condition of a human or animal that has learned to behave helplessly, failing to respond even though there are opportunities for it to help itself by avoiding unpleasant circumstances or by gaining positive rewards.
that their own opinions, beliefs, preferences, values and habits are 'normal' and that others also think the same way that they do. This tends to lead to the perception of a consensus that does not exist, a 'false consensus'.
of learned helplessness in dogs. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 256-262. Rosenthal, R., and Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils' intellectual development'. New York: Rinehart and Winston. ISBN: 1904424066 Elton Mayo (1933). The Human Problems of an Industrialized Civilization. ISBN: 0415604230 Ross, L (1977). The false consensus effect: An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 13. ISSN 00221031. Gettier problem: http://www.ditext.com/gettier/gettier.html, http://www.iep.utm.edu/epistemo/ Sources: