Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

A Productive Friction? The Interaction between Data & Theory in the Study of Cultural Transmission, Innovation, & Cultural Evolution in the Paleolithic

A Productive Friction? The Interaction between Data & Theory in the Study of Cultural Transmission, Innovation, & Cultural Evolution in the Paleolithic

Gilbert Tostevin
Department of Anthropology,
University of Minnesota

Ee683edf7b765d56acd6f8ba903607f1?s=128

Insite Project

May 05, 2014
Tweet

Transcript

  1. A Productive Friction? The Interaction between Data & Theory in

    the Study of Cultural Transmission, Innovation, & Cultural Evolution in the Paleolithic Gilbert Tostevin D f A h l Department of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, toste003@umn.edu @ New data –old theories: the future of theorizing about innovation in complex adaptive systems in complex adaptive systems. At INSITE & ECLT, Venice, Italy May 5-8, 2014
  2. P l Polymerase Chain Reaction

  3. Th The Radiocarbon ad oca bo Revolution Libby, W., E.

    C. Anderson, & J. R. Arnold 1949 Age determination b 1949 Age determination by radiocarbon content: Worldwide assay of natural radiocarbon. Science 109: 227-228.
  4. The The Luminescence Dating Revolution Revolution Age = Paleodose as

    TL Annual dose rate Annual dose rate
  5. Too much slippage between newly excavated data and old theory

    to produce a scientific ratchet effect produce a scientific ratchet effect
  6. Approaches to cultural interaction through stone tools Typology of Typology

    of yp gy retouched tools: Index fossils Typology of technology (reduction sequence or chaîne ? sequence or chaîne opératoire) ? ? ? Distribution of raw materials Quantitative typology of 6 raw materials yp gy retouched tools ?
  7. The Epistemological Problem of Problem of Typological S t ti

    Systematics
  8. The Epistemological Problem of Problem of Typological S t ti

    Systematics VS VS.
  9. In: François Bordes et la Préhistoire, ed. F. Delpech, J.Jaubert,

    2011
  10. None
  11. None
  12. 73 types among 73 types among 342 assemblages from 52

    sites
  13. The Wine Analogy The Wine Analogy 80% M l t

    95% M l t 85% Cabernet 80% Merlot 15% Cabernet franc 5% Cabernet 95% Merlot 5% Cabernet franc sauvignon 10% Cabernet franc sauvignon franc 5% Merlot
  14. None
  15. “I don’t have much faith in stone tool phylogenies. Stone

    tools do not have genes ” Stone tools do not have genes. A famous and influential physical anthropologist, t th P l th l S i t M ti at the Paleoanthropology Society Meetings, Honolulu, April 1-2, 2013.
  16. None
  17. Let the process determine the units of transmission. T d

    thi To do this, we need an evolutionary developmental approach to th h l f lt l t i i the archaeology of cultural transmission
  18. Behavioral i ibili Visibility in the i Knapping Process

  19. None
  20. None
  21. None
  22. None
  23. None
  24. Platform Thickness [i.e., “platform depth” of Dibble & P l

    i (1995)] Pelcin (1995)]
  25. None
  26. Platform Thickness

  27. Platform Thickness Pl tf Platform Thickness

  28. Platform Thickness Pl tf Platform Thickness Exterior Exterior Platform Angle

  29. Platform Preparation

  30. None
  31. None
  32. None
  33. None
  34. The The Materiality y of the T h l Technology

    1 t d li • <1 sec to deliver a blow • Crack propagation • Crack propagation =1000-2000 m/sec.
  35. But only the knapper h h f ll b di

    d has the full-bodied, emic experience of delivering the blow delivering the blow in a coordinated split-second action p Etic perspective Emic perspective p p
  36. Emic choices are Emic choices are lost to the observer

    as well as the archaeologist. Eti lt Etic results are measurable by the archaeologist and archaeologist and can serve as proxies for what the observer saw.
  37. This is one locus where variation can enter the process.

    Invention?
  38. And repeat… And repeat… And repeat… And repeat… Across the

    population of flakes he produces as he learns from other role models role models… …with whatever pedagogical scaffolding exists within the society…
  39. Across the population of p p knappers who contribute to

    the palimpsest…
  40. The Behavioral Approach to Cultural Transmission (BACT) to all material

    cultures: (BACT) to all material cultures: A Two-Part Approach 1 Observational Learning of Knapping Choices: 1. Observational Learning of Knapping Choices: − Which emic choices of the artisan are visible as etic observations by the learner? − Which observations of the learner are also etically observable by the archaeologist? 2. How does dual inheritance work in foraging societies?: 2. How does dual inheritance work in foraging societies?: − Where and when are foragers enculturated? − Where and when do they witness technological performances that affect their adoption of performances that affect their adoption of technological choices? − What is the structure by which individuals encounter their Inclusive Inheritance (in NCT terms)?
  41. Contact events in the pathways of the landscape = contact

    at a social distance landscape = contact at a social distance without much cultural transmission AnthroPhoto
  42. Foragers experience most of their enculturating environment in contexts of

    enculturating environment in contexts of social intimacy AnthroPhoto
  43. Differential access = Differential Knowledge Differential access Differential Knowledge AnthroPhoto

