Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

Container Basics

September 23, 2018

Container Basics

Basics of Linux Containers with some background history


September 23, 2018

More Decks by Michael

Other Decks in Programming


  1. Michael Kehoe $ WHOAMI • Staff Site Reliability Engineer @

    LinkedIn • Production-SRE Team; • Disaster Recovery • Incident Response • Visibility Engineering • Reliability Principles • Find me online at: • @matrixtek • https://michael-kehoe.io • linkedin.com/in/michaelkkehoe
  2. Outline 1 What are Containers 2 Containers, Zones, Jails, VMs

    3 Containers in detail 4 Containers: cgroups 5 Containers: Namespaces 6 Containers: CoW 7 Containers: LSM 8 Runtimes

    I E F R A Z E L L E https://twitter.com/thejsj/status/840295431779172352
  4. “The word ‘container’ doesn’t mean anything super precise. Basically there

    are a few new Linux kernel features (‘namespaces’ and ’cgroups’) that let you isolate processes from each other. When you use those features, you call it ‘containers’” J U L I A E V A N S https://jvns.ca/blog/2016/10/10/what-even-is-a-container/
  5. “Containers are processes, born from tarballs, anchored to namespaces, controlled

    by cgroups” A L I C E G O L D F U S S https://twitter.com/lucacanducci/status/1011909897640927232
  6. Containers • Security Wise: Acts like a chroot jail •

    Resource Wise: Similar to VM • Deployment Wise: Fast and lightweight What are containers?
  7. Built off chroot BSD Jails • Processes created in the

    chrooted environment cannot access files or resources outside of it* • Processes are only limited by the part of the filesystem they can access • Four key elements: • Directory subtree • Hostname • IP Address • Command to run BSD Jails
  8. Virtualizing operating system services Solaris Zones • A zone is

    a virtualized operating system environment created within a single instance of the Solaris Operating System • Root zone – Default zone for the system & system-wide administrative tasks • Non-global zone - Zones for running specific workloads Solaris Zones
  9. Solaris Zones FEATURES Processes cannot change zones Security Zone can

    provide isolation at almost any level of granularity Granularity Applications are prevented from monitoring or intercepting each other's network traffic, file system data, or process activity. Isolation Flexible network segmentation options Network Isolation The same application environment can be maintained on different physical machines Virtualization https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19044-01/sol.containers/817-1592/zones.intro-1/index.html
  10. Emulation of a Computer System Virtual Machine • Hypervisor uses

    native execution to share & manage hardware • Multiple environments isolated from each other • Separate kernel & operating system instances Virtual Machine
  11. Containers Limiting the resources that can be used by a

    process/ set of processes cgroups Isolating filesystem resources Namespaces Implicit sharing or shadowing Copy on Write Locking down container privileges Linux Security Modules
  12. cgroups • CPU – Limit CPU bandwidth • Cpuacct •

    Cpuset • Memory – Control the userland memory, kernel data structures, TCP socket buffers • IO – Control bandwidth or IOPS • PID-Limit number of PIDs • Network – Control Bandwidth * • And more… * With use of tc/ iptables Containers in Detail
  13. Namespaces • CGroup – Cgroup root directory • IPC –

    Control the userland memory, kernel data structures, TCP socket buffers • Network (net) – Network devices/ stacks/ ports • Mount – Mount points can be private or shared • Process ID (pid) – Only see PID’s in same PID namespace • User ID (user) – Mapping of UID’s • UTS – Set the hostname in cgroup Containers in Detail
  14. Copy on Write • Reduces memory footprint • Helps to

    reduce container boot times • Details: • Memory “resource” can be shared if only read • Copy of data is deferred until first write Containers in Detail
  15. Linux Security Modules • AppArmor • SELinux • Seccomp •

    Capabilities • NoNewPrivs Containers in Detail
  16. Container Runtimes • LXC • runc • lmctfy • cri-o

    • containerd • rkt Container Runtimes
  17. Other Resources ZONES Oracle: System Administration Guide: Oracle Solaris Containers-Resource

    Management and Oracle Solaris Zones https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19044-01/sol.containers/817-1592/zones.intro-1/index.html https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19253-01/817-1592/zone/index.html Brendan Gregg: Documentation: Zones http://www.brendangregg.com/zones.html#resource0
  18. Other Resources CONTAINERS Jerome Petazzoni: Anatomy of a Container: Namespaces,

    cgroups & Some Filesystem Magic - LinuxCon https://www.slideshare.net/jpetazzo/anatomy-of-a-container-namespaces-cgroups-some-filesystem-magic- linuxcon Jessie Frazelle: Containers from User Space (LinuxConfAU 2018) https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1UuHvR_kvZ3BF1pSXyv4mMKX9vmGr7GXm97USx7mzTXY/ Julia Evans: What is even a container https://jvns.ca/blog/2016/10/10/what-even-is-a-container/ Redhat: Managing system resources on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 & 7 https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/6/html- single/resource_management_guide/index https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/red_hat_enterprise_linux/7/html- single/resource_management_guide/index Akihiro Suzuki: Real-Time Task Partitioning using Cgroups https://elinux.org/images/8/84/Real-Time_Tasks_Partitioning_using_Cgroups.pdf