英語プレゼンテーションのはじめの第一歩〜音読・朗読・プレゼンへのステップ〜

 英語プレゼンテーションのはじめの第一歩〜音読・朗読・プレゼンへのステップ〜

2018年2月15日に実施した「Take a New Step! 学術英語スキルアップセミナー」にて,「英語プレゼンテーションのはじめの第一歩〜音読・朗読・プレゼンへのステップ〜」のお題でお話しました。

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Kazuhito Yamato

February 15, 2018
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  1. 3.

    0. ࣗݾ঺հ 3 •ຊ೔͸ΑΖ͓͘͠ئ͍͍ͨ͠·͢ɻ •ࣗݾ঺հ •໊લɿେ࿨ ஌࢙ʢ΍·ͱ ͔ͣͻͱʣ •ॴଐɿਆށେֶɾେֶڭҭਪਐػߏɾࠃࡍίϛϡχέʔ γϣϯηϯλʔ

    •ઐ໳ɿӳޠڭҭʢԻ੠ࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋʣ •ීஈ͸ɼڞ௨ڭҭͷӳޠ୲౰ɼେֶӃͰ͸֎ࠃޠڭҭ ίϯςϯπ࿦ͷतۀΛ୲౰͍ͯ͠·͢ɻ •ʮΘͬ͞ʯͱ͍ͯ͠·͢…
  2. 5.

    0. ͸͡Ίʹ ͷલʹ 7 • ࠓճͷϫʔΫγϣοϓΛ௨ͯ͡ɼࢀՃऀ ͷօ͞ΜʹɼӳޠϓϨθϯʹ͍ͭͯɼ - ࠷ॳͷҰาͱͯ͠ݪߘΛ४උͯ͠ɼ -

    ·ͣ͸ͦΕΛ෼͔ΔΑ͏ʹಡΜͰɼ಺ ༰Λ͖ͪΜͱ఻͑Δʹ͸Ͳ͏͢ΔͱΑ ͍͔ɼ - ීஈͷ࿅श͸ͲΜͳ͜ͱ͕ྑ͍͔ɼ • Λ෼͔ͬͯ΋Β͏͜ͱΛ໨తͱ͠·͢ɻ
  3. 8.

    1. ͸͡Ίʹ 11 • ϓϨθϯӳޠͷಛ௃ • ॻ͖ݴ༿ʢ࿦จͷӳޠʣͱ࿩͠ݴ༿ͷதؒ • ʮओޠ͸we΍I΍youΛ࢖͏͜ͱ͕ଟ͘ɼͦͷ ҰํͰɼಈࢺͷબ୒ʹ͓͍ͯ͸ɼྫ͑͹getͱ

    ͍͏࿩͠ݴ༿Ͱ͸ͳ͘ɼobtain΍acquireͱ ͍ͬͨॻ͖ݴ༿ΛબͿ܏޲ʹ͋Δʯʢ໺ޱɾ ޾ॏ, 2007 p.75ʣ • ࢀߟࢿྉᶃʙᶅ͔Βɼॻ͖ݴ༿ͱ࿩͠ݴ༿ͷ ෼෍͕ݟ͖͑ͯ·͢ɻ
  4. 10.

    1. ͸͡Ίʹ 13 • ϓϨθϯʹࢸΔϓϩηεͷ͓࿩΍දݱूͳͲʹ͍ͭͯ • ൃදͷਃࠐ͔Βɼ૲ߘɾεϥΠυ౳ͷ४උɼൃද࣮ ߦɼ࣭ٙ·Ͱʢ໺ޱɾ޾ॏ, 2007ʣ •

    ΞΧσϛοΫ͚ͩͰͳ͘ϏδωεϓϨθϯ΍TEDͷ Α͏ͳϓϨθϯ΋ؚΊͯͷϓϩηεશମʢాத, 2014ʣ • ϓϨθϯͷΈͳΒͣɼΞΧσϛοΫϑΟʔϧυશମ ͰӳޠΛ࢖ͬͯա͢͝ʹ͸Ͳ͏͢Δ͔ʢΦϯϥΠϯ ֶशɿ ౦ژେֶ English Academia 1ͱ2 ʣ • ͦͷଞɼॻ੶౳͸ͨ͘͞Μग़͍ͯ·͢ɻ
  5. 11.

    1. ͸͡Ίʹ 14 • ʮϓϨθϯݪߘʢεΫϦϓτʣΛ࡞ͬͯಡΉʯ͔ΒɼʮʙΛݴ ͏ʯɾʮʙΛൃද͢Δʯ΁ • ԻಡʢΠϯϓοτʣˠ࿕ಡʢΞ΢τϓοτʣʢ੨୩, 2017ʣ •

    Իಡʣࣗ෼ͷ෼͔Βͳ͍ͱ͜Ζ͕෼͔Δ • Իಡʣࣗ෼ͷ੠ʹ׳ΕΔ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ • Իಡʣਖ਼͍͠ӳޠ͕಄ͱମʹછΈࠐΉ • ࿕ಡʣฉ͖ख΍ঢ়گʹ߹Θͤͨ఻͑ํ͕Ͱ͖ΔΑ͏ʹͳΔ • ࿕ಡʣจষͷҙਤ΍എܠΛਖ਼͘͠ཧղͯ͠఻͑ΒΕΔΑ͏ ʹͳΔ • ࿕ಡʣදݱྗ͕ͭ͘ • ϦϋʔαϧͷॏཁੑʢΞϯμʔιϯ, 2016; ాத, 2014 ଞɼ΄ ΅શͯʣ
  6. 12.

    1. ͸͡Ίʹ 15 • ʮϓϨθϯݪߘʢεΫϦϓτʣΛ࡞ͬͯಡΉʯ ͔ΒɼʮʙΛݴ͏ʯɾʮʙΛൃද͢Δʯ΁ • ͜ͷஈ֊ΛܦΔ্ͰɼԻಡͷॏཁੑɼ࿕ಡ ͷॏཁੑΛߟ͍͖͑ͯ·͢ɻ •

    ʮ͸͡ΊͷҰาʯͱͯ͠͸ɼݪߘ͕͋Δঢ় ଶͰͦΕΛಡΉஈ֊͔ΒɼͲ͏͍͏ͱ͜Ζ ʹؾΛ഑Ε͹૬खʹཧղ͞Ε΍͍͢ൃද͕ Ͱ͖Δ͔ɼΛߟ͑·͢ɻ • ͦΕͰ͸ɼ͸͡ΊͷҰาΛ౿Έग़͠·͠ΐ͏ɻ
  7. 14.

    2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛֶ෦ ੜʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • intonation… when speaking, people generally raise and lower the pitch of their voice, forming pitch patterns. They also give some syllables in their utterances a greater degree of loudness and change their speech rhythm. This phenomena are called intonation. Intonation does not happen at random but has definite patterns (intonation contour). Intonation is used to carry information over and above that which is expressed by the words in the sentence. (Richards & Schmidt, 2010) 17
  8. 15.

    2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛ ֶ෦ੜʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • खॱɿ • ؆୯ͳݪߘΛ࡞ΔʢϝϞॻ͖ఔ౓ʣʢ4෼ʣ • ϖΞʹൃදΛ࣮ફ͢Δʢ1෼×2ʣ • ৼΓฦΓͳ͕Βจࣈى͠Λͯ͠গ͠ৄࡉͳݪ ߘΛ࡞੒͢Δʢ4෼ʣ 18
  9. 16.

    2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛֶ෦ੜ ʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 1ʣ؆୯ͳݪߘΛ࡞ΔʢϝϞॻ͖ఔ౓ʣʢ4෼ʣ • ϫʔΫγʔτʹϝϞॻ͖Λͯ͠ɼԿΛͲ͏࿩͔͢Λ ߟ͑Δɻ • ݚڀྖҬɾ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛֶ෦ੜʹઆ໌͢Δʹ ͸ɼͲ͏ݴ͍׵͑Ε͹͍͍͔Λߟ͑Δɻ • ͦΕΛޱ಄Ͱ఻͑Δʹ͍͸Ͳ͏͢Ε͹͍͍͔Λߟ͑Δɻ 19
  10. 17.

