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How to Write Robust Python Code

How to Write Robust Python Code

HayaoSuzuki

May 29, 2023
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  1. ݎ࿚ͳ Python ίʔυΛॻ͘ํ๏
    ʰϩόετ PythonʱΛಡ΋͏
    Hayao Suzuki
    BPStudy#189
    May 29, 2023

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  2. Who am I ?
    ͓લ୭Α
    ໊લ Hayao Suzukiʢླ໦ɹॣʣ
    Twitter @CardinalXaro
    ࢓ࣄ Software Developer @ BeProud Inc.
    › גࣜձࣾϏʔϓϥ΢υ
    › IT ษڧձࢧԉαʔϏε connpass
    › ΦϯϥΠϯֶशαʔϏε PyQ
    › γεςϜ։ൃͷͨΊͷυΩϡϝϯταʔϏε Tracery
    › 2023 ೥ 5 ݄ 23 ೔ʹ૑ཱ 17 प೥Λܴ͑ͨ
    2 / 46

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  3. Who am I ?
    ؂༁ٕͨ͠ज़ॻ
    › ϩόετ Python(O’Reilly Japan) New!
    › ೖ໳ Python 3 ୈ 2 ൛ (O’Reilly Japan)
    ࠪಡٕͨ͠ज़ॻʢൈਮʣ
    › Effective Python ୈ 2 ൛ (O’Reilly Japan)
    › ϚΠΫϩϑϩϯτΤϯυ (O’Reilly Japan)
    › ϚΠΫϩαʔϏεΞʔΩςΫνϟ ୈ 2 ൛ (O’Reilly Japan)
    › SQL Ͱ͸͡ΊΔσʔλ෼ੳ (O’Reilly Japan) New!
    https://xaro.hatenablog.jp/ ʹϦετ͕͋Γ·͢ɻ
    3 / 46

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  4. Who am I ?
    ൃදϦετʢൈਮʣ
    › ϨΨγʔ Django ΞϓϦέʔγϣϯͷݱ୅Խ (DjangoCongress JP 2018)
    › SymPy ʹΑΔ਺ࣜॲཧ (PyCon JP 2018)
    › Python ͱָ͠Ήॳ౳੔਺࿦ (PyCon mini Hiroshima 2019)
    › ܅͸ cmath Λ஌͍ͬͯΔ͔ (PyCon mini Shizuoka 2020)
    › ΠϯϝϞϦʔετϦʔϜ׆༻ज़ (PyCon JP 2020)
    › ૊ΈࠐΈؔ਺ pow ͷ஌ΒΕ͟ΔਐԽ (PyCon JP 2021)
    https://xaro.hatenablog.jp/ ʹϦετ͕͋Γ·͢ɻ
    4 / 46

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  5. ࠓ೔ͷςʔϚ
    ݪஶʰRobust Pythonʱ
    ஶऀ Patrick Viafore
    ग़൛ࣾ O’Reilly Media
    ൃߦ೔ 2021 ೥ 7 ݄
    ๜༁ʰϩόετ Pythonʱ
    ຋༁ऀ ླ໦ ॣ ؂༁ɺ௕ඌ ߴ߂ ༁
    ग़൛ࣾ O’Reilly Japan
    ൃߦ೔ 2023 ೥ 3 ݄
    ௕ඌ͞Μɺླ໦ͷϖΞ͸ʰೖ໳ Python 3 ୈ 2 ൛ʱҎདྷ 2 ճ໨
    5 / 46

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  6. ࠓ೔ͷςʔϚ
    ʰϩόετ PythonʱΛಡ΋͏
    › ͬ͟ͱɺͲΜͳࣄ͕ॻ͍ͯ͋Δͷ͔঺հ͠·͢
    › 384 ϖʔδͷ಺༰Λ 30 ෼ͰಡΜͩؾ෼ʹͳΖ͏ʂ
    6 / 46

