Using Responsive Images Responsibly: Performance & Accessibility [Full Stack]

C3e8ba214714b1402f3073334249fcdc?s=47 newtron
November 22, 2014

Using Responsive Images Responsibly: Performance & Accessibility [Full Stack]

Full Stack Toronto 2014,
November 22, 2014
https://github.com/nwtn/pres-respimg-perf-fsto

C3e8ba214714b1402f3073334249fcdc?s=128

newtron

November 22, 2014
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  1. David Newton, St. Michael’s Hospital 1 1 Using Responsive Images

    Responsibly: Performance & Accessibility: Full Stack Toronto 2014 Twitter: @newtron Github: @nwtn Email: david@davidnewton.ca Slides: https://github.com/nwtn/pres-respimg-perf-fsto
  2. 2 Why accessibility? Why performance?

  3. 3 What is “accessibility”?

  4. “ 4 ‘Disability’ means… any degree of physical disability, infirmity,

    malformation or disfigurement that is caused by bodily injury, birth defect or illness… —Accessibility for Ontarians with Disabilities Act
  5. 5 Accessibility Deliver a great experience to all users, regardless

    of their ability.
  6. “ 6 Following these guidelines will make content accessible to

    a wider range of people with disabilities, including blindness and low vision, deafness and hearing loss, learning disabilities, cognitive limitations, limited movement, speech disabilities, photosensitivity and combinations of these. Following these guidelines will also often make your Web content more usable to users in general. —Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (emphasis mine)
  7. 7 Progressive enhancement

  8. “ 8 The goal of Web design is not merely

    to dazzle, but to deliver information to the widest audience possible. …Compromise should not come at the expense of the user, but rather in terms of the native capabilities of the user’s choice of device.… Leave no one behind. —Steven Champeon, Inclusive Web Design for the Future (emphasis mine)
  9. 9 Progressive enhancement Deliver a great experience to all users,

    regardless of their browser’s ability.
  10. 10 Responsive web design

  11. “ 11 Rather than creating disconnected designs, each tailored to

    a particular device or browser, we should instead treat them as facets of the same experience. —Ethan Marcotte, Responsive Web Design (emphasis mine)
  12. 12 Responsive web design Deliver a great experience to all

    users, regardless of their viewing context.
  13. 13 Web performance

  14. “ 14 Many of us are fortunate to live in

    high bandwidth regions, but there are still large portions of the world that do not. By keeping your client side code small and lightweight, you can literally open your product up to new markets. —Chris Zacharias, Page Weight Matters (emphasis mine)
  15. 15 Web performance Deliver a great experience to all users,

    regardless of their connection.
  16. 16 Accessibility Progressive enhancement Responsive web design Web performance

  17. 17 Universal design Deliver a great experience to all users.

  18. 17 Universal design Deliver a great experience to all users.

  19. 18 Accessibility Progressive enhancement Responsive web design Web performance Universal

    web design Accessibility Progressive enhancement Responsive web design Web performance
  20. 18 Accessibility Progressive enhancement Responsive web design Web performance Universal

    web design Accessibility Progressive enhancement Responsive web design Web performance
  21. 18 Universal web design Accessibility Progressive enhancement Responsive web design

    Web performance
  22. “ 19 Universal design is the design of products and

    environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design. —Ronald L. Mace
  23. 20 Why images?

  24. 21 —Marc Andreessen, www-talk, February 1993

  25. 22 63% of Americans used a phone to access the

    internet 34% of Americans used a mobile device as their primary way to access the web
  26. “ 23 More human beings today have access to a

    cellphone than…a clean toilet. –Anand Giridharadas, New York Times April 10 2010
  27. “ 23 More human beings today have access to a

    cellphone than…a clean toilet. –Anand Giridharadas, New York Times April 10 2010
  28. 24 — OpenSignal, Android Fragmentation Visualized (August 2014)

  29. 25 —https://twitter.com/lukew/status/507880029737328640/photo/1

  30. 26 img { max-width: 100%; }

  31. 27

  32. 28

  33. 29 A solution: Serve one big image and let the

    browser scale it
  34. 30

  35. 31

  36. 32 —HTTP Archive, November 1 2014 Stylesheets 57 KB HTML

    60 KB Flash 76 KB Other 152 KB Scripts 305 KB Images 1,206 KB Total 1,925 KB
  37. 33

  38. 34

  39. 35 2x resolution = 4x as many pixels 3x resolution

    = 9x as many pixels 4x resolution = 16x as many pixels
  40. 36 more pixels = more energy more pixels = more

    money more pixels = more time
  41. 37 — Dave Rupert , Mo’ Pixels, Mo’ Problems Caption

  42. 38 Why images?

