m014 m1524 m2534 m3544 m4554 m5564 m65 mu f04 f514 f014 f1524 <chr> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> <int> 1 AD 1989 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2 AD 1990 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 3 AD 1991 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 4 AD 1992 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 5 AD 1993 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 6 AD 1994 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 7 AD 1996 NA NA 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 NA NA NA 0 1 8 AD 1997 NA NA 0 0 1 2 2 1 6 NA NA NA 0 1 9 AD 1998 NA NA 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 NA NA NA NA NA 10 AD 1999 NA NA 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 NA NA NA 0 0 11 AD 2000 NA NA 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 NA NA NA NA NA 12 AD 2001 NA NA 0 NA NA 2 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 13 AD 2002 NA NA 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 NA NA NA 0 1 14 AD 2003 NA NA 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 NA NA NA 0 1 15 AD 2004 NA NA 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 NA NA NA 0 0 16 AD 2005 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 17 AD 2006 0 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 # ... with 5,752 more rows, and 6 more variables: f2534 <int>, f3544 <int>, f4554 <int>, # f5564 <int>, f65 <int>, fu <int> Messy data has a varied shape What are the variables in this dataset? (Hint: f = female, u = unknown, 1524 = 15-24)
n <chr> <int> <chr> <chr> <int> 1 AD 1996 f 014 0 2 AD 1996 f 1524 1 3 AD 1996 f 2534 1 4 AD 1996 f 3544 0 5 AD 1996 f 4554 0 6 AD 1996 f 5564 1 7 AD 1996 f 65 0 8 AD 1996 m 014 0 9 AD 1996 m 1524 0 10 AD 1996 m 2534 0 # ... with 35,740 more rows Tidy data has a uniform shape
ggpoint() %>% ggsave("mtcars.pdf", width = 8, height = 6) So you can use the pipe with ggplot1 ggplot2 never would have existed if I’d discovered the pipe 10 years earlier!
t baking powder 3 T unsalted butter ½ cup whole milk 1 egg ¼ t pure vanilla extract Preheat oven to 350°F. Put the ﬂour, sugar, baking powder, salt, and butter in a freestanding electric mixer with a paddle attachment and beat on slow speed until you get a sandy consistency and everything is combined. Whisk the milk, egg, and vanilla together in a pitcher, then slowly pour about half into the ﬂour mixture, beat to combine, and turn the mixer up to high speed to get rid of any lumps. Turn the mixer down to a slower speed and slowly pour in the remaining milk mixture. Continue mixing for a couple of more minutes until the batter is smooth but do not overmix. Spoon the batter into paper cases until 2/3 full and bake in the preheated oven for 20-25 minutes, or until the cake bounces back when touched. Vanilla cupcakes The hummingbird bakery cookbook
a scant ¾ cup sugar 1 ½ t baking powder 3 T unsalted butter ½ cup whole milk 1 egg ¼ t pure vanilla extract Preheat oven to 350°F. Put the ﬂour, cocoa, sugar, baking powder, salt, and butter in a freestanding electric mixer with a paddle attachment and beat on slow speed until you get a sandy consistency and everything is combined. Whisk the milk, egg, and vanilla together in a pitcher, then slowly pour about half into the ﬂour mixture, beat to combine, and turn the mixer up to high speed to get rid of any lumps. Turn the mixer down to a slower speed and slowly pour in the remaining milk mixture. Continue mixing for a couple of more minutes until the batter is smooth but do not overmix. Spoon the batter into paper cases until 2/3 full and bake in the preheated oven for 20-25 minutes, or until the cake bounces back when touched. Chocolate cupcakes The hummingbird bakery cookbook