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  7. ϩόετ Python ͷߏ੒
    4 ෦ߏ੒
    ୈ I ෦ ܕΞϊςʔγϣϯ
    ୈ II ෦ Ϣʔβఆٛܕ
    ୈ III ෦ େن໛ͳมߋ΁ͷରԠ
    ୈ IV ෦ ηʔϑςΟωοτͷߏங
    ͳ͓ɺୈ 1 ষʮϩόετ Python ೖ໳ʯ͸ಋೖͱͳΔষ
    7 / 46

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  8. ैདྷͷٕज़ॻͱͷҧ͍
    Python ͱܕώϯτ
    › ܕώϯτ͸ Python 3.5 ͰಋೖʢPEP 484ʣ
    › Python 3.5 ͸ 2015 ೥ 9 ݄ʹϦϦʔε
    ܕώϯτͷ෇͚ํ͸͢Ͱʹ஌ͬͯΔΑ
    › ܕώϯτͷ෇͚ํͷղઆهࣄ΍ॻ੶͸ଟ͍ʢ8 ೥ͷ஝ੵʣ
    › ܕώϯτͷӡ༻ํ๏΍ߟ͑ํʹ౿ΈࠐΜͩຊ͸ଘࡏ͢Δͷ͔
    ͦ΋ͦ΋ɺதڃऀҎ্޲͚ͷ Python ຊͷઈର਺͕গͳ͍ΑͶ
    8 / 46

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  9. ϩόετ Python ͷ͕͍͜͜͢͝
    ϩόετ Python ͷಛ௃
    › ܕώϯτʹ͍ͭͯ 14 ষʹΘͨͬͯৄࡉʹղઆʢୈ I ෦ɺୈ II ෦ʣ
    › ϩόετͳઃܭ࿦ʢୈ III ෦ʣ
    › ܕώϯτ΍ܕ͚ͩͰ͸Χόʔ͖͠Εͳ͍ཁૉ΋ରԠʢୈ IV ෦ʣ
    9 / 46

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  10. ϩόετ Python ͷओ୊
    ʰϩόετ Pythonʱ͕ݴ͍͍ͨ͜ͱ
    › σʔλܕͱ͸ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯखஈͰ͋Δ
    › ࣗ෼͕ίʔυͰදݱ͍ͨ͜͠ͱΛσʔλܕΛ࢖ͬͯ໌֬ʹ఻͑Α͏
    10 / 46

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  11. ୈ 1 ষ ϩόετ Python ೖ໳
    ϩόετ Python ͬͯͲΜͳຊ
    ཁ͢Δʹɺຊॻ͸ϩόετʢؤৎ/ؤ݈/ݎ࿚ʣͳ Python Λॻͨ͘ΊͷຊͰ͋Δɻ
    ʢP. 1ʣ
    ͦ΋ͦ΋ϩόετͬͯԿʁ
    ίʔυϕʔεͷϩόετωεͱ͸ɺઈ͑ͣมԽͯ͠΋଱ٱੑ͕ߴ͘ɺΤϥʔΛى͜͞ͳ
    ͍͜ͱͰ͋Δɻ
    ʢP. 4ʣ
    11 / 46

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  12. ୈ 1 ষ ϩόετ Python ೖ໳
    ͳͥϩόετʹ͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δͷ͔ʁ
    ͦͷ౴͑ͷ֩৺͸ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯʹ͋Δɻ
    ʢதུʣͦͷͨΊʹ͸ɺকདྷͷϝϯςφ
    ͱ௚઀ձΘͳͯ͘΋ࣗ෼ͷ࿦ڌͱҙਤ͕఻ΘΔΑ͏ʹ͍ͨ͠ɻ
    12 / 46

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  13. ୈ 1 ষ ϩόετ Python ೖ໳
    ྫɿ ԿΛ͢Δؔ਺Ͱ͠ΐ͏͔ʁ
    def adjust_recipe(recipe, servings):
    old_servings = recipe.pop(0)
    factor = servings / old_servings
    # ؆୯ʹܭଌͰ͖Δ஋͚ͩΛ࢖͍ͬͯͩ͘͞
    new_recipe = {ingredient: (amount * factor, unit)
    for ingredient, amount, unit in recipe}
    new_recipe["servings"] = servings
    return new_recipe
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  14. ୈ 1 ষ ϩόετ Python ೖ໳
    ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͷ෼ྨ
    ۙ઀ੑ ৘ใͷൃ৴ऀͱड৴ऀͷؒʹ͋Δ࣌ؒతͳڑ཭
    ίετ ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯʹඞཁͳ࿑ྗ
    14 / 46

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  15. ୈ 1 ষ ϩόετ Python ೖ໳
    ͳͥϩόετʹ͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δͷ͔ʁ
    ͦͷ౴͑ͷ֩৺͸ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯʹ͋Δɻ
    ʢதུʣͦͷͨΊʹ͸ɺকདྷͷϝϯςφ
    ͱ௚઀ձΘͳͯ͘΋ࣗ෼ͷ࿦ڌͱҙਤ͕఻ΘΔΑ͏ʹ͍ͨ͠ɻ
    ͦͷͨΊʹ͸ʁ
    ະདྷͷϝϯςφʹҙਤΛ఻͑Δʹ͸ɺ௿ίετͰۙ઀ੑ͕ෆཁͳίϛϡχέʔγϣϯ͕
    ඞཁͰ͋Δɻ
    15 / 46

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  16. ୈ 1 ষ ϩόετ Python ೖ໳
    ௿ίετͰۙ઀ੑ͕ෆཁͳίϛϡχέʔγϣϯ
    › ίʔυΛಡΉ͚ͩͰཧղͰ͖Ε͹Α͍
    › ίʔυΛཧղ͢Δͷʹඞཁͳ࣌ؒΛ࠷খݶʹ཈͍͑ͨ
    ͦͷͨΊʹ͸ʁ
    σʔλܕͷબ୒͸কདྷͷ։ൃऀʹରͯࣗ͠෼ͷҙਤΛදݱ͢Δ͜ͱͰ͋Γɺਖ਼͍͠σʔ
    λܕΛબ୒͢Ε͹อकੑ͕޲্͢Δɻ
    ʢP. 19ʣ
    16 / 46

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  17. ୈ 1 ষ ϩόετ Python ೖ໳
    ྫɿ ԿΛ͢Δؔ਺Ͱ͠ΐ͏͔ʁ
    from fractions import Fraction
    def adjust_recipe(recipe: Recipe, servings: int) -> Recipe:
    # ࡐྉσʔλͷίϐʔΛ࡞Δ
    new_ingredients = list(recipe.get_ingredients())
    recipe.clear_ingredients()
    for ingredient in new_ingredients:
    ingredient.adjust_proportion(
    Fraction(servings, recipe.servings)
    )
    return Recipe(servings, new_ingredients)
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  18. ୈ I ෦ ܕΞϊςʔγϣϯ
    2 ষ Python σʔλܕೖ໳
    › Python ͸ڧ͍ܕ෇͚ݴޠ
    › Python ͸ಈతܕ෇͚ݴޠ
    ಈతܕ෇͚ݴޠ͸ຊ࣭తʹϩόετͰ͸ͳ͍ͷ͔
    › ಈతܕ෇͚ݴޠͰ΋ϩόετʹॻ͚Δɺগ͠େมͳ͚ͩ
    › ੩తܕ෇͚ݴޠͷ৔߹ΑΓ΋Α͘ߟ͑Δඞཁ͕͋Δ
    › ੩తܕ෇͚ݴޠΛ࢖͑͹ඞͣ͠΋ϩόετʹॻ͚ΔΘ͚Ͱ͸ͳ͍
    18 / 46

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  19. ୈ I ෦ ܕΞϊςʔγϣϯ
    3 ষ ܕΞϊςʔγϣϯ
    › ܕώϯτͷߏจతͳ෇͚ํ͸஌͍ͬͯΔΑͶʢ8 ೥ͷ஝ੵʣ
    › ܕώϯτ͸πʔϧʢmypy ͳͲʣͱ૊Έ߹ΘͤͯਅՁΛൃش͢Δ
    ܕώϯτ΋ mypy ΋λμͰ͸ͳ͍
    › ެ։ APIɺϥΠϒϥϦͷΤϯυϙΠϯτ
    › ෳࡶͳܕɺΘ͔Γʹ͍͘ܕ
    › mypy ઌੜͷࢦࣔʹै͏
    19 / 46

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  20. ୈ I ෦ ܕΞϊςʔγϣϯ
    4 ষ ܕ੍໿
    › Optional Ͱ͵ΔΆόάΛ௵ͦ͏
    › Union ͰදݱՄೳͳঢ়گΛݮͦ͏
    › Literal Ͱ͞Βʹ੍໿Λ͔͚Α͏
    › Final Ͱఆ਺Ͱ͋Δͱओு͠Α͏
    › NewType ͰજࡏతͳόάΛ௵ͦ͏
    Annotated ͷ͜ͱɺ࣌ʑͰ͍͍͔Βɺࢥ͍ग़͍ͯͩ͘͠͞
    › ೚ҙͷϝλσʔλΛ௥ՃͰ͖Δ͕ɺ୯ͳΔϝλσʔλ
    › ઐ༻ͷπʔϧ͕Ͱ͖ͨΒ೤͘ͳΔ͔΋
    20 / 46

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  21. ୈ I ෦ ܕΞϊςʔγϣϯ
    ྫɿ දݱՄೳͳঢ়ଶ͸Կ௨Γʁ
    @dataclass
    class Snack:
    name: str # 3 ௨Γ
    condiments: set[str] # 4 ௨Γ
    error_code: int # 6 ௨Γʢ੒ޭ͕ 0 Τϥʔ͕ 1 ͔Β 5ʣ
    disposed_of: bool # 2 ௨Γ
    snack = Snack("Hotdog", {"Mustard", "Ketchup"}, 5, False)
    ౴͑ɿ3 ˆ 4 ˆ 6 ˆ 2 = 144 ௨ΓɻNone ΋ڐ༰͢Δͱʁ
    21 / 46

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  22. ୈ I ෦ ܕΞϊςʔγϣϯ
    ྫɿ දݱՄೳͳঢ়ଶ͸Կ௨Γʁ
    @dataclass
    class Snack:
    name: str # 3 ௨Γ
    condiments: set[str] # 4 ௨Γ
    @dataclass
    class Error:
    error_code: int # 5 ௨Γʢ੒ޭύλʔϯΛऔΓআ͚Δʣ
    disposed_of: bool # 2 ௨Γ
    snack: Union[Snack, Error] = Snack("Hotdog", {"Mustard", "Ketchup"})
    ౴͑ɿ3 ˆ 4 + 5 ˆ 2 = 22 ௨Γɻ
    22 / 46

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  23. ୈ I ෦ ܕΞϊςʔγϣϯ
    5 ষ ίϨΫγϣϯܕ
    › ಉछίϨΫγϣϯͱҟछίϨΫγϣϯͷ֓೦Λཧղ͠Α͏
    ಉछίϨΫγϣϯ
    ֨ೲ͞Εͨ͢΂ͯͷ஋͕ಉ͡σʔλܕͰ͋ΔίϨΫγϣϯ
    ҟछίϨΫγϣϯ
    ҟͳΔσʔλܕΛؚΉίϨΫγϣϯ
    23 / 46

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  24. ୈ I ෦ ܕΞϊςʔγϣϯ
    యܕతͳྫɿJSON Λࣙॻʹม׵͢Δ
    › dict[str, Union[str, int, float, None]] ͷΑ͏ͳܕ͸ॻ͖ͨ͘ͳ͍ʂ
    › dict[str, Any] Ͱ͸ܕώϯτ͕ܗͳͩ͠ʂ
    ͦΜͳ࣌͸ TypedDict
    ܕώϯτΛ಺ଂͨࣙ͠ॻ
    ͦΜͳ࣌͸ dataclass
    ࣗ෼Ͱ JSON ͷܗࣜΛ੍ޚͰ͖ΔͳΒ dataclass ͕Α͍ɻ
    24 / 46

