enlists a variety of freelancers, paid or unpaid, to work on a speciﬁc task or problem. • Jeﬀ Howe’s “white paper” version: the act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undeﬁned, generally large group of people in the form of an open call. • Howe’s “sound byte” version: the application of Open Source principles to ﬁelds outside of software. • “Mashable” version: distributed problem solving.
help people work together — and not as a technical toy. The ultimate goal of the Web is to support and improve our weblike existence in the world. We clump into families, associations, and companies. We develop trust across the miles and distrust around the corner.” —Tim Berners Lee
popular among research laboratories, universities •DARPA funds BSD to provide a version of UNIX with networking capabilities for ARPANet •AT&T’s license fee reaches $200,000 •BSD lives on in several operating systems today