of the information sources they rely on (McMurray, Horst, & Samuelson, 2012) Pragmatic support: knowledge of the speaker’s intended referent – information available in the moment of reference (“pragmatic timescale”) Context-independent support: knowledge of the lexicon – information acquired over years of speaking language (“lexical timescale”)
same speech community use the same words to refer to the same objects. Principle of Contrast: Different linguistic forms refer to different meanings. 1. You used a word I’ve never heard before. 2. Presumably, we both call a ball “ball”. 3. If you’d meant to refer to the ball, you would have said “ball.” 4. You didn’t, thus, the “dax” must refer to the new object. (e.g. Clark, 1987; Diesendruck & Markson, 2001)
children with autism, who have impairments in pragmatic reasoning – Typically developing children ≈ children with autism, on disambiguation task – Evidence for lexical support? Diesendruck and Markson (2001) – Compare performance on a novel facts about an object relative to a novel referential label – Label condition ≈ fact condition – Evidence for pragmatic support?
a causal system, if A causes B, does not imply that C does not also cause B. – “explaining away bias” - Pragmatic and context-independent knowledge could BOTH be supporting behavior. - The relative contributions of the supports could vary across people, contexts, and development.
in a social context. – Thus, behavior could be supported by information on different timescales. • Pragmatic (~“task demands”) • Context-independent – Because these supports are not mutually exclusive, difficult to tease apart empirically.
abstraction - Can simultaneously acquire knowledge at multiple levels - Captures inferences at both the pragmatic and lexical timescales - Used this approach to begin to model disambiguation bias (Frank, Goodman, & Tenenbaum, 2009; Lewis & Frank, 2013)
with behavior - Theories not mutually exclusive Need quantitative predictions by using computational models (e.g. hierarchical Bayesian models) W I Situations S Referential Intentions L Lexicon Words O Objects Lexical Constraint C