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Stellar Rotation I

Stellar Rotation I

Lecture given at MESA School 2012

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Matteo Cantiello

August 13, 2012
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  1. Matteo Cantiello Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (University of California

    Santa Barbara) Stellar Rotation I
  2. Outline § Disclaimer § Observed rotation rates § Rotating stars

    § Hydrostatic equilibrium § Radiative equilibrium: Von Zeipel Theorem § Modeling rotating stars in 1D: shellular rotation law § Diffusion Approximation § Meridional circulation § Rotational Instabilities § Impact of rotation on stellar evolution § Lifetimes, Luminosities, Surface Abundances... § Final angular momentum content: SNe, GRBs § Spin of compact remnants (WD, NS, BH) UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  3. Rotating stars: observations

  4. Range of rotational velocity NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Fukuda 1982 “In practice all stars are rotating around their axis” - Maeder & Meynet
  5. B Stars in the bright star catalogue NS & GRBs

    2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Abt et al. 2002
  6. Galactic OB Stars NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Huang & Gies 2006
  7. VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (PI: Evans): ~ 900 OB stars observed

    spectroscopically in 30 Dor (LMC) region. Multi-epoch observations to separate binaries from single stars. (Evans et al. 2010) VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey Image credit: NASA, ESA CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  8. B Stars in 30 Doradus NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا

    - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Dufton et al. Submitted
  9. OB Stars in 30 Doradus NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا

    - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School VTFS, private communication Veq (km/s) B Stars O Stars P
  10. VFTS 102, fastest rotating star* NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا

    - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Dufton et al. 2011
  11. VFTS 102, fastest rotating star* NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا

    - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Veq ~ 600 km/s Dufton et al. 2011
  12. Effects of Rotation

  13. Effects of rotation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Rotation
  14. Effects of rotation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Rotation Hydrostatic equilibrium
  15. Effects of rotation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Rotation Radiative equilibrium Hydrostatic equilibrium
  16. Effects of rotation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Rotation Radiative equilibrium Rotational Mixing Hydrostatic equilibrium
  17. Effects of rotation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Rotation Mass loss Radiative equilibrium Rotational Mixing Hydrostatic equilibrium
  18. Hydrostatic Effects

  19. The centrifugal term NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Georgy, Phd Thesis
  20. The centrifugal term NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School The centrifugal force reduces the local gravity.The effect depends on the co-latitude, resulting in departures from spherical simmetry. Tassoul (1978) showed that, except for stars close to critical rotation, the deformation is axially symmetric. Even when this is not the case only the outer most layers of the star are affected (very little mass). In the Roche approximation:
  21. Departure from spherical structure NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Georgy, Phd Thesis In the Roche approximation the deformation of the star approaches the value Req/Rp=1.5
  22. Interferometry of rotating stars NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Domiciano Da Souza et al.2003 Achernar (Be star) Star rotating at 96% of critical velocity (311 km/s) VLTI Observations show that: Req/Rp~1.5
  23. Barotropic Star NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School If Omega is constant (Solid body rotation) or has cilindric symmetry, the centrifugal acceleration can be derived from a potential (V). The eq. of Hydrostatic Equilibrium then implies that the star is Barotropic
  24. Barotropic Star NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School constant on equipotentials g
  25. Baroclinic Star NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School For different rotation laws (e.g. Shellular), the centrifugal acceleration can not be derived from a potential (V). In this case Isobars and Equipotentials DO NOT coincide. The star is Baroclinic
  26. Baroclinic Star NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School not constant on equipotentials g
  27. Baroclinicity leads to instabilities NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School g Isobar Isoentropic A B C Assumption: adiabatic displacement
  28. Baroclinicity leads to instabilities NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School g Isobar Isoentropic A B C Stable (higher density) Assumption: adiabatic displacement
  29. Baroclinicity leads to instabilities NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School g Isobar Isoentropic A B C Stable (higher density) Unstable (hotter) Assumption: adiabatic displacement
  30. Mass-loss