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  25. ୈ I ෦ ܕΞϊςʔγϣϯ
    6 ষ ܕνΣοΧͷΧελϚΠζ
    › mypy Ͱ͸ Optional ΍ None ʹؔ͢ΔνΣοΫΛ༗ޮʹ͢Δͱྑ͍Α
    › mypy ͕஗͍ʁ ͳΒ͹σʔϞϯϞʔυ΍ϦϞʔτΩϟογϡͰߴ଎Խ͠Α͏
    ܕνΣοΧ͸ mypy ͚ͩ͡Όͳ͍
    Pyre Facebook ੡ɺ੩తղੳπʔϧ Pysa ΋͍ͭͯ͘Δ
    Pyright Microsoft ੡ɺVSCode ֦ுͷ Pylance ͷϕʔε
    25 / 46

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  26. ୈ I ෦ ܕΞϊςʔγϣϯ
    7 ষ ࣮ફతͳܕνΣοΫͷಋೖ
    ϖΠϯϙΠϯτΛಛఆͯ͠ίετΛ͔͚ա͗ͣʹܕώϯτΛ͍ΕΑ͏
    ·ͣ͸͔͜͜Β
    › ৽نίʔυͷΈܕώϯτ
    › ϘτϜΞοϓʢϢʔςΟϦςΟɺϥΠϒϥϦʣʹܕώϯτ
    › རӹΛੜΈग़͢ϏδωεϩδοΫʹܕώϯτ
    › Α͘ॻ͖׵͑Δ৔ॴʹܕώϯτ
    › ෳࡶͳ෦෼ʹܕώϯτ
    › MonkeyType ΍ Pytype Ͱࣗಈతʹ෇༩΋༗ޮ͔΋
    26 / 46

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  27. ୈ II ෦ Ϣʔβఆٛܕ
    8 ষ ྻڍܕ
    ੩తͳ஋ͷίϨΫγϣϯ͔Β஋Λ 1 ͚ͭͩදݱ͍ͨ͠৔߹ʹ࢖͏
    ྻڍܕͷΞϯνύλʔϯ
    › ಈతʹ஋͕มԽ͢ΔྻڍܕɻࣙॻΛ࢖͓͏ɻ
    › IntEnum ΍ IntFlag ͸ޙํޓ׵ੑͷͨΊʹ࢖͏ɻ৽نʹ࢖͏ͷ͸όάͷݩɻ
    27 / 46

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  28. ୈ II ෦ Ϣʔβఆٛܕ
    9 ষ σʔλΫϥε
    Python ͷੈքΛେ͖͘ม͑ͨσʔλΫϥεʢݪஶऀҰԡ͠ʣ
    σʔλΫϥεͷ࢖͍Ͳ͜Ζ
    › ҟछίϨΫγϣϯ͸σʔλΫϥεɺࣙॻ͸ಉछίϨΫγϣϯ
    › TypedDict ͱσʔλΫϥε͸ɺ·ͣ͸σʔλΫϥεΛݕ౼͠Α͏
    › namedtuple ͸ޙํޓ׵ੑͷͨΊʹ࢖͏
    σʔλΫϥε͸ສೳͳͷ͔ʁ
    › σʔλΫϥε͸ଐੑಉ͕࢜ಠཱ͍ͯ͠Δ৔߹ͷΈ༗ޮ
    28 / 46

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  29. ୈ II ෦ Ϣʔβఆٛܕ
    10 ষ Ϋϥε
    › ܅͸Ϋϥεͷຊ౰ͷ࢖͍Ͳ͜ΖΛ஌͍ͬͯΔ͔
    › Ϋϥεͱ͸ɺෆมࣜͰ͋Δʢචऀͷςʔθʣ
    29 / 46

