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Economy of Efforts

Economy of Efforts

Language has changed its form for convenience of speakers.
Let's explore what principles work to omit tiny but redundant and repetitive efforts.

Hayato Ishida

February 13, 2024

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  1. Economy of Efforts 1 Composed By: Hayato Ishida Updated On:

    16 July 2024 For Japanese version, click here
  2. About Me • Accounts • Linkedin: @hayat01sh1da • GitHub: @hayat01sh1da

    • Speaker Deck: @hayat01sh1da • Docswell: @hayat01sh1da • HackMD: @hayat01sh1da • Occupation: Software Engineer • Things I Am Into • Language Learning • Singing at Karaoke • Listening to Music • Watching Movies • Playing Table Tennis 2
  3. Licences / Certifications • English • TOEIC® Listening & Reading

    915: Certified on December 2019 • Engineering • Information Security Management: Certified on November 2017 • Applied Information Technology Engineer: Certified on June 2017 • Fundamental Information Technology Engineer: Certified on November 2016 • IT Passport: Certified on April 2016 • Others • Abacus 2nd Class: Certified on June 2002 • Mental Arithmetic 3rd Class: Certified on February 2001 3
  4. Skills • Languages • Japanese: Native Proficiency • English: Full

    professional Proficiency • Development • Ruby: Upper-Intermediate(FW: Ruby on Rails) • Python: Intermediate • TypeScript: Intermediate(Library: React.js) • HTML: Intermediate(Library: Bootstrap) • CSS: Intermediate(Library: Bootstrap) • SQL: Intermediate • Others • Documentation: Advanced 4
  5. Work Experiences 5 1. System Engineer @System Engineering Service Firm

    • Maintenance of Legacy Windows Servers • Management of Corporate Employees’ Accounts • Promotion of Cooperate Security • English Translator for Video Conferences, Vendor Control and Host of International Staff Member 2. Software Engineer @System Development Firm on Contract Basis • Server-Side Development(Ruby on Rails, RSpec) • Front-End Development(HTML / CSS, JavaScript) • Quality Assurance(Native iOS / Android Apps) • Composer of In-House Technical Blog 3. Software Engineer @Chatbot Platform Development Firm • Development and Maintenance of Existing Chatbot Platform(Ruby on Rails, RSpec) • Inspection of an Alternative Chatbot Engine(Ruby, Ruby on Rails, RSpec, Python) 4. Software Engineer @Educational Service Development Division of a Mega Venture Firm • Server-Side Development for Academic Career Supporting Features(Ruby on Rails, RSpec, Minitest, TypeScript + React.js) • Annual Maintenance of Master School Data Migration(Ruby on Rails, RSpec) • Documentation Activities and Promotions
  6. International-Exchange Activities 6 • Activities in University • English Linguistics

    Seminar(Focusing on Mass Media English) • International-Exchange Clubs(The 2nd Year) • International-Exchange Programmes conducted by Japan Cabinet Office(2013 - 2016) • Japanese Linguistics Course(The Final Year) • Overseas Life Experience • Working Holiday in Australia(April 2014 - March 2015) • Language School for 1 month in Sydney • Work for 6 Months in Hamilton Island Resort • Volunteering for 1 Month as Assistant Teacher of Japanese Language at St Ives High School in NSW • Other Activities • Keep Everyday Journal in English (April 2014 - Present) • Sunrise Toastmasters Club(February 2017 - March 2018) • Vital Japan(January 2018 - July 2019, October 2022 - February 2023) • Self Learning and Training of English Language • Video Chats with an Australian Friend
  7. Agenda 1. What Economy of Efforts Is 2. Economy of

    Efforts in Grammar 3. Economy of Efforts in Pronunciation 4. Products of Economy of Efforts 5. Summary 6. References 7
  8. 1. What Economy of Efforts Is 9 Definition on Dictionary

    the tendency of an organism to act efficiently and minimize the expenditure of energy, such as by avoiding any unnecessary movements. Reference: Economy of Efforts - APA Dictionary of Psychology
  9. 1. What Economy of Efforts Is 10 In short, the

