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Infrared transmission spectroscopy of direct bonded Si compound optics

gully
November 11, 2013
150

Infrared transmission spectroscopy of direct bonded Si compound optics

Immersion gratings are made from monolithic hockey-puck sized Silicon boules. The massive size presents challenges when using conventional semiconductor equipment designed for DVD-sized Si wafers. An alternative to monolithic samples is to bond Si wafers directly to larger substrates. This presentation gives the history of Si direct bonding, and concludes with the introduction of a new optical technique to evaluate the quality of the bond interface.

gully

November 11, 2013
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Transcript

  1. bonded Si optics
    gully
    monday, november 11, 2013

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  2. Key ideas
    History of Si bonding Literature
    How to directly bond Si-Si
    How to measure bonded Si optics
    – IR imaging
    – Cary5000
    – Matrix method

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  3. Shimbo+ 1986
    Stengl+ 1988
    Lehmann+ 1989
    Mitani+ 1990
    Mitani & Göselle
    1992
    Feijoó+ 1994
    Himi+ 1994
    Reiche+ 1995
    Göselle+ 1995
    Göselle+ 1995
    Reading the literature offers guidance on how to bond silicon pucks together.

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  4. Takagi+ 1996
    Reiche+ 1996
    Takagi+ 1998
    Han+ 2000
    Gracias+ 2001
    Greco+ 2001
    Litton+ 2001
    Haisma+ 2007
    Göselle & Tong
    1992
    Reading the literature offers guidance on how to bond silicon pucks together.

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  5. Bäcklund, Ljungberg, Söderbärg
    1992
    Journal of Micromechanical Engineering
    A suggested mechanism for silicon direct bonding from studying hydrophilic and
    hydrophobic surfaces
    They measure the bond energy in Joules per square meter
    (J/m2).
    The bond energy measurement is from “crack
    propagation”, W.P Maszara et al. 1998, Journal of
    Applied Physics.
    They find bond strength is:
    greater for hydrophilic Si for annealing 21 < T (°C) < 400
    greater for hydrophobic Si for annealing T (°C) > 400
    Hydrophilic bonds at room temperature are “reversible”
    The authors explain the physical processes going on.

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  6. Mitani and Gösele
    1992
    Journal of Electronic Materials
    Wafer BondingTechnology for Silicon-on-Insulator Applications: A Review
    An unconventional use of wafer bonding is the reversible room temperature bonding
    for the protection of polished wafer surfaces against organic and particle
    contamination.
    Annealing at T (°C) > 800.

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  7. For effective particle prevention, the initial bonding has to be performed in a clean room of
    class one or better quality right after chemical cleaning. Trapping of air can be
    prevented by propagating the bonding area radially from just one chosen contact
    point…
    …the most problems in wafer bonding is … particle-free bonding.
    This set-up allows wafer bonding without bubbles in a normal non-cleanroom laboratory
    environment by removing local particles between two silicon wafers, facing each other
    at a distance of about 1 mm, by deionized (DI) water flushing. The procedure of wafer
    bonding with using this micro-cleanroom setup completely eliminates particles and
    maintains particle-free surfaces once the wafers are cleaned and free from particles. So
    far, particle-free wafer bonding with up to 8 inch wafers has been realized in this
    micro-cleanroom setup.
    Mitani and Gösele
    1992
    cont…

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  8. 1 erg/cm2 = 0.001 J/m2
    Mitani and Gösele
    1992
    cont…

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  9. The bubbles tend to disappear if the annealing temperature is high enough.
    Lots of discussion on the origin of bubbles:
    water?
    hydrocarbons?
    Mitani and Gösele
    1992
    cont…

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  10. Mitani and Gösele
    1992
    cont…
    FZ wafers are better than CZ
    wafers, because oxygen
    diffuses into the Si in the FZ
    wafers

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  11. Mitani, Lehmann, Gosele
    1990
    IEEE Solid-state sensor workshop
    Bubble formation during silicon wafer bonding: causes and remedies

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  12. Mitani, Lehmann, Gosele
    1990

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  13. Hydrophilic bond chemistry Hydrophobic bond chemistry

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  14. High Resolution Electron
    Microscopy
    Of the bond interface
    It’s about 3 nm of Si-O-Si bonds
    Recall, this is after 1100 °C annealing
    The hydrophobic case has
    Si – F H – Si bonds,
    But occasionally has ‘oxide islands’
    Anyways, 3 nm of bond is negligible
    on our optical performance.
    Their MIRS technique raises the
    question of whether in double pass
    the column is enough to introduce
    subtle spectral features. I think ‘no’.
    (they have ~ 18 passes)

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  15. UT-JPL bonded Si optics 2012-2013

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  16. Experiments so far

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  17. Ash
    4.0 µm
    0.0
    1.0
    2.0
    3.0
    4.0
    VG03
    1.
    2.
    VG03

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  18. Experiments so far

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  19. Metrology for small gaps
    Cary5000 and Matrix method

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  20. Example 1: Double Side Polished (DSP), thick Si
    wafer at normal incidence
    •  Zeroth order assumption:
    •  A few subtle effects to consider:
    1)  Reflection is a function of nSi
    , which is a modest function of
    λ and temp: nSi
    =n(λ, T)
    2)  There will be multiple reflections within the substrate, since
    reflection loss is multiply retroreflected in the propagation
    direction
    3)  λ << d Incoherent
    4)  Absorption per unit length
    n
    Si
    ~ 3.48 at room temp
    R =
    (n −1)2
    (n +1)2
    ≈ 0.31

    T
    net
    = T2 = (1− R) × (1− R) ≈ 0.48
    Si
    Air Air

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  21. 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400
    h (nm)
    0.0
    0.2
    0.4
    0.6
    0.8
    1.0
    Relative Transmission
    Example 1: Double Side Polished (DSP), thick Si
    wafer at normal incidence
    Absorption sets in
    at λ = 1150 nm
    The red line is the measurement. It agrees very well with the prediction for
    multiple reflections within the substrate, shown in black - - - -
    Zeroth order
    only: Tnet
    ~ T2
    Multiple reflections are a
    ~10% effect!
    Must include up to 3rd
    order terms!

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  22. 1)  The etalon is characterized by the
    Fresnel reflectivity of its sidewalls, and
    the gap size
    2)  The reflectivity is encapsulated in the
    coefficient of finesse, FSi-Air
    ~2.5
    3)  Multiple reflections within the substrate
    will interfere to make a λdependent
    Transmission spectrum Te
    (λ)
    4)  d ~ λ Coherent
    5)  Lossless: Re
    (λ) = 1 - Te
    (λ)
    Example 2: Fabry Pèrot etalon
    Air gap immersed in Si, normal incidence
    Re
    (λ)
    Air
    Si Si
    Te
    (λ)
    d

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  23. 1)  There will be dozens of permutations of
    reflections and transmission
    2)  The intermediate interface can be
    treated as a black box with a etalon
    reflection and transmission: Re
    (λ) and
    Te
    (λ)
    3)  The interface walls can be treated as a
    black box with Fresnel reflection and
    transmission: Rn
    (λ) and Tn
    (λ)
    4)  Then apply wave transfer matrix
    technique
    Example 3: Fabry Pèrot etalon
    Air gap immersed in Si, normal incidence, with
    incoherent multiple reflections from Si puck walls
    Re
    (λ) Te
    (λ)
    Rn
    (λ) Tn
    (λ)

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  24. Example 3: Fabry Pèrot etalon
    Air gap immersed in Si, normal incidence, with
    incoherent multiple reflections from Si puck walls
    2007 Saleh and Teich Fundamentals of Photonics

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  25. Example 3: Fabry Pèrot etalon
    Air gap immersed in Si, normal incidence, with
    incoherent multiple reflections from Si puck walls
    Re
    (λ) Te
    (λ)
    Rn
    (λ) Tn
    (λ) Rn
    (λ) Tn
    (λ)
    Rn
    (λ) Tn
    (λ) Rn
    (λ) Tn
    (λ)
    Example 1 revisited: DSP thick Si puck at normal incidence
    ** n = nSi
    = n(λ)

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  26. 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400
    Λ nm
    0.1
    0.2
    0.3
    0.4
    0.5
    0.6
    Trans
    Model Fabry Perot Transmission; 3960 nm Air gap
    Part VG03 measured
    Transfer Matrix d3960 nm
    DSP Si measured
    DSP Si prediction

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  27. VG15 9/16/2013
    1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400
    h (nm)
    0.80
    0.85
    0.90
    0.95
    1.00
    Transmission
    Measurement
    +/ï 0.3%
    Prediction
    VG09 9/16/2013
    1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400
    h (nm)
    0.80
    0.85
    0.90
    0.95
    1.00
    Transmission
    Measurement
    +/ï 0.3%
    Prediction

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  28. VG08 9/16/2013
    1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400
    h (nm)
    0.80
    0.85
    0.90
    0.95
    1.00
    Transmission
    Measurement
    +/ï 0.3%
    Prediction
    VG07 9/16/2013
    1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400
    h (nm)
    0.80
    0.85
    0.90
    0.95
    1.00
    Transmission
    Measurement
    +/ï 0.3%
    Prediction

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