    2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛֶ෦ੜʹ ӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 2ʣϖΞͰൃදΛ࣮ફ͢Δʢ1min × 2 ճʣ • ϖΞͷਓ͕౰֘ͷֶ෦ੜͰ͋Δͱݟཱͯɼൃද͠·͠ΐ ͏ɻ • ૬ํ͸ϝϞΛऔΓͳ͕Βฉ͖·͠ΐ͏ɻ • εϚϗͳͲͰ࿥Իɾ࿥ըͰ͖Δਓ͸ͦΕ΋ੋඇɻ • ͜͜͸Ұํ޲ͰɼൃදޙɼϑΟʔυόοΫΛͯ͠Լ͞ ͍ɻ 20
  11. 18.

    2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔ υΛֶ෦ੜʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 3ʣৼΓฦΓͳ͕Βɼจࣈى͜͠Λ͠ɼݪߘ Λ࡞੒͢Δʢ4෼ʣ • ϖΞͷਓͱৼΓฦΓΛ͠ͳ͕Βɼࣗ෼͕͠Ό ΂ͬͨ͜ͱΛจࣈى͜͠ɻ • ͦΕΛݪߘͱ͢Δɻ 21
  12. 19.

    2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͍͔͕Ͱ͔ͨ͠ʁ •

    ݪߘʢʹ͍ۙ΋ͷʣΛಡΈ্͛Δܗࣜ͸ɼ ීஈͷݚڀൃදͰΑ͋͘Δ͜ͱ͔ͱࢥ͍· ͢ɻ • Ͱ͸ɼಡΈ্͛Δʹͯ͠΋ɼͲ͜ΛؾΛͭ ͚Ε͹͍͍ͷͰ͠ΐ͏͔ʁ • ͦΕΛߟ͑ͯΈ·͠ΐ͏ɻ 22
  13. 21.

    3. Ͳ͜ʹؾΛ഑Δʁ • ݪߘΛԻಡɾ࿕ಡ͢Δ্ͰɼʮϓϩισΟʯʹؾΛ഑ͬͯΈ ·͠ΐ͏ɻ • ͦͷࡍɼʮϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ࿮૊Έͱͯ͠ఏҊ͠ ·͢ • ͜ͷݪଇΛ༻͍Δͱ…

    • ϓϩισΟཁૉΛ૬ޓؔ࿈ͨ͠ܗͰಡΉϙΠϯτΛ֬ ೝͰ͖Δ • ӳޠΒ͠͞Λ޲্ͤ͞Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ • ͜Ε͔Β΋ֶࣗͰ֬ೝ͕Ͱ͖Δ • Ͱ͸ͦΕΒͷ֓ཁΛ֬ೝ͢Δ͜ͱʹ͠·͠ΐ͏ 25
  14. 24.
  15. 25.

    ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ʮԻઅʯɾʮԻઅߏ଄ʯʹ͍ͭͯɼ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀ͸Կ͕ ໰୊ʁ • CVߏ଄͕جຊͷ೔ຊޠʹɼCCͷࢠԻ࿈݁Λൃ͢Δ͜ͱͷࠔ ೉͞ɻVΛૠೖͯ͠͠·͏ɻ •

    ૠೖ͞ΕͨV͕༨෼ͳഥͱͳΓɼௌऀͷೝࣝΛ๦͛Δɻ • ετϨϯάεɹstrength ετϥΠΫɹstrike • Ξϧϛχ΢Ϝɹaluminumɹενʔϧɹsteel • ͖ͬ͞ͷϓϨθϯͷதʹͦΜͳ୯ޠ͸ͳ͍Ͱ͔͢ʁʢϖΞϫʔ Ϋʣ 29
  16. 28.

    • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮޠڧ੎ʢޠΞΫηϯτʣʯ͔Βʮ۟ΞΫ ηϯτʯɼʮϦζϜʯΛܦͯʮจΞΫηϯτʯͷ͓࿩ • ଟԻઅޠͰ͋Ε͹ɼͦΕͧΕͷԻઅ͕ɼୈҰΞΫηϯτɼ ୈೋΞΫηϯτɼऑΞΫηϯτͷ͍ͣΕ͔Λ୲͏͜ͱʹ ͳΔɻ •

    ୈҰΞΫηϯτʹ͓͍ͯɼϐονͷಈ͖͕େ͖͘ɼ௕͘ɼ ڧ͘ͳΔɻʢe.g. com-mu-ni-CA-tionʣ • ޠ͕ෳ਺ฒͿͱɼޠͱޠͷؒͰڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ͕ͤͰ ͖Δɻˠ ʮ۟ΞΫηϯτʯ 33 ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
  17. 30.

    35 • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • จதʹڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ͕ͤͰ͖ΔˠʮϦζϜʯ • one, two, three, four,

    five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve • examinee → in case of rain → I tried to study very hard. ʢ஛ྛɾਗ਼ਫɾᜊ౻, 2013, p.136-137ʣ ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
  18. 33.

    39 • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮthought groupʯɾ ʮԻௐ֩ʢͱͦͷ഑ஔʣʯɾʮτʔϯʯ ͷ͓࿩ •

    ޠɾ۟ɾจΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼϦζϜ Λܗ੒ͨ͠ൃ࿩ʹߋʹ৘ใ͕ՃΘΔɻ ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
  19. 36.

    ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤ Δʯ • ϐονͷมಈʹ͸ɼ্ঢͱԼ߱ɼͦͷ૊Έ߹Θͤͱฏୱ͕ ͋Δɻ • ͜ͷྖҬʹ͓͍ͯɼ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀ͸Կ͕໰୊ʁ •

    ໨ཱͪͷ഑ஔʢ֩഑ஔʣΛޡΓ͕ͪͰ͋Δɻଟ͘ͷ৔߹ɼ thought groupͷ๯಄ʹஔ͖͕ͪɻ͜ΕʹΑΔ৘ใͷয఺ ͷޡղ͕ੜ͡ΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δɻ • ϐονͷಈ͖ʹ͍ͭͯɼ۟຤ͷٸܹͳมಈͰҙਤΛ఻ୡ͠ Α͏ͱ͢Δ܏޲ʹɻ 42
  20. 40.

    4. ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛ ֶ෦ੜʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 1ʣݪߘΛԻ੠తʹ֬ೝ͢Δʢ4෼ʣ • Ұ౓ॻ͍͍ͯΔݪߘΛɼ୯ޠͷΞΫηϯτͷ νΣοΫɼػೳޠɾ಺༰ޠͷ֬ೝɼ۠੾Γͷ νΣοΫɼ۠੾Γͷதͷ໨ཱͪΛ֬ೝ͢Δɻ • ͦΕΛޱ಄Ͱ఻͑Δʹ͍͸Ͳ͏ಡΊ͹͍͍͔Λ ߟ͑Δɻ 47
  21. 41.

    4. ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛֶ෦ੜʹ ӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 2ʣϖΞͰൃදΛ࣮ફ͢Δʢ1min × 2 ճʣ • ϖΞͷਓ͕౰֘ͷֶ෦ੜͰ͋Δͱݟཱͯɼൃද͠·͠ΐ ͏ɻ • ૬ํ͸ϝϞΛऔΓͳ͕Βฉ͖·͠ΐ͏ɻ • εϚϗͳͲͰ࿥Իɾ࿥ըͰ͖Δਓ͸ͦΕ΋ੋඇɻ • ͜͜͸Ұํ޲ͰɼൃදޙɼϑΟʔυόοΫΛͯ͠Լ͞ ͍ɻ 48
  22. 42.

    4. ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛ ֶ෦ੜʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 3ʣৼΓฦΓʢ3෼ʣ • ϖΞͷਓͱৼΓฦΓΛ͠ͳ͕ΒɼҰճ໨ͷ࣌ͱ ൺֱΛ͢Δɻ • ݪߘͷॻ͖ࠐΈΛ͓ޓ͍ʹݟͤ߹͍ͭͭɼͲ͏ ಡΜͰ͍ͯྑ͔͔ͬͨɼͲ͏ಡΊ͹ߋʹྑ͔ͬ ͔ͨ֬ೝΛ͢Δɻ 49
  23. 43.