  43. 39 Responsive images

  44. 40 A solution: Serve one big image and let the

    browser scale it
  45. 41 A better solution: Serve an appropriate image to each

    user
  46. 42

  47. 43

  48. 44

  49. 45 SVG WebP JPEG XR JPEG 2000

  50. 46

  51. 47 Using JavaScript is a bad idea.

  52. 48 Using CSS is a bad idea.

  53. 49 http://whatwg.org/html#the-picture-element Responsive images specification

  54. 50 Firefox (Gecko) Chrome/Opera (Blink) Safari (WebKit) Internet Explorer (Trident)

    srcset (x) N/A Chrome 34 Opera 21 Works now! Safari 8 Works now! N/A? srcset (x & w) + sizes Behind a flag: FF 32 On by default: FF 36? Chrome 38 Opera 25 Works now! Safari 8.1? 12? picture Behind a flag: FF 33 On by default: FF 36? Chrome 38 Opera 25 Works now! Safari 8.1? 12?
  55. 51 https://github.com/scottjehl/picturefill Picturefill by Scott Jehl http://filamentgroup.com/lab/to-picturefill.html To Picturefill, or

    not to Picturefill
  56. 52 https://github.com/ResponsiveImagesCG/ wp-tevko-responsive-images WP-tevko-responsive-images

  57. 53 Resolution switching Markup

  58. 53 Resolution switching Markup

  59. 54 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" />

  60. 55 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" srcset="wolf300.jpg 0.5x, wolf600.jpg 1x,

    wolf1200.jpg 2x, wolf2400.jpg 3x, wolf4800.jpg 4x" />
  61. 56 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" srcset="wolf300.jpg 0.5x, wolf600.jpg 1x,

    wolf1200.jpg 2x, wolf2400.jpg 3x, wolf4800.jpg 4x" />
  62. 57 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" srcset="wolf300.jpg 0.5x, wolf600.jpg 1x,

    wolf1200.jpg 2x, wolf2400.jpg 3x, wolf4800.jpg 4x" />
  63. 58 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" srcset="wolf300.jpg 0.5x, wolf600.jpg 1x,

    wolf1200.jpg 2x, wolf2400.jpg 3x, wolf4800.jpg 4x" />
  64. 59 <img src="wolf600.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" srcset="wolf300.jpg 0.5x, wolf600.jpg 1x,

    wolf1200.jpg 2x, wolf2400.jpg 3x, wolf4800.jpg 4x" />
  65. 60 <img src="wolf600.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" srcset="wolf300.jpg 0.5x, wolf600.jpg 1x,

    wolf1200.jpg 2x, wolf2400.jpg 3x, wolf4800.jpg 4x" />
  66. 61 Viewport (and resolution!) switching Markup

  67. 62 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" />

  68. 63 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="100vw" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg

    600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  69. 64 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="100vw" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg

    600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  70. 65 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="100vw" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg

    600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  71. 66 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="100vw" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg

    600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  72. 67 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="100vw" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg

    600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  73. 68 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="100vw" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg

    600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  74. 69 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="600px" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg

    600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  75. 70 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="calc(100vw - 10em)" srcset="wolf300.jpg

    300w, wolf600.jpg 600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  76. 71 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes=“100%" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg

    600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  77. 72 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="100vw" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg

    600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  78. 73

  79. 74 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="(min-width: 1000px) 33vw, (min-width:

    600px) 50vw, 100vw" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg 600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  80. 75 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="(min-width: 1000px) 33vw, (min-width:

    600px) 50vw, 100vw" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg 600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  81. 76 File type switching Markup

