rep. 54 million Myanmar 53 million Vietnam 52 million United States 51 million Tanzania 49 million Thailand 48 million Egypt, Arab Rep. 42 million Turkey 41 million

  9. @brucel

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  16. Jon Hicks’ map

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  18. @brucel Black Friday + Cyber Monday $2.9Bn

  19. @brucel Double 11 Day, 2014 $9.2Bn Source: Nanjing Marketing Group,

    Q4 2014
  20. @brucel Total online retail spending in China reached $307 billion

    in 2013 and is forecast to grow at a compound annual rate of nearly 20% until 2019, when it should exceed $1 trillion. “ $1 trillion online by 2019 - China Online Retail Forecast Forrester
  21. @brucel Thanks to QR code’s rapidly increasing usage at off-line

    shops, the amount of mobile payments on the mainland is now 50 times greater than that of the US. “ The Mighty QR Code - The rise of the QR code and how it has forever changed China’s social habits
  22. @brucel payments made via mobile devices by Chinese consumers last

    year reached US$5.5 trillion, more than half the nation’s GDP. “ QR - “quite rich” - The rise of the QR code and how it has forever changed China’s social habits
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  24. @brucel in Indonesia 75% of users are on older 2G,

    or GSM/EDGE, networks,… more than half of Indonesian smartphone users said they experienced network problems daily. “ Indonesia - Measuring and improving network performance Ericsson, September 2014
  25. @brucel popular Indonesian online site BliBli has more than one-third

    of its 2.5 million customers living in rural areas “ - Techcrunch, July 2016
  26. @brucel SEA to be the fastest growing internet market in

    the world (~480m users by 2020); Indonesia fastest growing nation in the world. “ - eConomy SEA - Google / Temasec (2016)
  27. @brucel The Internet economy in SEA is expected to reach

    ~$200 billion by 2025 (6.5x increase over 10 years) “ South East Asia - eConomy SEA - Google / Temasec (2016)
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  29. @brucel 5 years ago a SIM cost $2000

  30. @brucel August 2014 $1.50 - When a SIM Card Goes

    From $2,000 to $1.50 Bloomberg (29 Sept '14)
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  32. @brucel we expect the number of Internet users to at

    least double, from 190 million in 2014 to 400 million in 2018 … We expect the Internet to contribute $200 billion to India’s GDP (5% of total GDP) by 2020. “ - Boston Consulting Group (BCG), 23 April 2015

  34. 36% APAC smartphone users block ads - New York Times

    (30 May 2016) @brucel Digital self-defence
  35. 2/3 - New York Times (30 May 2016) @brucel India

    and Indonesia
  36. USA - Used by kind permission of Secret Media @brucel

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  38. @brucel Among the country’s roughly 690 million Internet users, 620

    million now go online using a mobile device. “ China - MIT Technology Review (June 2016)
  39. @brucel Asia 2010 2015 2020 19% 41% 92% 16% 13%

    3% 65% 45% 5% Smartphones Data-only devices Basic or feature phones Data: GSMA , June 2016
  40. @brucel 38% 17% 45% Mobile internet Voice/ text only Non-mobile

    26% 6% 68% Asia Thailand Data: GSMA , June 2016
  41. @brucel 38% 17% 45% Mobile internet Voice/ text only Non-mobile

    28% 26% 46% Asia Philippines Data: GSMA , June 2016
  42. @brucel 38% 17% 45% Mobile internet Voice/ text only Non-mobile

    22% 44% 34% Asia Vietnam Data: GSMA , June 2016
  43. @brucel 56% in emerging economies saw themselves first and foremost

    as global citizens rather than national citizens. In Nigeria (73%), China (71%), Peru (70%) and India (67%) the data is particularly marked. “ - Globescan poll for BBC, April 2016
  44. @brucel http://www.bbc.com/news/world-36139904

  45. @brucel 1. google.com 2. facebook.com 3. youtube.com 4. wikipedia.org 5.

    yahoo.com Top domains: USA 6. twitter.com 7. wellhello.com 8. addthis.com 9. wordpress.com 10. apple.com
  46. @brucel 1. Apple iPhone 2. Apple iPad 3. Samsung Galaxy

    S Duos 2 4. Samsung Galaxy S3 5. Samsung Galaxy Grand Prime Top handsets: USA 6. Samsung Galaxy Grand Neo Plus 7. Samsung Galaxy grand Neo GT 8. Nokia Asha 201 9. Samsung Galaxy Note III 10.TracFone LG 306G
  47. @brucel 1. facebook.com 2. google.com 3. google.co.id 4. wordpress.com 5.

    youtube.com Top domains: Indonesia 6. blogspot.co.id 7. wikipedia.org 8. indosat.com 9. liputan6.com 10. xl.co.id
  48. @brucel 1. Nokia X201 2. Nokia Asha 210 3. Nokia

    C3-00 4. Generic WAP 5. Nokia Asha 205.1 Top handsets: Indonesia 6. Samsung Galaxy V SM-G313HZ 7. Nokia 215 8. Nokia X2-02 9. Samsung GTS5260 Star 2 10. Nokia 5130 XpressMusic
  49. @brucel 1. google.com.ng 2. facebook.com 3. google.com 4. naij.com 5.

    youtube.com Top domains: Nigeria 6. bbc.com 7. opera.com 8. wikipedia.org 9. goal.com 10. waptrick.com
  50. @brucel 1. Nokia Asha 200 2. Nokia Asha 210 3.

    Nokia X2-01 4. Nokia C3-00 5. TECNO P5 Top handsets: Nigeria 6. Nokia Asha 205 7. Nokia Asha 201 8. TECNO M3 9. Infinix Hot Note X551 10. Infinix Hot 2 X510

  52. @brucel Progressive Web Apps ▪ “install” to the home screen

    ▪ have their own icon (defined by the web developer) ▪ can launch full-screen, portrait or landscape ▪ but “live” on the Web
  53. @brucel Most installed apps are not used often. The average

    app user has 36 apps installed on his or her smartphone. Only one in four of those apps are used daily, while 1 in 4 apps are never used. “ Native Apps take up space - How Consumers Really Find and Use Your Apps (Google research, May 2015)
  54. @brucel

  55. @brucel Downloading a typical app with 20 MB APK can

    take more than 30 minutes on a 2G network, and the download is likely to fail before completion, due to the flaky nature of the network. “ - How we built Facebook Lite for every Android phone and network
  56. @brucel 
 With space this limited, the user is

    comparing their personal photo collection with the adoption of a new app on their phone. “ - Mobile App Developers Are Suffering
  57. @brucel Africa: mobile phone use

  58. @brucel we didn’t stand a chance as we were fighting

    with both our competitors and other apps for a few more MB of room inside people’s phones. “ Birdly - Why you shouldn’t bother creating a mobile app
  59. https://dev.opera.com/articles/pwa-nigeria-kenya-interview/ “Nigerians are extremely data sensitive.” “People side-load apps and

    other content from third parties [or via] Xender.” Constance Okoghenun: @brucel
  60. “With PWAs […], without the download overhead of native apps

    […] developers in Nigeria can now give a great and up-to-date experience to their users.” @brucel
  61. Early progressive web apps in Asia & Africa @brucel

  62. @brucel Manifest file stores metadata for your web app: icons,

    description, colors, and related info that lets browsers create high-quality experiences for the launcher icon, task switcher, and splash screen.
  63. @brucel <link rel="manifest" href="/manifest.json"> all in the <head>

  64. { "name": "Simple web app demo", "short_name": "Demo", "icons": [

    { "src": "icon-medium.png", "sizes": "96x96" },{ "src": "icon-large.png", "sizes": "192x192" } ], "theme_color": "#3F51B5", "background_color": "#F5F5F5", "display": "standalone", "orientation": "portrait", "start_url": "/simple-demo/?home=true" }

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  67. { "name": "Simple web app demo", "short_name": "Demo", "icons": [

    { "src": "icon-medium.png", "sizes": "96x96" },{ "src": "icon-large.png", "sizes": "192x192" } ], "theme_color": "#3F51B5", "background_color": "#F5F5F5", "display": "fullscreen", "orientation": "portrait", "start_url": "/simple-demo/?home=true" }
  68. { "name": "Air Horner", "short_name": "Air Horner", "icons": [ {

    "src": "icon-medium.png", "sizes": "96x96" },{ "src": "icon-large.png", "sizes": "192x192" } ], "theme_color": "#2196F3", "background_color": "#2196F3", "display": "fullscreen", "orientation": "portrait", "start_url": "/?home=true" }
  69. { "name": "Simple web app demo", "short_name": "Demo", "icons": [

    { "src": "icon-medium.png", "sizes": "96x96" },{ "src": "icon-large.png", "sizes": "192x192" } ], "theme_color": "#990000", "background_color": "#DFCFAF", "display": "fullscreen", "orientation": "landscape", "start_url": "/inbox-attack/?home=true" } https://andreasbovens.github.io/inbox-attack/
  70. @brucel Tools Manifest Generator http://brucelawson.github.io/manifest/ 
 Manifest validator manifest-validator.appspot.com

    of PWAs pwa.rocks
  71. { "name": "Simple web app demo", "short_name": "Demo", "icons": [

    { "src": "icon-medium.png", "sizes": "96x96" },{ "src": "icon-large.png", "sizes": "192x192" } ], "theme_color": "#3F51B5", "background_color": "#F5F5F5", "display": "standalone", "orientation": "portrait", "start_url": "/simple-demo/?home=true" }
  72. @brucel Flipkart Lite ▪ 40% returning visitors week over week

    ▪ +63% conversions from Home screen visits
 ▪ 3x time spent on FlipKart Lite
  73. @brucel We want Flipkart Lite available on every phone over

    every flaky network in India “ Engagement + Reach - Amar Nagaram (Flipkart engineering)
  74. @brucel Progressive Web Apps ▪ live on the server so

    no update distribution lag
 ▪ require no app store or gatekeeper
 ▪ are a normal website on browsers such as Opera Mini, Safari, Windows phones
 ▪ searchable, indexable, linkable
 ▪ can work offline

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  80. Also with Service Worker ▪ Push Notifications
 ▪ Background Sync

  81. Responsive images

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  83. @brucel ▪ <picture> ▪ srcset attribute ▪ x descriptor ▪

    w descriptor ▪ sizes attribute Video, tutorials New HTML thingies
  84. Average Bytes per Page by Content Type Total 2296 kB

    Stylesheets 76 kB HTML 66 kB Images 1,457 kB Other 4 kB Video 203 kB Fonts 126 kB Scripts 358 kB Data: httparchive.org, 15 April 2016 (Alexa Top 1,000,000 Sites)
  85. @brucel Responsive images saved - Mike Babb 70%

  86. 500MB data: hours worked


  88. @brucel While cellular networks have improved… smartphone users are still

    facing issues as frequently as they did in 2013. “ Networks Notworks - Experience shapes mobile customer loyalty - Ericsson Consumer Labs (August 2016)

  90. @brucel

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  92. Meet Thor

  93. Stop! Hammer Time

  94. @brucel The average load time for mobile sites is 19

    seconds over 3G connections. 53% of mobile site visits are abandoned if pages take longer than 3 seconds to load. “ Testing in India - The need for mobile speed: How mobile latency impacts publisher revenue (Google Double- click)
  95. ad-blocking