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  30. ୈ II ෦ Ϣʔβఆٛܕ
    11 ষ ΠϯλϑΣʔε
    › ࢖͍΍͍͢ΠϯλϑΣʔεͱ͸
    › ͜ͷষ͸΍΍؍೦తͰ͋Δ
    ࢖͍΍͍͢ΠϯλϑΣʔεΛ௥ٴ͢Δ
    › ར༻ऀͷΑ͏ʹߟ͑ΔʢTDDɺREADME ۦಈ։ൃɺϢʔβϏϦςΟςετʣ
    › ಛघϝιουɺίϯςΩετϚωʔδϟͷ׆༻
    30 / 46

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  31. ୈ II ෦ Ϣʔβఆٛܕ
    12 ষ ෦෼ܕ
    › ܧঝ͸ஔ׵ՄೳੑʢLiskov ͷஔ׵ݪଇʣʹ஫ҙ͢Δ
    › ܧঝΑΓ΋ίϯϙδγϣϯʢ߹੒ʣ
    ਖ਼ํܗ͸௕ํܗ͔ʁ
    › ਺ֶతʹ͸ɺਖ਼ํܗ͸௕ํܗͰ͋Δɻ
    › ਖ਼ํܗΛ௕ํܗͷܧঝͱͯ͠ද͢ͱഁ୼͢Δɻ
    ໰ɿਖ਼ํܗͱ௕ํܗͷఆٛΛड़΂Αɻ·ͨɺ໋୊ʮਖ਼ํܗ͸௕ํܗͰ͋ΔʯΛਖ਼ํܗͱ
    ௕ํܗͷఆٛʹج͍ͮͯূ໌ͤΑɻ
    31 / 46

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  32. ୈ II ෦ Ϣʔβఆٛܕ
    13 ষ ϓϩτίϧ
    › ੩తܕνΣοΧͷ݀ΛຒΊΔଘࡏ
    › μοΫλΠϐϯάͱ੩తܕνΣοΧΛͭͳ͙ϓϩτίϧ
    › ߏ଄త෦෼ܕͱ໊໨త෦෼ܕΛͭͳ͙ϓϩτίϧ
    32 / 46

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  33. ୈ II ෦ Ϣʔβఆٛܕ
    ߏ଄త෦෼ܕɿσʔλܕͷߏ଄Λجૅͱ͢Δ෦෼ܕ
    class ShuffleIterator:
    def __iter__(self):
    ...
    def __next__(self):
    ...
    ໊໨త෦෼ܕɿσʔλܕͷ໊લΛجૅͱ͢Δ෦෼ܕ
    class ShuffleIterator(Iterator):
    ...
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  34. ୈ II ෦ Ϣʔβఆٛܕ
    14 ষ pydantic ʹΑΔ࣮ߦ࣌ܕνΣοΫ
    › ੩తܕνΣοΧͷ݀ΛຒΊΔଘࡏ
    › ࣗવʹೖྗ஋ͳͲΛνΣοΫͰ͖Δ
    pydantic ͸ύʔεϥΠϒϥϦͰ΋͋Δ
    › int ͳΒ͹ “123” ΋ 5.5 ΋ int ʹม׵͢Δ
    › StrictInt ͳͲΛ࢖͏ඞཁ΋͋Δ͔΋
    34 / 46

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  35. ୈ III ෦ େن໛ͳมߋ΁ͷରԠ
    15 ষ ֦ுੑ
    › ֦ுੑͱ͸ɺγεςϜͷطଘ෦෼Λมߋͤͣʹ৽ػೳΛ௥ՃͰ͖Δͱ͍͏γες
    Ϝͷੑ࣭
    › ։์ด࠯ͷݪଇ͕ϕʔεʢͲͪΒ͕ઌͩΖ͏͔ʁʣ
    ݪଇҧ൓ͷݟ͚ͭํ
    › ؆୯ͳ͜ͱ͕೉͘͠ͳ͍ͬͯͳ͍͔
    › ྨࣅͷػೳͷ࣮૷͕஗Ε͍ͯͳ͍͔
    › ݟੵ΋Γ͕͍ͭ΋େن໛ʹͳ͍ͬͯͳ͍͔
    › ίϛοτʹେن໛ͳࠩ෼ؚ͕·Ε͍ͯͳ͍͔
    35 / 46

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  36. ୈ III ෦ େن໛ͳมߋ΁ͷରԠ
    16 ষ ґଘؔ܎
    ґଘؔ܎͸ 3 छྨ͋Δ
    › ෺ཧతґଘؔ܎
    › ࿦ཧతґଘؔ܎
    › ࣌ؒతґଘؔ܎
    ґଘؔ܎ΛՄࢹԽͤΑ
    › αʔυύʔςΟϥΠϒϥϦಉ࢜ͷґଘؔ܎
    › ΠϯϙʔτϞδϡʔϧؒͷґଘؔ܎
    › ؔ਺ͷݺͼग़͠ͷՄࢹԽ
    36 / 46

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  37. ୈ III ෦ େن໛ͳมߋ΁ͷରԠ
    17 ষ ίϯϙʔβϏϦςΟ
    ίʔυΛϙϦγʔͱϝΧχζϜʹ෼཭ͤΑ
    ϙϦγʔ ϏδωεχʔζΛղܾ͢ΔͨΊͷ௚઀ͷ੹೚Λ୲͏ίʔυ
    ϝΧχζϜ ϙϦγʔΛ࣮ݱ͢Δ࢓૊ΈΛఏڙ͢Δίʔυ
    37 / 46

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  38. ୈ III ෦ େن໛ͳมߋ΁ͷରԠ
    ྫɿ ϙϦγʔͱϝΧχζϜͷ෼཭
    def repeat(times: int = 1) -> collections.abc.Callable
    def _repeat(func: collections.abc.Callable):
    @functools.wrap(func)
    def _wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
    for _ in range(times):
    func(*args, **kwargs)
    return _wrapper
    return _repeat
    ϝΧχζϜʢؔ਺Λ܁Γฦ͠ݺͼग़͢ʣͱϙϦγʔʢؔ਺ͷத਎ʣΛσίϨʔλͰ෼཭
    ͢Δɻ
    38 / 46

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  39. ୈ III ෦ େن໛ͳมߋ΁ͷରԠ
    18 ষͱ 19 ষ
    15 ষʮ֦ுੑʯ
    ɺ16 ষʮґଘؔ܎ʯ
    ɺ17 ষʮίϯϙʔβϏϦςΟʯͷ۩ମྫͱͯ͠ಡ
    ΋͏ɻ
    ۩ମతͳઃܭ࿦ʹ͍ͭͯ͸ΦϥΠϦʔ͔Β͍͍ຊ͕ͰΔΒ͍͠...ʁ
    39 / 46

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  40. ୈ IV ෦ ηʔϑςΟωοτͷߏங
    20 ষ ੩తղੳ
    ੩తղੳ ຊॻͰ͸ Pylint ͕঺հ͞Ε͍ͯΔ͕ɺݸਓతʹ͸ flake8 ͕Α͍ͱࢥͬ
    ͍ͯΔɻ
    ෳࡶ౓νΣοΧ MeCabe ͷ॥؀తෳࡶ౓ɺۭന਺ώϡʔϦεςΟΫε
    ηΩϡϦςΟ Bandit
    ੩తղੳ͚ͩʹߜͬͯ͸͍͚ͳ͍
    ෳ਺ͷղੳπʔϧΛಋೖͯ͠๷ӴઢΛෳ਺ߏங͠Α͏
    40 / 46

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  41. ୈ IV ෦ ηʔϑςΟωοτͷߏங
    21 ষ ςετઓུ
    ҎԼͷ 2 ࡭ΛಡΜͰ͍Δਓʹ͸΋ͷͨΓͳ͍͔΋͠Εͳ͍ɻ
    › ςετۦಈ Pythonʢᠳӭࣾʣ
    › ୯ମςετͷߟ͑ํʗ࢖͍ํʢϚΠφϏग़൛ʣ
    pytest Λ࢖͏ͱࣗવʹ࣮ફͰ͖Δ͔΋͠Εͳ͍
    41 / 46

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  42. ୈ IV ෦ ηʔϑςΟωοτͷߏங
    22 ষ ड͚ೖΕςετ
    Gherkin ݴޠΛ঺հ͍ͯ͠Δ͕ɺݸਓతʹ͸Ͳ͏ͩΖ͏ɺͱ͍͏ɻ
    ͋ΔϓϩάϥϚͷࢥ͍ग़
    աڈɺ࢓ࣄΛ࢝Ίͨ͹͔Γͷࠒɺ·ͱ΋ʹϓϩάϥϛϯά͕Ͱ͖ͳ͍ঢ়ଶͰ BDD ΍
    Cucumber ΛؚΉ Ruby on Rails ͷνϡʔτϦΞϧΛಡΜͰɺBDD ΍
    Cucumber ͕ۤखʹͳͬͨɻͦΕΛະͩʹҾ͖͍ͣͬͯΔͷ͔΋͠Εͳ͍ɻ
    42 / 46

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  43. ୈ IV ෦ ηʔϑςΟωοτͷߏங
    23 ষ ϓϩύςΟϕʔεςετ
    Hypothesis ʹΑΔϓϩύςΟϕʔεςετͷ঺հ
    ϓϩύςΟϕʔεςετͱ͸
    ݻఆͨ͠ೖग़ྗʹجͮ͘ςετͰ͸ͳ͘ɺೖग़ྗ͕ຬͨ͢΂͖ੑ࣭Λهड़͢Δςετɻ
    ͦͷੑ࣭Λຬͨ͢஋Λπʔϧ͕ࣗಈੜ੒ͯ͠ςετέʔεΛੜ੒͢Δɻ
    43 / 46

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  44. ୈ IV ෦ ηʔϑςΟωοτͷߏங
    24 ষ ϛϡʔςʔγϣϯςετ
    mutmut ʹΑΔϛϡʔςʔγϣϯςετͷ঺հ
    ϛϡʔςʔγϣϯςετͱ͸
    ςετࣗମΛςετ͢ΔςετɻιʔείʔυΛπʔϧͰॻ͖׵͑ͯطଘͷςετΛ
    ૸Βͤͯɺςετ͕੒ޭͯ͠͠·ͬͨ΋ͷΛᖰΓͩ͢ɻ
    44 / 46

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  45. ·ͱΊ
    ʰϩόετ Pythonʱ͕ݴ͍͍ͨ͜ͱ
    › σʔλܕͱ͸ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯखஈͰ͋Δ
    › ࣗ෼͕ίʔυͰදݱ͍ͨ͜͠ͱΛσʔλܕΛ࢖ͬͯ໌֬ʹ఻͑Α͏
    45 / 46

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  46. ·ͱΊ
    ͬͦ͘͞ߪೖ͠Α͏
    › https://www.oreilly.co.jp/books/9784814400171/
    › https://www.ohmsha.co.jp/book/9784814400171/
    ΦϥΠϦʔֶशϓϥοτϑΥʔϜͱ͸
    › https://www.oreilly.co.jp/online-learning/
    › 6 ສ࡭Ҏ্ͷॻ੶ʢ೔ຊޠॻ੶΋͋Δʂʣ
    › 3 ສ࣌ؒҎ্ͷಈը
    › ۀքΤΩεύʔτʹΑΔϥΠϒΠϕϯτ
    › ΠϯλϥΫςΟϒͳγφϦΦͱαϯυϘοΫεΛ࢖࣮ͬͨફతͳֶश
    › ެࣜೝఆࢼݧରࡦࢿྉ
    › ʰϩόετ Pythonʱ΋ΦϥΠϦʔֶशϓϥοτϑΥʔϜͰಡΈ์୊ʢ༧ఆʣ
    46 / 46

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