  31. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Ekstrom et al. 2008 N.B. Effects of radiation not included Critical Velocity
  32. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Critical Velocity Gamma-Omega Limit
  33. Rotationally enhanced Mass-loss NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Theoretically one expects additional mass-loss as the star approaches critical rotation, as material becomes less and less bound to the stellar surface. Langer, 1998 See Georgy et al. 2011 for a more thorough discussion of rotationally enhanced mass-loss
  34. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School /mesa/star /work Run_star ../data /private MESA Star /public Inlist prole_columns log_columns run_star_extra.f sub other_* extra_jdot §/private/winds.f
  35. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School §/private/winds.f
  36. Effects of rotation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Rotation Mass loss Hydrostatic equilibrium
  37. Effects of rotation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Rotation Mass loss Radiative equilibrium Hydrostatic equilibrium
  38. Radiative Equilibrium

  39. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School The thermal flux through the surface of a (radiative) rotating star is proportional to the local effective gravity. Since this depends on the co-latitude, one expects a greater radiative flux at the poles than at the equator. The Von Zeipel Theorem Convective Core € ω Von Zeipel (1924)
  40. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School The thermal flux through the surface of a (radiative) rotating star is proportional to the local effective gravity. Since this depends on the co-latitude, one expects a greater radiative flux at the poles than at the equator. The Von Zeipel Theorem Convective Core € ω Von Zeipel (1924)
  41. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School In the case of solid body rotation: Both geff and Teff vary over the surface of a rotating star and influence the emergent spectrum. The equatorial regions are fainter and cooler than the polar ones, which are brighter and hotter (the differences of Teff may reach a factor of 2). This effect is called the gravity darkening.The von Zeipel theorem in a star with shellular rotation shows only minor differences (Maeder, 1999, Maeder & Meynet 2012) The Von Zeipel Theorem Von Zeipel (1924)
  42. Interferometry of rotating stars NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Domiciano Da Souza et al.2005 Altair (A7IV-V Star) VLTI Observations Von Zeipel ‘gravity darkening’ Confirmed
  43. Interferometry of rotating stars NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Domiciano Da Souza et al.2005 Altair (A7IV-V Star) VLTI Observations Von Zeipel ‘gravity darkening’ Confirmed
  44. Interferometry of rotating stars NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Altair (A7IV-V Star): Von Zeipel ‘gravity darkening’ but with a different exponent
  45. Interferometry of rotating stars NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  46. Modeling Rotating Stars

  47. The computational Challenge NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors § Stars are rotating balls of hot plasma § They undergo a variety of instabilities § Large range of timescales § It would be ideal to perform fully (magneto) hydrodynamic calculations. But this is currently computationally impossible. § At this time 3D stellar evolution calculations can evolve a few hours of a star life. § How can we model rotation in a 1D, implicit code? UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  48. According to Zahn (1975), Chaboyer & Zahn (1992), and Zahn

    (1992), anisotropic turbulence acts much stronger on isobars than in the perpendicular direction. This enforces a shellular rotation law (Meynet & Maeder 1997), and it sweeps out compositional differences on isobars. Therefore it can be assumed that matter on isobars is approximately chemically homogeneous. Together with the shellular rotation, this allows us to retain a one-dimensional approximation. The specific angular momentum, j, of a mass shell is treated as a local variable, and the angular velocity, omega, is computed from the specific moment of inertia, i. (Heger et al. 2000) The Shellular Approximation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Rotation and especially differential rotation generates turbulent motions. On the Earth, we have the example of west winds and jet streams. In a radiative zone, the turbulence is stronger (Zahn, 1992) in the horizontal than in the vertical direction, because in the vertical direction the stable thermal gradient opposes a strong force to the fluid motions. In this approach, mass shells correspond to isobars instead of spherical shells.
  49. The structure equations of rotating stars NS & GRBs 2009

    (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School For a star in shellular rotation it is possible to modify the eqs of stellar structure to include the effect of the centrifugal force while keeping the form of the equations very close to that of the non- rotating case. Basically all quantities are redefined on isobars. Mass conservation Hydrostatic Eq. Energy transport ... Endal & Sofia 1978
  50. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School /mesa/star /work Run_star ../data /private MESA Star /public Inlist prole_columns log_columns run_star_extra.f sub other_* extra_jdot §/private/hydro_rotation.f
  51. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School §/private/hydro_rotation.f
  52. Diffusion Equations NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Transport of chemical species: Transport of angular momentum:
  53. Advection- Diffusion Scheme NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School An alternative approach is to solve an advection-diffusion equation for the transport of angular momentum (e.g. in the GENEVA code or the ROSE code). However, as MESA adopts the diffusion approximation (like e.g. KEPLER and STERN), I will not discuss the advection-diffusion scheme here. Nevertheless I suggest you have a look at the relevant literature (e.g. Mader & Meynet 2000, 2012) A very interesting work comparing the different implementations has been published by Potter et al. 2012. While it has been claimed that the advection-diffusion scheme is mathematically more sound, a key result of Potter’s work is that is not yet possible to prefer one of the two implementations, given the available observational constraints.
  54. Effects of rotation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Rotation Mass loss Radiative equilibrium Hydrostatic equilibrium
  55. Effects of rotation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Rotation Mass loss Radiative equilibrium Rotational Mixing Hydrostatic equilibrium
  56. Rotational Instabilities

  57. Differential rotation is expected to arise in stars because of

    hydrostatic structural evolution, mass loss and meridional circulation. As a consequence, stars are subject to a number of local hydrodynamic instabilities. These instabilities arise and cause diffusion of angular momentum (and chemicals) while they try to bring the star back to solid body rotation, its lowest energy state. The unstable interiors of rotating stars NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  58. Rotational Instabilities § Rotational “instabilities” mix rotating stars § Different

    timescales: secular/dynamical instabilities § MESA § (Eddington - Sweet circulation) (ES) § Dynamical and Secular Shear (DSI, SSI) § Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF) § Solberg - Høiland (SH) § (Tayler - Spruit) (TS) § See /mesa/star/private/rotation_mix_info.f NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  59. Eddington - Sweet (D_ES) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  60. Thermal imbalance drives circulations NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  61. Thermal imbalance drives circulations NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  62. Thermal imbalance drives circulations NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Convective Core Meridional circulation UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  63. Meridional Circulation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Maeder & Meynet 2002 20 Msun Vini = 300 km/s
  64. Meridional Circulation NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Maeder & Meynet 2002 20 Msun Vini = 300 km/s τES ∝τKH ωK ω ⎛ ⎝ ⎜ ⎞ ⎠ ⎟ 2
  65. Eddington - Sweet (D_ES) § Is a meridional circulation mixing

    the stellar interior § In massive stars is one of the most efficient processes § Mixing process on t KH € ω NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Convective Core Meridional circulation UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School A diffusion coefficient D_ES enters the diffusion equations
  66. Eddington - Sweet (D_ES) § Is a meridional circulation mixing

    the stellar interior § In massive stars is one of the most efficient processes § Mixing process on t KH τES ∝τKH ωK ω ⎛ ⎝ ⎜ ⎞ ⎠ ⎟ 2 € ω NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Convective Core Meridional circulation UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School A diffusion coefficient D_ES enters the diffusion equations
  67. Dynamical Shear (D_DSI) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  68. Dynamical Shear (D_DSI) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Jake Simon (JILA)
  69. Dynamical Shear (D_DSI) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School § Works very well on horizontal surfaces (isobars) and justifies (together with the baroclinic instabilities) the Shellular approximation § In the vertical direction it is strongly inhibited by density gradients. Can only work for large degree of differential rotation § Mixing process on t Dynamical § Results in D_DSI, entering the diffusion equations = ...
  70. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School /mesa/star /work Run_star ../data /private MESA Star /public Inlist prole_columns log_columns run_star_extra.f sub other_* extra_jdot §/private/rotation_mix_info.f
  71. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School §/private/rotation_mix_info.f
  72. Dynamical Shear (D_DSI) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  73. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School § In the presence of a stabilizing thermal gradient, an eddy might have to wait for heat to diffuse out before an overturn is energetically favorable § Mixing process on t KH § Results in D_SSI, entering the diffusion equations Secular Shear (D_SSI) Thermal Timescale
  74. Solberg - Høiland (D_SH) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School r Rayleigh Criterion for stability € ω
  75. Solberg - Høiland (D_SH) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School r Including the effects of stratification etc. Solberg - Høiland Criterion for stability € ω
  76. Solberg - Høiland (D_SH) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Heger et al. 2000 § For no rotation (or constant j) we recover Ledoux § Can reduce size of convective regions (as j tends to increase outside, one has an extra restoring force) § Results in D_SH, entering the diffusion equations
  77. Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (D_GSF) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School § Baroclinic instability § Two criteria: one is the secular analog of the SH, the other is an analog of the Taylor-Proudman theorem. § The second criteria is generally in contradiction with the shellular law. GSF would try to enforce uniform rotation. D_GSF entering the diffusion equations € ω
  78. Spruit-Tayler (D_ST) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School § Dynamo in a radiative layer § Magnetic energy is generated from differential rotation § Initially a seed magnetic field is stretched by the differential rotation, amplifying the toroidal component of the field § An instability in the toroidal component of the field (Tayler instability) is used to close the dynamo loop Spruit 2002 Convec
  79. Tayler Instability NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Spruit 1999 This is used to generate a poloidal component from the toroidal component of the field
  80. Magnetic fields § Spruit-Tayler Dynamo (Spruit 2002) § Core -