a scant ¾ cup sugar 1 ½ t baking powder 3 T unsalted butter ½ cup whole milk 1 egg ¼ t pure vanilla extract Preheat oven to 350°F. Put the ﬂour, cocoa, sugar, baking powder, salt, and butter in a freestanding electric mixer with a paddle attachment and beat on slow speed until you get a sandy consistency and everything is combined. Whisk the milk, egg, and vanilla together in a pitcher, then slowly pour about half into the ﬂour mixture, beat to combine, and turn the mixer up to high speed to get rid of any lumps. Turn the mixer down to a slower speed and slowly pour in the remaining milk mixture. Continue mixing for a couple of more minutes until the batter is smooth but do not overmix. Spoon the batter into paper cases until 2/3 full and bake in the preheated oven for 20-25 minutes, or until the cake bounces back when touched. Chocolate cupcakes The hummingbird bakery cookbook
t baking powder 3 T unsalted butter ½ cup whole milk 1 egg ¼ t pure vanilla extract Preheat oven to 350°F. Put the ﬂour, sugar, baking powder, salt, and butter in a freestanding electric mixer with a paddle attachment and beat on slow speed until you get a sandy consistency and everything is combined. Whisk the milk, egg, and vanilla together in a pitcher, then slowly pour about half into the ﬂour mixture, beat to combine, and turn the mixer up to high speed to get rid of any lumps. Turn the mixer down to a slower speed and slowly pour in the remaining milk mixture. Continue mixing for a couple of more minutes until the batter is smooth but do not overmix. Spoon the batter into paper cases until 2/3 full and bake in the preheated oven for 20-25 minutes, or until the cake bounces back when touched. Vanilla cupcakes The hummingbird bakery cookbook
butter 120ml milk 1 egg 0.25 t pure vanilla extract Preheat oven to 170°C. Put the ﬂour, sugar, baking powder, salt, and butter in a freestanding electric mixer with a paddle attachment and beat on slow speed until you get a sandy consistency and everything is combined. Whisk the milk, egg, and vanilla together in a pitcher, then slowly pour about half into the ﬂour mixture, beat to combine, and turn the mixer up to high speed to get rid of any lumps. Turn the mixer down to a slower speed and slowly pour in the remaining milk mixture. Continue mixing for a couple of more minutes until the batter is smooth but do not overmix. Spoon the batter into paper cases until 2/3 full and bake in the preheated oven for 20-25 minutes, or until the cake bounces back when touched. Vanilla cupcakes 1. Convert units The hummingbird bakery cookbook
120ml milk 1 egg 0.25 t vanilla Beat ﬂour, sugar, baking powder, salt, and butter until sandy. Whisk milk, egg, and vanilla. Mix half into ﬂour mixture until smooth (use high speed). Beat in remaining half. Mix until smooth. Bake 20-25 min at 170°C. Vanilla cupcakes 2. Rely on domain knowledge The hummingbird bakery cookbook
ingredients. Mix half into dry until smooth (use high speed). Beat in remaining half. Mix until smooth. Bake 20-25 min at 170°C. Vanilla cupcakes 3. Use variables 120g ﬂour 140g sugar 1.5 t baking powder 40g butter 120ml milk 1 egg 0.25 t vanilla The hummingbird bakery cookbook
milk 1 egg 0.25 t vanilla Beat dry ingredients + butter until sandy. Whisk together wet ingredients. Mix half into dry until smooth (use high speed). Beat in remaining half. Mix until smooth. Bake 20-25 min at 170°C. Cupcakes 4. Extract out common code 100g ﬂour 20g cocoa 140g sugar 1.5t baking powder 40g butter 120ml milk 1 egg 0.25 t vanilla Vanilla Chocolate
one ever R'ed / To tidy them is my real test / To model them is my cause I'll import from across the web/ Searching GitHub and CRAN/ Each Tidyverse package gets me closer/ to results I'll understand Tidyverse! Gotta wrangle/ It's R and me/ I know it's my destiny/ Tidyverse! Hadley - you're my best friend/ With tidy data from end to end/ Tidyverse! Gotta wrangle/ A package so new/ Pipes and data ﬁrst will pull us through/ You teach me and I'll teach you/ Tidyverse! Gotta catch’em all Tidyverse theme song, by Sean Kross