英語プレゼンテーションのはじめの第一歩〜音読・朗読・プレゼンへのステップ〜

 英語プレゼンテーションのはじめの第一歩〜音読・朗読・プレゼンへのステップ〜

2018年2月15日に実施した「Take a New Step! 学術英語スキルアップセミナー」にて,「英語プレゼンテーションのはじめの第一歩〜音読・朗読・プレゼンへのステップ〜」のお題でお話しました。

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Kazuhito Yamato

February 15, 2018
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  1. ӳޠϓϨθϯςʔγϣϯͷ͸͡ΊͷҰา ʙԻಡɾ࿕ಡɾϓϨθϯ΁ͷεςοϓʙ ਆށେֶɹେֶڭҭਪਐػߏ ࠃࡍίϛϡχέʔγϣϯηϯλʔ େ࿨ ஌࢙ʢ΍·ͱ ͔ͣͻͱʣ yamato@port.kobe-u.ac.jp Take a

    New Step!ɹֶज़ӳޠεΩϧΞοϓηϛφʔ 2018೥2݄15೔ʢ໦ʣ ԙ: ୍઒ه೦ֶज़ަྲྀձؗɹ2֊େձٞࣨ
  2. ֬ೝ 2 acknowledgment •ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷ಺༰͸ɼJSPSՊݚඅ26381197ͱ17K04778ͷॿ੒Λड͚ͨ ݚڀʢڞಉݚڀऀ үాوಓˏ໋ཱؗେʣΛجʹ͍ͯ͠·͢ɻ •͓खݩͷ഑෍ࢿྉΛ֬͝ೝԼ͍͞ɻ •େ࿨୲౰෼ɹ 1.഑෍ࢿྉɹA4 4ϖʔδ

    2.ࢀߟࢿྉɹ໺ޱɾ޾ॏʢ2007ʣදݱू B4 3ϖʔδ
  3. 0. ࣗݾ঺հ 3 •ຊ೔͸ΑΖ͓͘͠ئ͍͍ͨ͠·͢ɻ •ࣗݾ঺հ •໊લɿେ࿨ ஌࢙ʢ΍·ͱ ͔ͣͻͱʣ •ॴଐɿਆށେֶɾେֶڭҭਪਐػߏɾࠃࡍίϛϡχέʔ γϣϯηϯλʔ

    •ઐ໳ɿӳޠڭҭʢԻ੠ࢦಋɾൃԻࢦಋʣ •ීஈ͸ɼڞ௨ڭҭͷӳޠ୲౰ɼେֶӃͰ͸֎ࠃޠڭҭ ίϯςϯπ࿦ͷतۀΛ୲౰͍ͯ͠·͢ɻ •ʮΘͬ͞ʯͱ͍ͯ͠·͢…
  4. 0. ͸͡Ίʹ ͷલʹ 5 •ࣗݾ঺հʹ͋ΔΑ͏ʹɼઐ໳෼໺͸ɼӳ ޠڭҭͰɼͦͷதͰ΋Ի੠ࢦಋɾൃԻࢦ ಋʹͳΓ·͢ɻ •Ͱ͢ͷͰɼࣗ෼ͷઐ໳෼໺ͷଆ໘͔ΒͲ ͷΑ͏ͳ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δͷ͔ɼීஈӳޠΛ ڭ͍͑ͯΔதͰͲ͏͍͏͜ͱΛ΍͍ͬͯ

    Δͷ͔ɼͱ͍͏ܗͰ͓࿩Ͱ͖Ε͹ͱࢥ͍ ·͢ɻ
  5. 0. ͸͡Ίʹ ͷલʹ 7 • ࠓճͷϫʔΫγϣοϓΛ௨ͯ͡ɼࢀՃऀ ͷօ͞ΜʹɼӳޠϓϨθϯʹ͍ͭͯɼ - ࠷ॳͷҰาͱͯ͠ݪߘΛ४උͯ͠ɼ -

    ·ͣ͸ͦΕΛ෼͔ΔΑ͏ʹಡΜͰɼ಺ ༰Λ͖ͪΜͱ఻͑Δʹ͸Ͳ͏͢ΔͱΑ ͍͔ɼ - ීஈͷ࿅श͸ͲΜͳ͜ͱ͕ྑ͍͔ɼ • Λ෼͔ͬͯ΋Β͏͜ͱΛ໨తͱ͠·͢ɻ
  6. 0. ͸͡Ίʹ ͷલʹ 8 • ͦΜͳ໨తΛୡ੒͢ΔͨΊʹɼຊ೔͸ɼ ҎԼͷྲྀΕͰ͓࿩͍ͨ͠͠ͱࢥ͍·͢ɻ 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 3.Ͳ͜ʹؾΛ഑Δʁ

    4.΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 5.ීஈ͔ΒͰ͖Δ࿅शͳͲ • Ͱ͸ɼ࢝Ί͍͖ͯ·͠ΐ͏ʂ
  7. ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷߏ੒ 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 3.Ͳ͜ʹؾΛ഑Δʁ 4.΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 5.ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ 10

  8. 1. ͸͡Ίʹ 11 • ϓϨθϯӳޠͷಛ௃ • ॻ͖ݴ༿ʢ࿦จͷӳޠʣͱ࿩͠ݴ༿ͷதؒ • ʮओޠ͸we΍I΍youΛ࢖͏͜ͱ͕ଟ͘ɼͦͷ ҰํͰɼಈࢺͷબ୒ʹ͓͍ͯ͸ɼྫ͑͹getͱ

    ͍͏࿩͠ݴ༿Ͱ͸ͳ͘ɼobtain΍acquireͱ ͍ͬͨॻ͖ݴ༿ΛબͿ܏޲ʹ͋Δʯʢ໺ޱɾ ޾ॏ, 2007 p.75ʣ • ࢀߟࢿྉᶃʙᶅ͔Βɼॻ͖ݴ༿ͱ࿩͠ݴ༿ͷ ෼෍͕ݟ͖͑ͯ·͢ɻ
  9. 1. ͸͡Ίʹ 12 • ϓϨθϯʹࢸΔϓϩηεͷ͓࿩΍දݱूͳͲʹ͍ͭͯ • ͍Ζ͍ΖͳϦιʔε͕͋Γ·͢ɻ

  10. 1. ͸͡Ίʹ 13 • ϓϨθϯʹࢸΔϓϩηεͷ͓࿩΍දݱूͳͲʹ͍ͭͯ • ൃදͷਃࠐ͔Βɼ૲ߘɾεϥΠυ౳ͷ४උɼൃද࣮ ߦɼ࣭ٙ·Ͱʢ໺ޱɾ޾ॏ, 2007ʣ •

    ΞΧσϛοΫ͚ͩͰͳ͘ϏδωεϓϨθϯ΍TEDͷ Α͏ͳϓϨθϯ΋ؚΊͯͷϓϩηεશମʢాத, 2014ʣ • ϓϨθϯͷΈͳΒͣɼΞΧσϛοΫϑΟʔϧυશମ ͰӳޠΛ࢖ͬͯա͢͝ʹ͸Ͳ͏͢Δ͔ʢΦϯϥΠϯ ֶशɿ ౦ژେֶ English Academia 1ͱ2 ʣ • ͦͷଞɼॻ੶౳͸ͨ͘͞Μग़͍ͯ·͢ɻ
  11. 1. ͸͡Ίʹ 14 • ʮϓϨθϯݪߘʢεΫϦϓτʣΛ࡞ͬͯಡΉʯ͔ΒɼʮʙΛݴ ͏ʯɾʮʙΛൃද͢Δʯ΁ • ԻಡʢΠϯϓοτʣˠ࿕ಡʢΞ΢τϓοτʣʢ੨୩, 2017ʣ •

    Իಡʣࣗ෼ͷ෼͔Βͳ͍ͱ͜Ζ͕෼͔Δ • Իಡʣࣗ෼ͷ੠ʹ׳ΕΔ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ • Իಡʣਖ਼͍͠ӳޠ͕಄ͱମʹછΈࠐΉ • ࿕ಡʣฉ͖ख΍ঢ়گʹ߹Θͤͨ఻͑ํ͕Ͱ͖ΔΑ͏ʹͳΔ • ࿕ಡʣจষͷҙਤ΍എܠΛਖ਼͘͠ཧղͯ͠఻͑ΒΕΔΑ͏ ʹͳΔ • ࿕ಡʣදݱྗ͕ͭ͘ • ϦϋʔαϧͷॏཁੑʢΞϯμʔιϯ, 2016; ాத, 2014 ଞɼ΄ ΅શͯʣ
  12. 1. ͸͡Ίʹ 15 • ʮϓϨθϯݪߘʢεΫϦϓτʣΛ࡞ͬͯಡΉʯ ͔ΒɼʮʙΛݴ͏ʯɾʮʙΛൃද͢Δʯ΁ • ͜ͷஈ֊ΛܦΔ্ͰɼԻಡͷॏཁੑɼ࿕ಡ ͷॏཁੑΛߟ͍͖͑ͯ·͢ɻ •

    ʮ͸͡ΊͷҰาʯͱͯ͠͸ɼݪߘ͕͋Δঢ় ଶͰͦΕΛಡΉஈ֊͔ΒɼͲ͏͍͏ͱ͜Ζ ʹؾΛ഑Ε͹૬खʹཧղ͞Ε΍͍͢ൃද͕ Ͱ͖Δ͔ɼΛߟ͑·͢ɻ • ͦΕͰ͸ɼ͸͡ΊͷҰาΛ౿Έग़͠·͠ΐ͏ɻ
  13. ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷߏ੒ 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 3.Ͳ͜ʹؾΛ഑Δʁ 4.΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 5.ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ 16

  14. 2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛֶ෦ ੜʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • intonation… when speaking, people generally raise and lower the pitch of their voice, forming pitch patterns. They also give some syllables in their utterances a greater degree of loudness and change their speech rhythm. This phenomena are called intonation. Intonation does not happen at random but has definite patterns (intonation contour). Intonation is used to carry information over and above that which is expressed by the words in the sentence. (Richards & Schmidt, 2010) 17
  15. 2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛ ֶ෦ੜʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • खॱɿ • ؆୯ͳݪߘΛ࡞ΔʢϝϞॻ͖ఔ౓ʣʢ4෼ʣ • ϖΞʹൃදΛ࣮ફ͢Δʢ1෼×2ʣ • ৼΓฦΓͳ͕Βจࣈى͠Λͯ͠গ͠ৄࡉͳݪ ߘΛ࡞੒͢Δʢ4෼ʣ 18
  16. 2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛֶ෦ੜ ʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 1ʣ؆୯ͳݪߘΛ࡞ΔʢϝϞॻ͖ఔ౓ʣʢ4෼ʣ • ϫʔΫγʔτʹϝϞॻ͖Λͯ͠ɼԿΛͲ͏࿩͔͢Λ ߟ͑Δɻ • ݚڀྖҬɾ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛֶ෦ੜʹઆ໌͢Δʹ ͸ɼͲ͏ݴ͍׵͑Ε͹͍͍͔Λߟ͑Δɻ • ͦΕΛޱ಄Ͱ఻͑Δʹ͍͸Ͳ͏͢Ε͹͍͍͔Λߟ͑Δɻ 19
  17. 2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛֶ෦ੜʹ ӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 2ʣϖΞͰൃදΛ࣮ફ͢Δʢ1min × 2 ճʣ • ϖΞͷਓ͕౰֘ͷֶ෦ੜͰ͋Δͱݟཱͯɼൃද͠·͠ΐ ͏ɻ • ૬ํ͸ϝϞΛऔΓͳ͕Βฉ͖·͠ΐ͏ɻ • εϚϗͳͲͰ࿥Իɾ࿥ըͰ͖Δਓ͸ͦΕ΋ੋඇɻ • ͜͜͸Ұํ޲ͰɼൃදޙɼϑΟʔυόοΫΛͯ͠Լ͞ ͍ɻ 20
  18. 2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔ υΛֶ෦ੜʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 3ʣৼΓฦΓͳ͕Βɼจࣈى͜͠Λ͠ɼݪߘ Λ࡞੒͢Δʢ4෼ʣ • ϖΞͷਓͱৼΓฦΓΛ͠ͳ͕Βɼࣗ෼͕͠Ό ΂ͬͨ͜ͱΛจࣈى͜͠ɻ • ͦΕΛݪߘͱ͢Δɻ 21
  19. 2. ·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͍͔͕Ͱ͔ͨ͠ʁ •

    ݪߘʢʹ͍ۙ΋ͷʣΛಡΈ্͛Δܗࣜ͸ɼ ීஈͷݚڀൃදͰΑ͋͘Δ͜ͱ͔ͱࢥ͍· ͢ɻ • Ͱ͸ɼಡΈ্͛Δʹͯ͠΋ɼͲ͜ΛؾΛͭ ͚Ε͹͍͍ͷͰ͠ΐ͏͔ʁ • ͦΕΛߟ͑ͯΈ·͠ΐ͏ɻ 22
  20. ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷߏ੒ 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 3.Ͳ͜ʹؾΛ഑Δʁ 4.΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 5.ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ 24

  21. 3. Ͳ͜ʹؾΛ഑Δʁ • ݪߘΛԻಡɾ࿕ಡ͢Δ্ͰɼʮϓϩισΟʯʹؾΛ഑ͬͯΈ ·͠ΐ͏ɻ • ͦͷࡍɼʮϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ࿮૊Έͱͯ͠ఏҊ͠ ·͢ • ͜ͷݪଇΛ༻͍Δͱ…

    • ϓϩισΟཁૉΛ૬ޓؔ࿈ͨ͠ܗͰಡΉϙΠϯτΛ֬ ೝͰ͖Δ • ӳޠΒ͠͞Λ޲্ͤ͞Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ • ͜Ε͔Β΋ֶࣗͰ֬ೝ͕Ͱ͖Δ • Ͱ͸ͦΕΒͷ֓ཁΛ֬ೝ͢Δ͜ͱʹ͠·͠ΐ͏ 25
  22. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ఏҊ͢ΔʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͱ ͸… 1.฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δ 2.ഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑΛ 3.ڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱ ͨͤΔɻ •ʮࣗ෼ͰಡΉɾݴ͏ࡍͷߦಈࢦ਑ʯͱͯ͠׆༻ ͍ͯͩ͘͠͞

    26
  23. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ֤ݪଇΛ؆୯ʹΈ͍͖ͯ·͠ΐ͏ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘ Δʯ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑ Λʯ •

    ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦ ͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ 27
  24. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮԻઅʯɾʮԻઅߏ଄ʯͷ͓࿩ • ԻઅɿʮϦζϜͷ1ഥ΍ͻͱͭͷڧ੎Λड͚Δ͜ͱͷ Ͱ͖ΔɼԻͷ࠷খͷ·ͱ·Γʢদࡔ, 1986, p.

    165ʣʯʮ฼ԻΛத৺ͱͯ͠લޙʹࢠԻΛ൐͏୯Ґ ʢ຀໺, 2005, p. 27ʣʯ • Իઅߏ଄ • V, CV, CVC, VC ͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ • CCCVCCCCɹstrengths 28
  25. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ʮԻઅʯɾʮԻઅߏ଄ʯʹ͍ͭͯɼ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀ͸Կ͕ ໰୊ʁ • CVߏ଄͕جຊͷ೔ຊޠʹɼCCͷࢠԻ࿈݁Λൃ͢Δ͜ͱͷࠔ ೉͞ɻVΛૠೖͯ͠͠·͏ɻ •