    Act of Pursuit of the Best Cost Performance → Less Efforts, Better Result
  10. 1. What Economy of Efforts Is 11 More experienced programmers

    are said to be unhappy with redundant processes and try to make them as efficient as possible because of their laziness. Likewise, linguistics execute the same mechanics to omit burdensome and time and energy consuming behaviours for better efficiency. Economy of Efforts is the very good starting point where we will find the answer to most of WHYs in language learning.
  11. 2. Economy of Efforts in Grammar 13 English Idioms •

    spend ~ (in) Ving… → to do something in exchange for time, money and so on • take turns (in) Ving … → to switch the person who does something What enables the proposition in to be omitted in the examples above?
  12. 2. Economy of Efforts in Grammar 14 English Idioms •

    in Ving… = when SV… • Ving = when SV… (usage of TIME in a participial construction) Both of the above mean `when SV…` and the latter is conciser, which makes in gone. As a result, the usage of TIME in a participial construction has become general. e.g., I spent as many as half a day (in) cleaning up my dirty room yesterday. Whether or not the proposition in is present, the adverbial phrase can be interpreted as 'when I cleaned up my dirty room'.
  13. 3. Economy of Efforts in Pronunciation 16 English Irregular Pronunciation

    Words and IPA Symbols Phenomena Principles • lamb /lam/ • climb /klʌɪm/ • tomb /tuːm/ • dumb /dʌm/ - Both of /m/ and /b/ are bilabial, the only difference of which is that air comes through the nose in /m/ and the month in /b/. The tiny but redundant repetitive effort is burdensome, which dropped /b/. ※ In Old English, /b/ was pronounced. • cupboard /ˈkʌbəd/ • raspberry /ˈrɑːzb(ə)ri/ assimilation Both of /p/ and /b/ are bilabial plosive, the only difference of which is that /p/ is voiced and /b/ is voiceless. The tiny but redundant repetitive effort is burdensome. Finally, /p/ was assimilated into /b/. women /ˈwɪmɪn/ i-mutation /i/ or /j/ following the stressed vowel or the syllable of double vowel causes the forward vowelisation. In concrete terms, the latter /ɪ/ sound influences /ʊ/ in the former position. As a result, /ˈwʊmɪn'/ has changed to /ˈwɪmɪn/.
  14. 4. Products of Economy of Efforts 18 Slang of Aussie

    English • G'day > Good day(≒ Hello) • Aussie > Australian • Brissie > Brisbane • Tassie > Tasmanian • fridge > refrigerator • veggies > vegetables • sunnies > sunglasses • Ta > Thank you The tail in words of many syllables tends to become a long vowel.
  15. 4. Products of Economy of Efforts 19 Other Examples •

    Community Terms • e.g., Sporties in a Staff-Only Bar of Hamilton Island • Corporate Terms • e.g., TPM stands for Technical Product Manager • Industrial Terms • OKR: Objectives and Key Results • KPI: Key Performance Indicator These examples play a role not only in abbreviations but in secret codes.
  16. 5. Summary 21 Economy of Efforts plays the following 3

    roles. 1. In grammar, the conciser form survives if the other also has the same meaning. 2. In pronunciation, the tiny but redundant repetitive efforts can cause drop of duplicate sounds, assimilation of similar sounds and i-mutation. 3. Words of long spellings or many syllables can be simplified, which can also coin slang, community terms, corporate terms and industrial terms.
  17. 6. References 23 • APA Dictionary of Psychology • Last

    Accessed On: 18 April 2022 • Kiyoaki Kikuchi・Kazutomo Karasawa・Ryuichi Hotta・Yasuyuki Kaizuka, 英語 史:現代英語の特質を求めて-多文化性と国際性-, Osaka, 関西人文科学出版会, 2009