  96. @brucel Opera Mini consumes on an average 14% less battery

    and 89% less data when compared to other mobile browsers. “ Testing in India - Cigniti Technologies (Chrome, UC browser, CM browser and UC Mini on WiFi, 2G and 3G networks in India, March April 2015)
  97. @brucel A third of Indian citizens, especially in the rural

    parts of the country remains without power, as does 6% of the urban population. During peak hours the shortage was 9.8 percent. “ Battery life matters - Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry (2012)
  98. @brucel Nearly 30 per cent of our annual smartphone unit

    sales have power banks bundled in, "Two years ago, less than 1 per cent of our annual smartphone sales had power banks bundled in." “ Battery life matters 2 - Business Insider (October 2015) (The Mobile Store, India's largest cellphone retailer.)
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  102. @brucel In India, only 96k of the 736k cell towers

    are 3G enabled ... only 35k of those towers have a fiber optic connection to the backbone, “ Single connection - India's mobile Internet: The revolution has begun Avdendus (2013)
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  104. Design considerations for developing markets

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  108. Tech constraints for lower- spec markets

  109. @brucel Everything happens on the server ▪ Everything needs user

    interaction ▪ Everything needs a server roundtrip ▪ JS on page load runs for 5 seconds ▪ JS-only APIs do NOT work More: Opera Mini and JavaScript.
  110. @brucel Design won't always be preserved ▪ No CSS rounded

    corners or gradients ▪ Animations (CSS/ SVG) show only first frame ▪ No web fonts ▪ Don't use icon fonts; use SVG Make SVG icons (even more!) responsive.
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  112. @brucel we've launched our first Holy Grail app into production!

    … It looks exactly the same as the app it replaced, however initial pageload feels drastically quicker “ Holy Grail App - AirBnB
  113. @brucel because we serve up real HTML instead of waiting

    for the client to download JavaScript before rendering. Plus, it is fully crawlable by search engines. … It feels 5x faster. “ Holy Grail App #2 - AirBnB
  114. Rise of The Smartphones

  115. @brucel India emerged as the world's third largest smartphone market

    after the U.S. and China. Total smartphone shipments are expected to increase to reach more than 150 million units in 2018. “ - Busiess Korea (8 May '15)
  116. @brucel Smartphone shipments to the Middle East and Africa saw

    unprecedented year-on-year growth of 83% in 2014… Feature phones have been hit hard … with shipments down 4.5% year on year in 2014. “ - International Data Corporation (IDC) (26 Apr '15)
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  118. @brucel Bruce’s law of Smartness™

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  121. @brucel

  122. @brucel Despite the fact that Africa has the lowest income

    per capita of any region, affordability was only identified as the most important barrier in one out of 13 markets in our survey. 
 “ Africa: not just affordability - GSMA Consumer barriers to mobile internet adoption in Africa - July 2016
  123. @brucel Network coverage was not perceived as an issue in

    most countries, reflecting the increasing availability of mobile networks. However, mobile broadband (3G or 4G) coverage remains low in most parts of Africa. 
 “ Africa: not just networks - GSMA Consumer barriers to mobile internet adoption in Africa - July 2016
  124. @brucel A lack of awareness and locally relevant content was

    considered the most important barrier to internet adoption in North Africa and the second biggest barrier in Sub-Saharan Africa. 
 “ Lack of awareness/ content. - GSMA Consumer barriers to mobile internet adoption in Africa - July 2016
  125. @brucel A lack of digital skills was identified as the

    biggest barrier to internet adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa and the second biggest in North Africa. 
 “ Lack of digital skills - GSMA Consumer barriers to mobile internet adoption in Africa - July 2016
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  127. @brucel A lack of awareness and locally relevant content was

    the most commonly cited barrier to internet adoption: 72% of non-internet users across the six survey markets felt this was a barrier. 
 “ Asia - GSMA Consumer barriers to mobile internet adoption in Asia - January 2016
  128. @brucel 50% of websites worldwide are in English, a language

    spoken by only 10% of speakers in the survey countries. By way of contrast, only 2% of websites worldwide are in Mandarin and less than 0.1% are in Hindi. 
 “ Asia - GSMA Consumer barriers to mobile internet adoption in Asia - January 2016
  129. @brucel In Africa, 7 in 10 people who do not

    use the internet say they just don’t know how to use it, and almost 4 in 10 say they do not know what the internet is. 
 In high-income Poland and the Slovak Republic, one- fifth of adults cannot use a computer. “ Digital illiteracy? - World Bank
  130. @brucel 41% do not use the internet at all, 53%

    do not have broadband access at home, and 23% do not use cell phones. “ American seniors - Older Adults and Technology Use (Pew Research Centre, April 2014)
  131. @brucel

