Deep Dive on Containers

643cd45dcfa73b072018046e39ed36d1?s=47 Frank Munz
October 02, 2019

Deep Dive on Containers

Learn how to deploy and manage containers at scale in the cloud.
This session covers everything from Linux container internals to Amazon Elastic Container Services with and without Fargate,
Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service and AWS App Mesh.

643cd45dcfa73b072018046e39ed36d1?s=128

Frank Munz

October 02, 2019
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Transcript

  1. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All

    rights reserved. S U M M I T Dr Frank Munz Senior Technical Evangelist Amazon Web Services Deep Dive on Containers Brian Bordini Cloud Architect Richemont
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T About me • Software Architect / DevOps Engineer • Technical Evangelist @ AWS • Published an AWS book • Containers, serverless and a sprinkle of ML & big / fast data @frankmunz
  3. S U M M I T © 2019, Amazon Web

    Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Level – 300 “Sessions dive deeper into the selected topic. Presenters assume that the audience has some familiarity with the topic, but may or may not have direct experience implementing a similar solution”
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T Container Amazon Elastic Container Service Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service AWS App Mesh Brian Bordini, Richemont Agenda
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    Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T Linux Kernel Container runtime Container 1 Container 2 Container 3 Container 4 Container 5 Container 6 Control Groups Namespaces Union filesystem
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T What can you use cgroups for? • Linux kernel feature that defines resource limits, priotization, control and accounting for processes • Implemented by subsystems • Typically mounted at /sys/fs/cgroup or /cgroup Examples of subsystems: • Memory • CPU time • Block I/O • Number of discrete processes (pids) • CPU & memory pinning • Freezer (used by docker pause) • Devices • Network priority
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T And namespaces? • Partition kernel resources like hostname, proc IDs etc. • Namespaces are visible in /proc organised by PID • Files are symbolic links to the namespace $ readlink /proc/$$/ns/* cgroup:[4026531835] ipc:[4026531839] mnt:[4026531840] net:[4026531993] pid:[4026531836] user:[4026531837] uts:[4026531838]
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T Network namespace • Docker uses a separate network namespace per container • Multiple containers can share a network namespace, used with K8s pods and Amazon ECS task • Improve isolation by creating dedicated network interfaces: ECS awsvpc networking, EKS amazon-vpc-cni-k8s plugin
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T Union Filesystems • Used by Docker to implement layers • Efficient use of storage
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    Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T Container Base Images
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T Go • Modern language • Docker is implemented in Go • Native concurrency • Low startup time • Small, static binaries • Easy cross compilation
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T Java – Open Source Cloud Native Stacks Polyglot, declarative, reactive, microservices frameworks like Micronaut or Quarkus based on Graal VM. • Dead code eliminiation • Aggressive Advance of Time Compliation (AOT) • Native image generation • Docker and Kubernetes YAML file generation • Startup times in milliseconds https://quarkus.io/vision/container-first
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    Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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    rights reserved.
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    Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T “Just launch 10 copies of my container distributed across three availability zones and connect them to this load balancer” X 10
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    Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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    rights reserved. Amazon ECS Easiest way to deploy and manage containers at scale Integration with entire AWS platform ALB, Auto Scaling, Batch, Elastic Beanstalk, CloudFormation, CloudTrail, CloudWatch Events, CloudWatch Logs, CloudWatch Metrics, ECR, EC2 Spot, IAM, NLB, Parameter Store, and VPC Scales to support clusters of any size Service integrations (like ALB and NLB) are at container level 1 2 3
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    rights reserved. ECS EC2 vs. ECS Fargate EC2 Fargate Managed by Customer AWS Storage Ephemeral or Persistent Only Ephemeral Sidecar pattern Yes Yes Network Mode Bridge or VPC Mode VPC Mode Daemons Yes No SSH into host Yes No Privileged Containers Yes No
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T Task Definition: CPU & MEMORY SPECIFICATION { "family": "scorekeep", "cpu": "1 vCpu", "memory": "2 gb", "containerDefinitions": [ { "name":“scorekeep-frontend", "image":"xxx.dkr.ecr.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/fe“, "cpu": 256, "memoryReservation": 512 }, { "name":“scorekeep-api", "image":"xxx.dkr.ecr.us-east-1.amazonaws.com/api", "cpu": 768, "memoryReservation": 512 } ] } Units • CPU : cpu-units. 1 vCPU = 1024 cpu-units • Memory : MB Task Level Resources: • Total Cpu/Memory across all containers • Required fields • Billing axis Container Level Resources: • Defines sharing of task resources among containers • Optional fields Task Level Resources Container Level Resources Task Definition Snippet
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    rights reserved. S U M M I T CONFIGURABLE NETWORKING 172.31.0.0/16 Subnet 172.31.1.0/24 Internet Other Entities in VPC EC2 LB DB etc. Private IP 172.31.1.164 Explicit control for your containers networking: • Subnet placement, specific IP address ranges • Private IP address (optional public IP address) • Security group inbound access only from specific sources on specific ports Under the hood : • We create an Elastic Network Interface (ENI) • The ENI is allocated a private IP from your subnet • The ENI is attached to your task • Your task now has a private IP from your subnet! • Optionally you can also give it a public IP address if its in a public subnet with internet access ENI Fargate Task Public / 208.57.73.13 /
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    rights reserved. AWS CDK Contribute Code AWS Cloud Development Kit Define cloud infrastructure and reusable components in “real code“ and provision through AWS CloudFormation Stack(s) CDK Application Construct Construct CloudFormation template Resources
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    rights reserved. ECS Pattern: Load Balanced Fargate Service Basic constructs: Cluster, Task Definition, Task, Service, etc. Common architecture patterns: load balanced service …this TypeScript generates 568 CloudFormation LOC
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    rights reserved. CDK Ressource: https://garbe.io/ Philipp Garbe AWS Container Hero
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    Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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    rights reserved. “Run Kubernetes for me.”
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    rights reserved. Availability Zone 1 Availability Zone 2 Availability Zone 3 Kubectl Amazon EKS Architecture CloudWatch Container Insights for Amazon EKS and ECS
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    rights reserved. Amazon EKS Features Bring your own instances / types Packer configuration for building a custom EKS AMI Market place instances with Tensorflow and NVIDIA packages CloudWatch Container Insights for EKS and ECS
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    rights reserved. https://eksctl.io/ Tip: Easy way to create an EKS cluster: $ eksctl create cluster --name meshtest --appmesh-access
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    rights reserved.
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    Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
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    rights reserved. OSSC libraries: code changes required, language specific Service Mesh: decentral, language agnostic, polyglot, light-weight https://www.infoq.com/articles/microservices-post-kubernetes Need for a Service Mesh
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    rights reserved. … EKS is open source, upstream Kubernetes and supports Istio / Envoy
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    rights reserved. But you asked us for more…
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    rights reserved. A mesh for all compute services
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    rights reserved. App Mesh works across compute services Amazon ECS AWS Fargate Amazon EKS Amazon EC2 Kubernetes on EC2 Based on Envoy proxy It‘s free (you only pay for resources used)
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    rights reserved. Demo: Install AppMesh # AppMesh Installation with Grafana/Prometheus # and Envoy, AWS X-Ray daemon sidecar # and StatsD Prometheus exporter $ helm install -n aws-appmesh \ --namespace appmesh-system \ https://github.com/PaulMaddox/ \ aws-appmesh-helm/releases/ \ latest/download/aws-appmesh.tgz https://github.com/PaulMaddox/aws-appmesh-helm
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    rights reserved. Install Demo App # create namespace & enable auto-injection $ kubectl create ns appmesh-demo $ kubectl label namespace appmesh-demo appmesh.k8s.aws/sidecarInjectorWebhook=enabled # deploy the demo $ helm install -n aws-appmesh-demo \ --namespace appmesh-demo \ https://github.com/.../aws-appmesh-demo.tgz
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    rights reserved. Observability: AWS X-Ray Service Map
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    rights reserved. AWS X-Ray: Traces
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    rights reserved. Open-Source Grafana: AppMesh Overview
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    rights reserved. Public Container Road Map https://github.com/aws/containers-roadmap
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    Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
  46. A journey in Kubernetes