    4. ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • ͕࣌ؒ͋Ε͹… • λεΫ2ɿ ഑෍ࢿྉ p.3 ͷ໺ޱɾ޾ॏʢ2007 p.118ʣͷྫΛͲ͏ಡΉ͔Λݕ౼ͯ͠੠ʹग़

    ͯ͠ΈΔɻ • ϖΞͷਓͱ୯ޠɾ۟ɾจͷڧऑͷ֬ೝɻ • ಺༰ޠɾػೳޠͷ֬ೝɼ۠੾Γɼͦͷத ͷ໨ཱͪΛ֬ೝͷ্ɼ੠ʹग़ͯ͠ΈΔɻ 50
  24. 48.

    5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ • Mystery Words – paraphrasing activity with your

    partner – ੍ݶ࣌ؒ಺ʹઆ໌͕૬खʹ఻ΘΕ͹ண ੮ – avoid ݻ༗໊ࢺ – avoid gestures • ࣗ෼ͷ੒௕ͷόϩϝʔλͱͯ͠ɻ
  25. 50.

    5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ • ӳӳࣙॻͩͱ͜ΜͳఆٛͰઆ໌͞Ε͍ͯ·͢ɻ • presentation … is “the act

    of showing something or of giving something to somebody.” (Oxford Learners’ Dictionary) • presentation … is “an activity in which someone shows, describes, or explains something to a group of people.” (Merriam Webster Learner’s Dictionary) presentation
  26. 52.

    5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ • ӳӳࣙॻͩͱ͜ΜͳఆٛͰઆ໌͞Ε͍ͯ·͢ɻ • aluminium (BrE)… is “a chemical

    element. Aluminium is a light, silver-grey metal used for making pans, etc..” (Oxford Learners’ Dictionary) • aluminum (AmE) … is “a silver metal that is strong and light and that is used for making many products — often used before another noun.”(Merriam Webster Learner’s Dictionary) aluminum
  27. 54.

    5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ • One Minute Chat – ϖΞʹΑΔର࿩׆ಈ – 1෼ؒϖΞͰ͋ΔτϐοΫʹ͍ͭͯ࿩͠ଓ͚

    Δ׆ಈ – ফ͠ΰϜ͔Կ͔ΛλʔϯςΠΩϯάͷҹʹ ࢖ͬͯʢͰ͖Δ͚ͩͨ͘͞ΜλʔϯΛऔΔ Α͏ʹʣ – ͋ͱͰɼԿ͕ݴ͑ͯɼͲ͏͢Ε͹ΑΓྑ͔ͬ ͔ͨɼͳͲΛৼΓฦΔ
  28. 55.

    5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ Today’s Topic: Would you rather be completely invisible

    for one day or be able to fly for one day? ͱʹ͔͘؆୯ͳ࿩୊Ͱɼ1෼͕Μ͹Ζ͏
  29. 58.

    ·ͱΊ 66 • ऴΘͬͨݱࡏɼօ͞Μ͕ɼϓϨθϯςʔγϣϯͷ४උΛ͍ͯ͠ Δࡍʹɼ - ४උΛͨ͠ݪߘΛݟͯɼ - ͲͷΑ͏ʹಡΉͱɼ಺༰͕ฉ͖खʹ͖ͪΜͱ఻ΘΔͷ͔ɼ -

    ͲͷΑ͏ͳ࿅शΛ͢Ε͹Α͍ͷ͔ɼ - ීஈͷ࿅श͸ͲΜͳ͜ͱ͕ྑ͍͔ɼ • Λ෼͔ͬͯ΋Β͍ͬͯͯɼ࣮ࡍɼͦͷΑ͏ʹͯ͠΋Β͑Δͱ͋ Γ͕͍ͨͰ͢ɻ • ߋʹɼͦͷ݁ՌͳͲΛϑΟʔυόοΫͯ͠Լ͞Δͱɼͪ͜Βͱ ͯ͠͸ߋʹ͋Γ͕͍ͨͰ͢ɻ • ͝ҙݟɾٙ໰౳͍͟͝·ͨ͠Βɼ͝ԕྀͳ͓͘ਘͶԼ͍͞·ͤɻ