    Envelope coupling 1. Differential rotation winds up toroidal component of B 2. Magnetic torques tend to restore rigid rotation Convective Core If the envelope slows down angular momentum is also removed from the core NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  81. Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Debate on the

    ST Dynamo Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School § The ST dynamo is still under review § While the Tayler instability is sound, the loop proposed by Spruit has been criticized § Simulations of Zahn et al. 2007 could not find a dynamo action § On the other hand simulations of Braithwaite et al. 2006 showed the Spruit-Tayler dynamo § The jury is still out, but it looks like a j-transport mechanism similar to the ST has to work in stars to reproduce some observations (e.g. asteroseismology and spin rates of compact remnants. g-waves could also play a role)
  82. § Spin of compact remnants (Heger et al. 2005, Suijs

    et al. 2008) § Core-envelope coupling leads to spin-down of the core Convective Core Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Magnetic fields Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  83. Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Need for an

    extra j-transport mechanism Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Langer 2012
  84. Evolutionary effects

  85. Impact of rotation § Change in luminosity (size of the

    core, mean molecular weight) § Lifetimes (size of the core) § Surface abundances (Li, B, N, He...) § Mass-loss § WR/O ratio, Red to Blue SG, SN type § Final angular momentum § SN type § GRB NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  86. Calibrating Rotational Mixing

  87. Calibration § Nitrogen (CN, CNO equilibrium) § The compositional barrier

    § The hope of Asteroseismology NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  88. The Hunter Diagram

  89. Chemical homogeneous evolution

  90. Final fate of massive stars

  91. Rotation and Fossil Fields

  92. Chemically Homogeneous Evolution I NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Langer (2012)
  93. The Hunter Diagram NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Brott et al. 2011
  94. The Hunter Diagram II NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School Brott et al. 2011
  95. Chemically Homogeneous Evolution I Time RSG WR Slow rotator Fast

    rotator NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  96. Chemically Homogeneous Evolution I Time RSG WR Slow rotator Fast

    rotator NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  97. Chemically Homogeneous Evolution II R~1000 Rsun RSG R~1 Rsun WR

    Fast rotator Slow rotator NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  98. Chemically Homogeneous Evolution II R~1000 Rsun RSG R~1 Rsun WR

    Fast rotator Slow rotator CCSN NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  99. Chemically Homogeneous Evolution II GRB R~1000 Rsun RSG R~1 Rsun

    WR Fast rotator Slow rotator CCSN NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  100. Chemically Homogeneous Evolution II GRB § Fast rotating massive stars

    can evolve chemically homogeneous § If mass loss is not too high (Low Z) -> Long GRB R~1000 Rsun RSG R~1 Rsun WR Fast rotator Slow rotator CCSN NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  101. Gamma Ray Bursts NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  102. Gamma Ray Bursts NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors The most luminous electromagnetic transients in the universe UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  103. GRB 090429B Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick

    2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Cucchiara et al. 2011 z ~ 9.4 (tUniverse ~ 520 Myrs) CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  104. GRB 090429B Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick

    2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Cucchiara et al. 2011 z ~ 9.4 (tUniverse ~ 520 Myrs) CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  105. Two classes of GRBs NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors § 70% Long (t > 2s) § Associated with the death of massive stars § 30% Short (t < 2s) § Merger of compact objects? (e.g. Berger 2011) Image credit: Price & Rosswog UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  106. Long GRBs Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick

    2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  107. Long GRBs Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick

    2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors § SN (Type Ic, BL) - GRB connection (e.g Stanek et al. 2003, Modjaz et al. 2006, see also Soderberg et al. 2010) § Found in regions of massive star formation (Bloom et al. 1999, Fruchter et al. 2006) § Most (all?) long GRBs produced by the death of massive stars (Woosley & Bloom 2006) CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  108. Long GRBs Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick

    2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors § SN (Type Ic, BL) - GRB connection (e.g Stanek et al. 2003, Modjaz et al. 2006, see also Soderberg et al. 2010) § Found in regions of massive star formation (Bloom et al. 1999, Fruchter et al. 2006) § Most (all?) long GRBs produced by the death of massive stars (Woosley & Bloom 2006) Which massive stars explode as Long Gamma-Ray Bursts? CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors UCSB 2012 Matteo Cantiello MESA School
  109. Central Engines

  110. Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Central Engines 101 Collapsar Woosley 1993 CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  111. Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Central Engines 101 Collapsar Woosley 1993 Eacc ~ 0.01..1Msunc2~1052..54ergs CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  112. Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Central Engines 101 Millisecond Magnetar Usov 1992 CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  113. Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Central Engines 101 Erot ~ 3 1052 (P/ms)-2 (R/10km)2 ergs Millisecond Magnetar Usov 1992 CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  114. Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Central Engines 101 (Spitkovski 2006) Erot ~ 3 1052 (P/ms)-2 (R/10km)2 ergs Millisecond Magnetar Usov 1992 CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  115. • Collapsar Scenario (e.g. Paczinski, Woosley, Macfadyen...) • Magnetar Scenario

    (e.g. Usov, Thompson, Duncan, Wheeler, Metzger, Bucciantini...) § Massive core (BH - NS) § Rapidly rotating core (accretion disk/magnetar) § Compact size R * /c ≈ τengine Recipe to make a long GRB NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  116. Stellar Evolution

  117. Stellar progenitors of GRBs § Observationally GRB/SN ~ 1/1000 §

    Collapsar need compact progenitor with massive, fast rotating core § Canonical evolution of single stars including rotation and B fields can not do it CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  118. Stellar progenitors of GRBs § Observationally GRB/SN ~ 1/1000 §

    Collapsar need compact progenitor with massive, fast rotating core § Canonical evolution of single stars including rotation and B fields can not do it Core Envelope CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  119. Stellar progenitors of GRBs § Observationally GRB/SN ~ 1/1000 §

    Collapsar need compact progenitor with massive, fast rotating core § Canonical evolution of single stars including rotation and B fields can not do it CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  120. Stellar progenitors of GRBs § Observationally GRB/SN ~ 1/1000 §

    Collapsar need compact progenitor with massive, fast rotating core § Canonical evolution of single stars including rotation and B fields can not do it A possible solution: Chemically Homogeneous evolution (Yoon & Langer 2005 - Heger & Woosley 2006) CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  121. Key-ingredient: fast rotation € τ Mix τMS <1 The star

    can not build a compositional gradient and evolves quasi chemically homogeneous How to avoid the core-envelope structure? Rotational “instabilities” can efficiently mix a massive star If Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  122. Any candidates for this evolutionary scenario?

  123. VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (PI: Evans): ~ 900 OB stars observed

    spectroscopically in 30 Dor (LMC) region. Multi-epoch observations to separate binaries from single stars. (Evans et al. 2010) VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey Image credit: NASA, ESA CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  124. VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (PI: Evans): ~ 900 OB stars observed

    spectroscopically in 30 Dor (LMC) region. Multi-epoch observations to separate binaries from single stars. § Nitrogen surface abundances § Rotational velocities § Binary fraction § A statistically significant sample of the most massive stars (see e.g. Crowther et al. 2010) (Evans et al. 2010) 30 Doradus (HST) VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  125. VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey: A Chemically Homogeneous Star NS & GRBs

    2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Bestenlehner et al. 2011 Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors VFTS 682 H-rich WR Star (WN5h) ~30 pc away from R136 in the LMC (Tarantula Nebula) Teff~53kK log(L/Lsun)~6.5 Can be explained with a chemically homogeneous Mini~[120-210] Msun star Requires initial rotation Veq>200 km/s See Martins et al. 2009 for other 2 CH candidates LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  126. § Chemically homogeneous evolution needs high rotational velocity Rotational velocity

    NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  127. § Chemically homogeneous evolution needs high rotational velocity Stars born

    with high rotational velocity Single star progenitors (Yoon at al. 2006) Rotational velocity NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  128. Single star progenitors (Yoon, Langer & Norman, 2006) § Long