  47. Who Am I ? • Developer converted to Ops and

    Architecture • Working since one year with Kubernetes • "In the cloud" since two years • Worked in banking and insurance industries • Now in luxury industry (Geneva and Shanghai) Twitter: @brnmori LinkedIn: Brian Bordini
  48. Challenges of this journey A web product with a global

    user base • Customer satisfaction • Time to market • Unpredictable load • Security and compliance • Cost efficiency Chéserex, Switzerland
  49. Availability Zone Amazon Simple Queue Service Amazon Elastic Container Service

    for Kubernetes Amazon Aurora Amazon ElastiCache CDN Load Balancer Customers Availability Zone Amazon Aurora Amazon ElastiCache Auto Scaling Groups Instances Spot instances Spot instances Instances Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) DB group AWS Direct Connect Architecture
  50. 23 Pizzas Team 8 Developers 1 Quality Assurance Engineer 1

    Lead Architect 1 Solution Architect / Automation Engineer 1 Product Owner 1 Business Analyst 1 Agile Coach
  51. Customer satisfaction, Time to Market Fast provisioning and low operational

    overhead with managed services Repeatability and consistency with Infrastructure as Code Seamless experience from dev machine to production with Docker
  52. Unpredictable Load First worldwide launch, design for elasticity and simplicity

    Elastic horizontal workloads with Amazon EKS Workers AutoScaling Groups with stateless Kubernetes Pods CDN and Amazon ElastiCache Redis for caching
  53. Security Encryption at rest and in-transit with one click by

    template Automated certificate rotation for AWS services Accounts centrally managed in IAM
  54. Cost Optimization Spot Instances save up to 70-80% compared to

    On-Demand Shutdown non-production services in non-business hours Purchase Reserved Instances
  55. Time Line January 2018 • project inception March 2018 •

    start with AWS Container Service July 2018 • installation of self managed Kubernetes January 2019 • switch to AWS EKS May 2019 • go-live
  56. Outcome Customers satisfied Scalable infrastructure with fewer cost than on-premises

    Team ownership from inception to production Faster time to market with better quality than traditional deployment Reusable infrastructure modules and CI/CD pipelines for future projects
  57. What next Evaluation to change event processing to Amazon Kafka

  58. Q & A Any feedback is welcome J You can

    reach me on: • LinkedIn: Brian Bordini • Twitter: @brnmori
  59. © 2019, Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its Affiliates. All

    rights reserved. Summary • Architect wisely (Serverless vs ECS vs EKS vs EC2) • Running K8s is hard, use a managed K8s service • AWS App Mesh is free to use and works across compute services
  60. Thank you! S U M M I T © 2019,

    Amazon Web Services, Inc. or its affiliates. All rights reserved. frankmunz @frankmunz https://medium.com/@frank.munz (Blog) https://speakerdeck.com/fmunz (Slides) !