an M × N image x[m, n] X[k, l] = α(k)β(l) M−1 m=0 N−1 n=0 x[m, n] cos π M m + 1 2 k cos π N n + 1 2 l where k = 0, . . . , M − 1, l = 0, . . . , N − 1, and the normalization factors: α(k) = 1 M for k = 0 2 M for k = 1, . . . , M − 1 , β(l) = 1 N for l = 0 2 N for l = 1, . . . , N − 1 • The 2D DCT of an (8 × 8) image x[m, n] X(k, l) = 1 4 7 m=0 7 n=0 x(m, n) · cos (2m + 1)kπ 16 · cos (2n + 1)lπ 16 NHSM - 4th year: Digital Image Processing - Frequency Processing (Week 4,5) - M. Hachama (

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