driven by feedback cycles: between organisms and between organisms and the physical environment. In connection with sedentism, benefits with larger consequences, which in turn generate ever more problems to be solved. Lock-in effects: Interaction dynamics that become directional by virtue of their least-negotiable contingencies sedentism? tragedy of commons? energetic symbioses?
greatly (e.g. lots of different plant and animal taxa involved) The process was geographically widespread (e.g. Middle East) Common basic stimuli (climate change, loss of mobility, path dependency set by earlier benefits of resource risk management)
TO INTERFACE WITH ARCHAEOLOGY, WE NEED DECISION MODELS (SATISFICING or OPTIMALITY) Allows us to examine decision rules for small repeated actions by agents in relation to constraints such as scheduling conflicts, dominant currencies, etc. Objective is to find out when we have it wrong (not to confirm optimal behavior).
processes that develop non- linearly from small repeated interactions among agents, and between agents and the mutable environment. These feedback relationships provoked a host of new challenges and problems within newly sedentary village, including rising parasite and refuse loads and the functionality of domestic spaces.
were important in AH diets throughout the 1000+ years of occupation, but sheep became more and more important with time. Buitenhuis (1997) reports zooarchaeological evidence for sheep and goat management (morphometrics, age and sex data) or “proto-domestication” for Level 2 occupations (after ca. 8100 cal BC).
the practice? changes in species importance ungulate age and sex structures in situ dung deposits (captivity on site) .... new technologies emerging pest control, space maintenance & redesign, recycling
of living plants. They usually enter archaeological sediments as fresh or burned plant parts concentrated by humans and by livestock. (1) dicot plants (varied) (2) small-seeded grasses (3) cereals (wheat, barley) (4) riverine sedges-rushes and reeds
plants, especially in the case of wheat. Reeds (especially phragmites) were used extensively in construction. Wild grass phytoliths occur in large quantities. Some may represent food processing debris, but the majority seem to be from dung of grazers (e.g. sheep or cattle).