  44. 44

  45. TASKSCAPE VISIBILITY The amount of lithic technological knowledge technological knowledge

    learnable by each party depends upon where contact occurs relative to where lithic operational sequences are d enacted.
  46. None
  47. Analytical Proxies for Four Domains of Blank Production Choices at

    the Assemblage Blank Production Choices at the Assemblage Level • Platform Maintenance: Platform Treatment E terior Platform Angle Tactical choices for each flake Exterior Platform Angle Platform Thickness • Dorsal Surface Convexity: L th/ idth ti L it di l t t f th f d Tactical choices for each flake Strategic choices for each core Length/width ratio: Longitudinal extent of the surface removed Width/thickness ratio: Vertical convexity of the mass removed Lateral edge type: Longitudinal shape of the surface C i b f d l id d fi i h i Cross-section type: Number of dorsal ridges defining the convexity Profile type: Curvature of the core surface removed • Core Modification: Core Orientation: extant core morphology Core Convexity Management: refits, diagnostic reparations. • Direction of Core Exploitation: (the only true “sequence model” aspect) Early Exploitation: Dorsal scar patterns of debitage vs. blank length. Late Exploitation: Dorsal scar patterns of debitage vs. blank length.
  48. Analytical Proxies for Tool Kit Morphology Visible on each tool

    Visible at the assemblage level • Laminarity (length/width ratio) of tools. • Vertical Convexity (width/thickness). L l Ed T • Lateral Edge Type • Distal Terminus Type • Profile Type • Profile Type • Unique Retouch Type(s) • Tool Types: MP or UP dominated yp Importance of comparability given intensity of Importance of comparability given intensity of core reduction and tool exhaustion.
  49. None
  50. Pair-wise comparisons comparisons between 18 assemblages dating between 60-30 kya

    in 3 regions: g Levant, Central Europe, Eastern Europe Eastern Europe
  51. Nesting Dual Inheritance Processes according to the distinction between Blank

    Production & Tool Kit Morphology Tostevin 2012
  52. Claes Andersson (yesterday): “It is easier to exchange peripheral elements

    than core elements” peripheral elements than core elements Tostevin 2012
  53. Bohunician Behavioral Behavioral Package (BBP) assemblages

  54. Škrdla, P., 2003. Comparison of Boker Tachtit and Stránská skála

    MP/UP Transitional Industries. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 33:33-69.
  55. Spread of the Bohunician Behavioral Package in Greenland Interstadial 14-12

    (52-48 ka calBP) in Greenland Interstadial 14-12 (52-48 ka calBP). Korolevo II-II Brno-Bohunice Stránská skála III, Stránská skála IIIa 4 Stránská skála IIIa-4, Stránská skála IIIc Temnata VI, TD-2 ? Boker Tachtit 1 & 2 Taramsan?
  56. The African “Revolution That Wasn’t” indicates that critical H s

    s adaptations and thus their demic critical H. s. s. adaptations, and thus their demic expansions, could have occurred piecemeal.
  57. The “One Great Wave” analogy vs. lti l f i

    i t iti multiple waves of various intensities for Out of Africa 2
  58. Bohunician Behavioral Package as a cultural i i d i

    G l d di l transmission event during Greenland Interstadial 14-12 (52-48ka calBP). A weak wave of Levantine hominins (modern or Neanderthal) before the Early Aurignacian & Proto-Aurignacian
  59. Direct Bias or Frequency biased transmission due to direct d

    ti b fit f th t it What caused the spread of the Bohunician adaptive benefit of the trait of the Bohunician Behavioral Package? Recognition in g specific regions Indirect biased transmission due to coattail effect on the pro effect on the proxy
  60. Preserved Material Culture Non-preserved/invisible Material Culture Time 1 Existing Artifact

    form Existing Artifact/Trait indirect biased transmission “A” “X” transmission New neutral Adaptive New neutral Artifact form “B” carried by il ff Time 2 Adaptive Benefit of new if / i indirect biased transmission coattail effect from Y Artifact/Trait “Y”
  61. None
  62. “Manual” TCSA Measurements on 3D Models

  63. Morphological space of Blanks produced during core reduction Morphological space

    of Blanks chosen for of Blanks chosen for the toolkit
  64. Generative Entrenchment Adapted and redrawn from Wimsatt & Schank (2004:

    Fig.1). Generative Entrenchment, Modularity and Evolvability: When Genic Selection meets the Whole Organism. In, G. Schlosser and G Wagner, eds., Modularity in Development and Evolution, 2004, Chicago: U Chicago Press, pp. 359-394.
  65. Morphological space of Blanks produced during core reduction Application of

    retouch (particularly backing & microburin) accesses microburin) accesses novel morphospace Morphological space of Blanks chosen for of Blanks chosen for the toolkit
  66. Instead of “New Data-Old Theories”, Paleolithic Archaeology needs: Paleolithic Archaeology

    needs: New Middle Range Theory New Middle-Range Theory → N D New Data (although from old artifacts) → New High-level Theory g y to replace Old Theory
  67. A Bright Future but for A Bright Future but for

    The Problem of the Three-Legged Dog
  68. My Thanks To: My Thanks To: All of you for

    your attention! Cl A d Ch l U i i f T h l Claes Andersson, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden William Wimsatt University of Chicago USA William Wimsatt, University of Chicago, USA. Gilliane Monnier, University of Minnesota, USA. Kimberlee Newman & Mark Moore, University of New Kimberlee Newman & Mark Moore, University of New England, Australia Petr Škrdla, Institute of Archaeology, Czech Republic Daniel Richter, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany