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Slaves or Servants?

Spiro Bolos
September 30, 2022

Slaves or Servants?

Using the 1624/25 Virginia muster database, can we determine if the Africans listed on the census document were either enslaved individuals OR indentured servants?


Census records:

Spiro Bolos

September 30, 2022

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  1. Name Muster Status Location Corporation Age Ship Date of Arrival

    Muster Date Notes servant servant servant servant
  2. “By the time of Portuguese colonization of South America, the

    term “negro” [negros da terra] had become almost synonymous with “slave” in the Portuguese language” (13) -- Nishida, Slavery and Identity