    GRBs prefer low metallicity (i.e. weaker winds) Z ~ 1/5 ZSun (SMC) § This metallicity threshold is sensitive to mass-loss efficiency ≤ NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  129. § Chemically homogeneous evolution needs high rotational velocity Stars born

    with high rotational velocity Single star progenitors (Yoon at al. 2006) Rotational velocity NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  130. § Chemically homogeneous evolution needs high rotational velocity Stars born

    with high rotational velocity Single star progenitors (Yoon at al. 2006) Rotational velocity Stars spun-up in binary systems Binary star progenitors (Cantiello et al. 2007) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  131. § Chemically homogeneous evolution needs high rotational velocity Stars born

    with high rotational velocity Single star progenitors (Yoon at al. 2006) Rotational velocity Stars spun-up in binary systems Binary star progenitors (Cantiello et al. 2007) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Other binary progenitor models of long GRB (e.g.: Tidal spin up, Binary Mergers, Explosive Common-Envelope Ejection) Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  132. A huge fraction of Massive stars is in binaries! NS

    & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Courtesy: H. Sana Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  133. Binary star progenitors § We want to spin-up a star

    and induce chemically homogeneous evolution Mass (angular momentum) accretion NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  134. Binary star progenitors § We want to spin-up a star

    and induce chemically homogeneous evolution Mass (angular momentum) accretion NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors § A merger is also a possible way to obtain a single, fast rotating massive star (e.g. Fryer et al., Podsiadlowski et al.) Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  135. SN Spin up by accretion Rotational Mixing!! M * ~

    13M Sun M co ~ 10M Sun J co ~ 2x1016cm2/s NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors 15M Sun 16M Sun Case B mass transfer 21M Sun SN Vrun ~ 30 km/s Runaway Wolf-Rayet LGRB Credit: A. Feild (STScI) Veq ~ 700 km/s LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  136. Any candidates for this binary evolutionary scenario?

  137. VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors

    Image credit: NASA, ESA CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  138. VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors

    Image credit: NASA, ESA CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  139. Dufton et al. 2011

  140. Veq ~ 600 km/s Dufton et al. 2011

  141. Veq ~ 600 km/s It’s a Runaway Dufton et al.

    2011
  142. Veq ~ 600 km/s It’s a Runaway Lies close to

    a young Pulsar Dufton et al. 2011
  143. Lies close to a Pulsar and a SNR LCOGT 2012

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Image credit: NASA, ESA d~12 pc CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Dufton et al. 2011
  144. Pulsar - VFTS102 Connection LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB

    Progenitors Image credit: NASA, ESA § Diffuse X-ray emission consistent with bow- shock if pulsar is moving at ~1000 km/s Wang & Gotthelf (1998) § Adopting estimated age of pulsar (5000-24000 yrs Marshall et al. 1998, Chu et al. 1992 ), velocity for being casually connected to VFTS102 is 500-2500 km/s § An attractive scenario, but needs to be confirmed (HST proper motion study PI: Lennon) § Other scenarios are possible (e.g dynamical ejection) CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  145. GRB Observations

  146. Prediction: Metallicity Threshold (Yoon, Langer & Norman, 2006) § Long

    GRBs prefer low metallicity (i.e. weaker winds) Z ~ 1/5 ZSun (SMC) § This metallicity threshold is sensitive to mass-loss efficiency ≤ NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  147. Observations: Metallicity Threshold? NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors (Modjaz et al.2007) Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Diagnostic: KD02 CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  148. Observations: Metallicity Threshold? NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria)

    Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors (Modjaz et al.2007) Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Z ~ 0.2 - 0.6 ZSun Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Diagnostic: KD02 CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  149. Observations: LGRBs prefer low Metallicity? NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا

    - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors (Levesque et al.2010) Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Diagnostic: KK04 CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Tremonti et al. 2004 M-Z relation
  150. Observations: LGRBs prefer low Metallicity? NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا

    - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors (Levesque et al.2010) Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Diagnostic: KK04 Kocevski et al. 2009 CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Tremonti et al. 2004 M-Z relation
  151. Observations: LGRBs prefer low Metallicity? NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا

    - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors (Levesque et al.2010) Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Diagnostic: KK04 Kocevski et al. 2009 CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Tremonti et al. 2004 M-Z relation
  152. Or maybe even something else... NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا

    - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors § The low metallicity observed in long GRB host galaxies is just a consequence of the observed correlation between SSFR and Z (Mannucci et al. 2011)
  153. Conclusions § Long GRBs? Fast rotating massive stars that evolve

    chemically homogeneous § Two classes of progenitors: single and binary stars § In massive binaries it is possible to spin up a star and form a rapidly rotating collapsing core § This scenario is likely to produce a runaway WR which travels several hundred pc before collapse § Both single and binary progenitors prefer low Z § The origin of observed low-metallicity trend for GRB host galaxies is currently debated § VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey: chemically homogeneous star and most rapidly-rotating O-star NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  154. None
  155. !

  156. CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors mesa.sourceforge.net Open Source,

    State-of-the-art Stellar evolution
  157. Open Source, State-of-the-art Stellar evolution CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors
  158. CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors

  159. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Thanks! LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  160. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Thanks! We don’t believe you LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  161. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Thanks! We don’t believe you I have to pee... LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  162. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Thanks! We don’t believe you I have to pee... LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  163. Predicted GRB/SN(z) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Yoon et al. 2006 This relies on the assumed distribution of initial rotational velocities! Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors The CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  164. Perceived GRB and SN Distribution as function of z NS

    & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Yoon et al. 2006 + cosmic Z evolution model of Langer and Normann 2006 Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  165. Perceived GRB and SN Distribution as function of z NS

    & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Yoon et al. 2006 + cosmic Z evolution model of Langer and Normann 2006 Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  166. Perceived GRB and SN Distribution as function of z NS

    & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  167. Runaway nature of (some) Long GRB progenitors? Jakobsson et al.

    2012
  168. Hammer et al. 06: deep spectroscopic observations of nearest GRBs

    host galaxies revealed the presence of WR and O stars in compact clusters. Surprisingly high spatial resolution imaging shows that GRB/SNe exploded few hundred parsecs away from these regions. Observational Consequence § Position of GRB in the sky NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors See also Han et al. 2010 LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  169. Hammer et al. 06: deep spectroscopic observations of nearest GRBs

    host galaxies revealed the presence of WR and O stars in compact clusters. Surprisingly high spatial resolution imaging shows that GRB/SNe exploded few hundred parsecs away from these regions. Observational Consequence § Position of GRB in the sky Hammer et. al 2006, NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors See also Han et al. 2010 LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  170. LGRBs prefer low Metallicity NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors (Levesque et al.2010) Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  171. LGRBs prefer low Metallicity NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors (Levesque et al.2010) Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  172. Pop III GRB Progenitors NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Yoon et al. 2012 CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  173. § Chemically homogeneous evolution needs high rotational velocity Stars born

    with high rotational velocity Single star progenitors (Yoon at al. 2006) Rotational velocity NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Distribution of Vsini/Vk for the young SMC cluster NGC 346 Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  174. Predicted GRB/SN(Z) NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Yoon et al. 2006 This relies on the assumed distribution of initial rotational velocities! Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  175. § Spin of compact remnants (Heger et al. 2005, Suijs

    et al. 2008) § Core-envelope coupling leads to spin-down of the core Convective Core Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Magnetic fields Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  176. Evolution of Internal Structure - Homogeneous Model NS & GRBs

    2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Yoon & Langer 2005 Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  177. SWIFT GRBs Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Credit:

    Edo Berger (Harvard-Smithsonian CfA) Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  178. NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long

    GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Martins et al. 2009 Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors SMC: WR1 another chemically homogeneous star? According to Hunter et al. (2008), about 10% of the SMC stars have V sin i higher than 300 km/s CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  179. NGC 346: a cluster of young stars in the SMC

    Credit: Mokiem et al. 2007 Rotational Velocity vs Radial Velocity NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  180. NGC 346: a cluster of young stars in the SMC

    Credit: Mokiem et al. 2007 Rotational Velocity vs Radial Velocity NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  181. NGC 346: a cluster of young stars in the SMC

    Credit: Mokiem et al. 2007 Rotational Velocity vs Radial Velocity NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  182. NGC 346: a cluster of young stars in the SMC

    Credit: Mokiem et al. 2007 Rotational Velocity vs Radial Velocity Is it possible that binary interaction is the cause of the existence of fast rotators? NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  183. Evolution of Internal Structure NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا -

    Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Cantiello et al. 2007 Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Binary Progenitor Single Progenitor CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  184. GRB 090429B Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick

    2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Cucchiara et al. 2011 z ~ 9.4 (tUniverse ~ 520 Myrs) CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  185. GRB 090429B Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick

    2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Cucchiara et al. 2011 z ~ 9.4 (tUniverse ~ 520 Myrs) CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  186. SN Spin up by accretion 16M Sun 15M Sun LGRB

    Runaway Wolf-Rayet Rotational Mixing!! 4M Sun 21M Sun M * ~ 13M Sun M co ~ 10M Sun J co ~ 2x1016cm2/s Case B mass transfer V ~ 30 km/s NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  187. None
  188. NGC 346: a cluster of young stars in the SMC

    Credit: Mokiem et al. 2007 Rotational Velocity vs Surface Helium Rotational Velocity vs Radial Velocity NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  189. NGC 346: a cluster of young stars in the SMC

    Credit: Mokiem et al. 2007 Rotational Velocity vs Surface Helium Rotational Velocity vs Radial Velocity NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  190. NGC 346: a cluster of young stars in the SMC

    Credit: Mokiem et al. 2007 Rotational Velocity vs Surface Helium Rotational Velocity vs Radial Velocity Low number statistics... But interesting! NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors CfA 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  191. None
  192. None
  193. None
  194. None
  195. None
  196. Specific Angular momentum - Homogeneous Model NS & GRBs 2009

    (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Yoon & Langer 2005 Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  197. GRB 090423 Text Credit: Gemini Observatory/NSF/AURA. Fox, Cucchiara & Berger

    Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  198. GRB 090423 Text Credit: Gemini Observatory/NSF/AURA. Fox, Cucchiara & Berger

    Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  199. GRB 090423 Text z = 8.2 tUniverse ~ 630 Myrs

    Credit: Gemini Observatory/NSF/AURA. Fox, Cucchiara & Berger Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  200. Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Tanvir et al.

    2009 Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  201. ... most are close binaries! NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا

    - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Courtesy: H. Sana Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  202. ... most are close binaries! NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا

    - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Courtesy: H. Sana Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  203. ... most are close binaries! NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا

    - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Courtesy: H. Sana Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Binary interactions can not be neglected!!! Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  204. Results § This model explains how a massive star can

    obtain the high rotational velocity needed to evolve quasi-chemically homogeneous and fulfills the Collapsar scenario for Long GRBs § Unlike single star models, the star doesn’t need to be born with an high rotational velocity § The donor star dies as a SN type Ib/c 7Myrs before the collapse of the accreting companion § The system is likely to be broke up by the SN kick (80%) § The accreting companion becomes a Runaway WR star and travels few hundred pc before producing a Long GRB Runaway GRBs NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  205. ( Zen and The art of ) Evolving stars toward

    Long GRBs NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  206. Conclusions § Long GRBs? Fast rotating massive stars that evolve

    chemically homogeneous § Two classes of progenitors: single and binary stars § In massive binaries it is possible to spin up a star and form a collapsar § This scenario is likely to produce a runaway WR which travels several hundred pc before collapse § Both single and binary progenitors prefer low Z NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  207. Observational Consequences II § Afterglow properties NS & GRBs 2009

    (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  208. Observational Consequences II Constant Density Van Marle et al. 2006

    § Afterglow properties NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  209. Stellar Evolution NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo

    Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors § Hard to fulfill the collapsar scenario § Need compact size (removal of the stellar envelope) and high specific angular momentum in the core § This is expected, since #(GRB/SNe) ~ 1/1000 Core Envelope Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  210. More than 50% of Massive stars are in binaries! NS

    & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Courtesy: H. Sana Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  211. Observational Consequence § Position of GRB in the sky NS

    & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors HST Image for: GRB980425, GRB020903 and GRB030329 Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors
  212. Observational Consequence § Position of GRB in the sky Hammer

    et. al NS & GRBs 2009 (ﺓةﻱيﺭرﺩدﻥنﻙكﺱسﺇإﻝلﺍا - Alexandria) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Fireworks 2009 (Bonn) Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors HST Image for: GRB980425, GRB020903 and GRB030329 Leicester 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Stockholm 2009 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors Sedgwick 2011 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors LCOGT 2012 Matteo Cantiello Long GRB Progenitors