  132. @brucel Video by ClubInternet, Pakistan. 
 Used by kind permission.

    http://clubinternet.co/ https://vimeo.com/116787124
  133. @brucel

  134. Digital Divide: Africa 2011-12 Individuals who use the internet (%)

    0 5 10 15 20 25 Bottom Upper
 40% 60% Mature Young
 (45+) (15-24) Rural Urban Women Men
 Gender Location Age Income distribution
  135. @brucel Rural mobile internet users grew by a staggering 93%

    between December 2014-Dec 2015, yet only nine per cent of the hinterland has access to the technology. In comparison, 53% of urban areas had mobile internet connectivity and grew at 71% during the same period. “ Digital Divide (India) - Times of India, 3 Feb 1016
  136. @brucel Making the internet universally accessible and affordable should be

    a global priority. “ World Bank
  137. @brucel In Nigeria, the data needed to watch just 2

    minutes of online video a day can cost more than sending a child to school for a month. “ Nigeria - How To Make Internet Affordable
  138. Digital products are taxed as luxury goods Import tariffs (%)

    0 5 10 15 20 C uba C am bodia Argentina Brazil C am eroon C entral 
 African R ep. C had C ongo, D em . 
 R ep. G abon Liberia Belarus M adagascar Sam oa M ozam bique C hile Computers Laptops Computers and laptops
  139. Digital products are taxed as luxury goods Import tariffs (%)

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Fiji Pakistan Sam oa D om inican 
 R epublic C abo Verde Bangladesh Zim babw e Antigua and
 Barbuda Barbados Belize D om inica G renada G uyana Jam aica Mobile phones Mobile phones
  140. @brucel

  141. @brucel • Settle on fair and transparent ICT taxes. •

    Get governments and donors to step up efforts. • Agree on “affordability”: 1 GB for 2% • Invest in public access solutions. • Make getting women online a top priority. Fast Africa
  142. @brucel Online work can prove particularly beneficial for women, youth,

    older workers, and the disabled, who may prefer the flexibility of working from home or working flexible hours. “ Online work
  143. @brucel In India… women are 62% less likely to use

    the internet than men. Many of the underlying reasons for this – affordability, skills and content – are the same as for men; they are simply felt more acutely by women. “ Gender divide - GSMA Consumer barriers to mobile internet adoption in Africa - July 2016
  144. @brucel Rural Internet users are today almost exclusively male (98%)

    “ Rural India’s gender divide - Boston Consulting Group - The Rising Connected Consumer in Rural India July 2016
  145. Women 25% Men 75% Total nonagricultural employment Women 44% Men

    56% Online work (Elance) Web empowers women
  146. Online work: Most important advantages Able to earn extra money

    Higher chances of getting higher earnings than in jobs offline Able to work from home 
 and work flexible hours Reduce time and 
 cost for job search Provide access to the 
 job market which 
 was limited before Higher chances of 
 getting a job that matches 
 my skills and interests 0 10 20 30 40 50 Men Women Percent of respondents
  147. Online work: Most important disadvantages Payment is not 

    enough Friends and family 
 do not understand 
 what I am doing Do not have any 
 social benefits Require access to an 
 online payment system Require access to internet Require internet and 
 computer skills The job is temporary, 
 and it is not for a 
 long-term career 0 10 20 30 40 Men Women Percent of respondents
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  149. @brucel The government of the Indian state of Kerala set

    up the Kudumbashree project to outsource information technology services to cooperatives of women from poor families; 90 percent of the women had not previously worked outside the home. “ “Prosperity of the family”
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  152. @brucel ▪ Progressive Enhancement ▪ Feature detection ▪ Compress images,

    use responsive images ▪ Performance matters! ▪ Consider a Progressive Web App ▪ Test in proxy browsers What can YOU do?
  153. @brucel Access to the internet is critical, but not sufficient