  82. 77 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" />

  83. 78 <picture> <source type="image/webp" srcset="wolf4800.webp" /> <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad

    wolf" /> </picture>
  84. 79 <picture> <source type="image/webp" srcset="wolf4800.webp" /> <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad

    wolf" /> </picture>
  85. 80 <picture> <source type="image/webp" srcset="wolf4800.webp" /> <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad

    wolf" /> </picture>
  86. 81 <picture> <source type="image/webp" srcset="wolf4800.webp" /> <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad

    wolf" /> </picture>
  87. 82 <picture> <source type="image/webp" srcset="wolf4800.webp" /> <source type="image/vnd.ms-photo" srcset="wolf4800.jxr" />

    <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" /> </picture>
  88. 83 <picture> <source type="image/webp" srcset="wolf4800.webp" /> <source type="image/vnd.ms-photo" srcset="wolf4800.jxr" />

    <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" /> </picture>
  89. 84 Art direction Markup

  90. 85 —Adventure Time

  91. 86

  92. 87

  93. 88 <img src="wolf4800.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" />

  94. 89 <picture> <source media="(min-width: 1000px)" srcset="wolf-crop-bg.jpg" /> <source media="(min-width: 600px)"

    srcset="wolf-crop-sm.jpg" /> <img src="wolf.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" /> </picture>
  95. 90 <picture> <source media="(min-width: 1000px)" srcset="wolf-crop-bg.jpg" /> <source media="(min-width: 600px)"

    srcset="wolf-crop-sm.jpg" /> <img src="wolf.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" /> </picture>
  96. 91 <picture> <source media="(min-width: 1000px)" srcset="wolf-crop-bg.jpg" /> <source media="(min-width: 600px)"

    srcset="wolf-crop-sm.jpg" /> <img src="wolf.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" /> </picture>
  97. 92 <picture> <source media="(min-width: 1000px)" srcset="wolf-crop-bg.jpg" /> <source media="(min-width: 600px)"

    srcset="wolf-crop-sm.jpg" /> <img src="wolf.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" /> </picture>
  98. 93 <picture> <source media="(min-width: 1000px)" srcset="wolf-crop-bg.jpg" /> <source media="(min-width: 600px)"

    srcset="wolf-crop-sm.jpg" /> <img src="wolf.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" /> </picture>
  99. 94 All the things! Markup a.k.a. the scary slide

  100. 94 All the things! Markup a.k.a. the scary slide

  101. 95 <picture> <source type="image/webp" media="(min-width: 1000px)" sizes="33vw" srcset="wolf-crop-big-300.jpg 300w, wolf-crop-big-600.jpg

    600w, wolf-crop-big-1200.jpg 1200w, wolf-crop-big-2400.jpg 2400w, wolf-crop-big-4800.jpg 4800w" /> <source type="image/webp" media="(min-width: 600px)" sizes="50vw" srcset="wolf-crop-small-300.jpg 300w, wolf-crop-small-600.jpg 600w, wolf-crop-small-1200.jpg 1200w, wolf-crop-small-2400.jpg 2400w, wolf-crop-small-4800.jpg 4800w" /> <source type="image/webp" sizes="100vw" srcset="wolf-crop-med-300.jpg 300w, wolf-crop-med-600.jpg 600w, wolf-crop-med-1200.jpg 1200w, wolf-crop-med-2400.jpg 2400w, wolf-crop-med-4800.jpg 4800w" /> <source media="(min-width: 1000px)" sizes="33vw" srcset="wolf-crop-big-300.jpg 300w, wolf-crop-big-600.jpg 600w, wolf-crop-big-1200.jpg 1200w, wolf-crop-big-2400.jpg 2400w, wolf-crop-big-4800.jpg 4800w" /> <source media="(min-width: 600px)" sizes="50vw" srcset="wolf-crop-small-300.jpg 300w, wolf-crop-small-600.jpg 600w, wolf-crop-small-1200.jpg 1200w, wolf-crop-small-2400.jpg 2400w, wolf-crop-small-4800.jpg 4800w" /> <source sizes="100vw" srcset="wolf-crop-med-300.jpg 300w, wolf-crop-med-600.jpg 600w, wolf-crop-med-1200.jpg 1200w, wolf-crop-med-2400.jpg 2400w, wolf-crop-med-4800.jpg 4800w" /> <img src="wolf-crop-med-600.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" /> </picture>
  102. 96 <img src="wolf600.jpg" alt="A rad wolf" sizes="(min-width: 1000px) 33vw, (min-width:

    600px) 50vw, 100vw" srcset="wolf300.jpg 300w, wolf600.jpg 600w, wolf1200.jpg 1200w, wolf2400.jpg 2400w, wolf4800.jpg 4800w" />
  103. 97 http://whatwg.org/html#the-picture-element Responsive images specification

  104. 98 Responsible images

  105. 99 1. Responsive images

  106. 100 1. Responsive images 2. Image optimization

  107. 101 https://imageoptim.com/ ImageOptim http://jamiemason.github.io/ImageOptim-CLI/ ImageOptim-CLI https://github.com/svg/svgo-gui SVGO-GUI https://github.com/svg/svgo SVGO

  108. 102 SetOutputFilter DEFLATE AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE "image/svg+xml" Note: Apache is confusing

    and I’m not guaranteeing this will work.
  109. 103 1. Responsive images 2. Image optimization 3. Deferred image

    loading
  110. 104

  111. 105

  112. 106 http://www.w3.org/TR/resource-priorities/ Resource Priorities https://lists.whatwg.org/htdig.cgi/whatwg-whatwg.org/2014-August/297533.html Preloading and deferred loading of

    scripts and other resources
  113. 107 http://css-tricks.com/snippets/javascript/lazy-loading-images/ LazyLoad JS scripts and plugins, e.g.:

  114. 108 1. Responsive images 2. Image optimization 3. Deferred image

    loading 4. CDNs & Caching
  115. 109 ExpiresActive on ExpiresDefault "access plus 1 month" ExpiresByType image/gif

    "access plus 1 year" ExpiresByType image/jpeg "access plus 1 year" ExpiresByType image/png "access plus 1 year" ExpiresByType image/svg+xml "access plus 1 year" Note: Apache is confusing and I’m not guaranteeing this will work.
  116. 110 1. Responsive images 2. Image optimization 3. Deferred image

    loading 4. CDNs & Caching 5. Appropriate contrast and colour
  117. 111 7% 8% 10% 11% 29% 35% April May June

    July August September
  118. 112 7% 8% 10% 11% 29% 35% April May June

    July August September
  119. 113

  120. 114 http://colororacle.org/ Color Oracle

  121. 115 September 7% August 8% July 10% June 11% May

    29% April 35%
  122. 116 1. Responsive images 2. Image optimization 3. Deferred image

    loading 4. CDNs & Caching 5. Appropriate contrast and colour 6. Text-based alternatives
  123. 117 [alt] [aria-describedby], [aria-labelledby] [longdesc] <a> <figcaption> SVG elements and

    attributes
  124. 118 http://www.w3.org/TR/html-alt-techniques/ HTML5: Techniques for providing useful text alternatives http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/wiki/Using_aria-describedby_to_provide_descriptions_of_images

    Using aria-describedby to provide descriptions of images http://w3c.github.io/test-results/html-longdesc/cr-report.html longdesc Implementation Report http://www.paciellogroup.com/blog/2013/12/using-aria-enhance-svg-accessibility/ Using ARIA to enhance SVG accessibility http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/wiki/Using_aria-labelledby_to_provide_a_text_alternative_for_non- text_content Using aria-labelledby to provide a text alternative for non-text content
  125. 119 1. Responsive images 2. Image optimization 3. Deferred image

    loading 4. CDNs & Caching 5. Appropriate contrast and colour 6. Text-based alternatives 7. Fewer images!
  126. 120 Performance impact

  127. 121

  128. 122

  129. 123 Unoptimized Optimized + Responsive Optimized + Responsive + Lazyload

    CSS 1 KB 1 KB 1 KB HTML 2 KB 3 KB 3 KB Scripts 29 KB 33 KB 33 KB Images 661 KB 253 KB 87 KB Total 693 KB 290 KB (~58% savings) 119 KB (~83% savings)
  130. 124 Browser Unoptimized Optimized + Responsive + Lazyload Firefox (Desktop)

    2.2 s 2.0 s Safari (iOS) 2.1 s 1.7 s Average 2.2 s 1.9 s (~14% savings)
  131. 125

  132. 126 Accessibility Progressive enhancement Responsive web design Web performance

  133. David Newton, St. Michael’s Hospital 127 Using Responsive Images Responsibly:

    Performance & Accessibility: Full Stack Toronto 2014 Twitter: @newtron Github: @nwtn Email: david@davidnewton.ca Slides: https://github.com/nwtn/pres-respimg-perf-fsto