    “ World Bank:
  154. @brucel the full benefits of the information and communications transformation

    will not be realized unless countries continue to improve their business climate, invest in people’s education and health, and promote good governance. “
  155. @brucel Developing countries are home to 94% of the global

    offline population. “ - State of Connectivity 2014, internet.org
  156. @brucel an increase in Internet maturity similar to the one

    experienced in mature countries over the past 5 years creates an increase in real GDP per capita of $500 on average during this period. “ Internet matters - The Net’s sweeping impact on growth, jobs, and prosperity (McKinsey Global Institute)
  157. @brucel It took the Industrial Revolution of the 19th century

    50 years to produce the same result. “ Internet matters - The Net’s sweeping impact on growth, jobs, and prosperity (McKinsey Global Institute)
  158. @brucel THX! xxx

  159. @brucel Resources ▪ World Bank, Digital Dividends report http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/wdr2016 ▪

    Population forecast video by Hans Rosling (raw data from United Nations) https://www.gapminder.org/videos/dont-panic-the- facts-about-population/ ▪ More than half of humanity lives within this circle (Washington Post)) https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/ 2013/05/07/map-more-than-half-of-humanity-lives-within-this-circle/ ▪ Hours worked for 500MB data plan ▪ By 2011, 56% of Bangladeshi households had access to a mobile phone mhealth.jmir.org/article/viewFile/mhealth_v3i1e24/2 ▪ Indonesia: social media capital of the world Indonesia #3 nation on Twitter, #4 on Facebook https://ondeviceresearch.com/blog/ indonesia-social-media-capital-world ▪ Myanmar: When a SIM Card Goes From $2,000 to $1.50 www.bloomberg.com/bw/articles/2014-09-29/myanmar-opens-its- mobile-phone-market-cuing-carrier-frenzy ▪ Population and GDP figures from CIA World Fact Book https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ ▪ Stats on page size/ images ratio from httparchive.org ▪ Opera’s work to reduce Chromium’s memory use https://dev.opera.com/blog/reducing-memory-use/ ▪ GSMA report on Africa (https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/research/2016/07/consumer-barriers-to-mobile-internet-adoption-in- africa/568/) Asia (https://www.gsmaintelligence.com/research/2016/06/consumer-barriers-to-mobile-internet-adoption-in-asia/ 559/) ▪ Fast Africa: How Do We Get FAST Internet? (Policy Advice) https://webwewant.org/fast-africa/toolkit/get-fast-internet-policy- advice/ ▪ McKinsey report www.mckinsey.com/insights/high_tech_telecoms_internet/internet_matters
  160. @brucel Picture sources ▪ Me by HTML sign in Tokyo

    by Doug Schepers (@shepazu), used with permission. All rights reserved. ▪ World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends www.worldbank.org/en/ publication/wdr2016 ▪ “Is Google usable” video - clubinternet.co; used with permission. All rights reserved. https://vimeo.com/ 116787124 ▪ Overloaded truck, monks buying phones, packed tuk-tuk, Bangkok cables, Cambodian selfie boy Bruce Lawson. All rights reserved. ▪ Putri photo used with Putri's permission; all rights reserved. ▪ Proxy browser market share graph by Scentia Mobile, used with permission. http://data.wurfl.io/MOVR/ pdf/2016_q1/MOVR_2016_q1.pdf
  161. @brucel Maps ▪ True size of Africa by Kai Krause

    (Public Domain) ▪ Map of Indonesia Single Color by FreeVectorMaps.com ▪ Map of India Single Color by FreeVectorMaps.com ▪ Map of Bangladesh Single Color by FreeVectorMaps.com ▪ Map of Myanmar Single Color by FreeVectorMaps.com ▪ Map of China Single Color by FreeVectorMaps.com ▪ Map of Africa Single Color by FreeVectorMaps.com ▪ Map of Asia Single Color by FreeVectorMaps.com