    ૠೖ͞ΕͨV͕༨෼ͳഥͱͳΓɼௌऀͷೝࣝΛ๦͛Δɻ • ετϨϯάεɹstrength ετϥΠΫɹstrike • Ξϧϛχ΢Ϝɹaluminumɹενʔϧɹsteel • ͖ͬ͞ͷϓϨθϯͷதʹͦΜͳ୯ޠ͸ͳ͍Ͱ͔͢ʁʢϖΞϫʔ Ϋʣ 29
  26. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ •ݪଇᶃͷ࿅शྫ 1. Θ͟ͱมʹݴ͏ʢݪଇᶃɾᶄʣ • ೔ຊޠΛӳޠͬΆ͘ݴ͏ɾӳޠΛ೔ຊޠͬΆ͘ݴ͏͜ͱͰɼ ֤ݴޠͷԻઅɾڧ੎ɾΠϯτωʔγϣϯͷҧ͍Λମײ͢Δɻ • ྫʣԬ࡚ମҭͷʮྫྷଂݿʹ͸ͬͯ͋Δ΍ͭΛӳޠͬΆ͘ݴ͏ʯ ʢੲͳΒλϞϦͷ4ΧࠃޠϚʔδϟϯ?ʣ

    2.ϋϛϯάʢݪଇᶃɾᶄʣ • ୯ޠ΍จΛඓՎͷΑ͏ʹϋϛϯάͰಡΉɻ༨ܭͳ฼Ի͕ೖΔ ͱഥ਺͕૿͑ͯ͠·͏ͷͰɼഥ਺ʹ஫໨͢ΔɻڧऑΛ͚ͭΔ ʹ͸ڧ੎ഥΛ௕͘͢Δɻ
  27. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ֤ݪଇΛ؆୯ʹΈ͍͖ͯ·͠ΐ͏ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘ Δʯ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑ Λʯ •

    ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦ ͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ 32
  28. • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮޠڧ੎ʢޠΞΫηϯτʣʯ͔Βʮ۟ΞΫ ηϯτʯɼʮϦζϜʯΛܦͯʮจΞΫηϯτʯͷ͓࿩ • ଟԻઅޠͰ͋Ε͹ɼͦΕͧΕͷԻઅ͕ɼୈҰΞΫηϯτɼ ୈೋΞΫηϯτɼऑΞΫηϯτͷ͍ͣΕ͔Λ୲͏͜ͱʹ ͳΔɻ •

    ୈҰΞΫηϯτʹ͓͍ͯɼϐονͷಈ͖͕େ͖͘ɼ௕͘ɼ ڧ͘ͳΔɻʢe.g. com-mu-ni-CA-tionʣ • ޠ͕ෳ਺ฒͿͱɼޠͱޠͷؒͰڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ͕ͤͰ ͖Δɻˠ ʮ۟ΞΫηϯτʯ 33 ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
  29. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ͔۟Βจʹͳͬͨ৔߹ɼจதͷ͋Δޠʢͷ தͷԻઅʣ͸ڧ͍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼ͋Δ ޠ͸ड͚ͳ͍ɻˠ ʮจΞΫηϯτʯ en gi

    NEER in the END He can HEAR • ओʹΞΫηϯτΛड͚Δޠˠ಺༰ޠ • ड͚ͳ͍ޠˠػೳޠ 34
  30. 35 • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • จதʹڧऑͷ૊Έ߹Θ͕ͤͰ͖ΔˠʮϦζϜʯ • one, two, three, four,

    five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, twelve • examinee → in case of rain → I tried to study very hard. ʢ஛ྛɾਗ਼ਫɾᜊ౻, 2013, p.136-137ʣ ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
  31. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ڧऑΛ͚ͭΔʯ • ʮޠɾ۟ΞΫηϯτʯɾʮϦζϜʯɾʮจΞΫηϯτʯʹ͍ͭͯɼ೔ຊਓ ӳޠֶशऀ͸Կ͕໰୊ʁ • ʮޠΞΫηϯτʯʹ͓͍ͯɼڧ͘ൃԻ͢ΔΑ͏ʹͱڭ͑ΒΕ͍ͯΔ͜ͱ͕ ଟ͘ɼϐονͷมԽ΍ΞΫηϯτΛड͚ΔԻઅͷ࣋ଓ࣌ؒ௕ʹ͍ͭͯ͸े ෼ʹ஫ҙΛ෷͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖͍ͯͳ͍ɻ

    • ΞΫηϯτʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δӳޠʹ͓͍ͯɼϞʔϥʹ౳࣌ੑͷ͋Δ೔ຊޠͷ ӨڹΛ࣋ͪࠐΜͰ͠·͏ɻ 36 (Grant, 2010, p.85)
  32. 38 • ֤ݪଇΛ؆୯ʹΈ͍͖ͯ·͠ΐ͏ • ݪଇᶃʮ฼Իͷ͋Δͱ͜Ζʹഥ͕͘Δʯ • ݪଇᶄʮഥ͕2ͭҎ্ʹͳΕ͹ɼڧऑ Λʯ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ

    ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
  33. 39 • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • ͜ͷݪଇ͸ɼʮthought groupʯɾ ʮԻௐ֩ʢͱͦͷ഑ஔʣʯɾʮτʔϯʯ ͷ͓࿩ •

    ޠɾ۟ɾจΞΫηϯτΛड͚ɼϦζϜ Λܗ੒ͨ͠ൃ࿩ʹߋʹ৘ใ͕ՃΘΔɻ ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
  34. 40 • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷ ҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • จΞΫηϯτ΍ϦζϜʹ͓͍ͯɼڧΞΫ ηϯτΛड͚ΔޠɾԻઅ͕͋Δ͜ͱ͸໌ Β͔ʹͳ͍ͬͯΔɻ • Ұ࿈ͷൃ࿩͸ɼ୹͍จ΍અͳͲΛͻͱ͔

    ͨ·Γͱ۠੾Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δɻ͜ͷ۠੾ Γͷ͜ͱΛɼʮthought groupʯͱ͍͏ɻ ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ
  35. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ ໨ཱͨͤΔʯ • ͦ͜ʹؚ·ΕΔୈҰΞΫηϯτΛؚΉޠ܈ͷத Ͱ΋ɼ࠷ޙʹݱΕΔ΋ͷ͕࠷΋໨ཱͭ܏޲ʹ͋ Δɻ໨ཱͨͤΔํ๏͸ɼͦͷԻઅʹ͓͍ͯϐο νΛେ͖͘มಈͤ͞Δ͜ͱʢԻௐ֩ʣɻ 41

    (Grant, 2010, p.103)
  36. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ݪଇᶅʮڧ͍ഥ͕ෳ਺ʹͳΕ͹ɼͦͷ಺ͷҰͭΛ໨ཱͨͤ Δʯ • ϐονͷมಈʹ͸ɼ্ঢͱԼ߱ɼͦͷ૊Έ߹Θͤͱฏୱ͕ ͋Δɻ • ͜ͷྖҬʹ͓͍ͯɼ೔ຊਓӳޠֶशऀ͸Կ͕໰୊ʁ •

    ໨ཱͪͷ഑ஔʢ֩഑ஔʣΛޡΓ͕ͪͰ͋Δɻଟ͘ͷ৔߹ɼ thought groupͷ๯಄ʹஔ͖͕ͪɻ͜ΕʹΑΔ৘ใͷয఺ ͷޡղ͕ੜ͡ΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δɻ • ϐονͷಈ͖ʹ͍ͭͯɼ۟຤ͷٸܹͳมಈͰҙਤΛ఻ୡ͠ Α͏ͱ͢Δ܏޲ʹɻ 42
  37. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ͜͜Ͱʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛৼΓฦͬͯΈΔͱ… • ޠɾ۟ɾจͱൣғ͕޿ൣʹͳͬͯ΋ɼΞΫηϯτͷ ഑ஔͳͲɼ಺෦ߏ଄͸ຊ࣭తʹ͸มΘΒͳ͍ɻ • ʮӳޠͷʰҰ఺߽՚ओٛʱతͳൃԻʯʢொా, 2017ʣ •

    ͕͜͜೔ຊޠͱ͸େ͖͘ҟͳΔͱ͜Ζɻ 43 (Grant, 2010, p.103)
  38. ʮӳޠϓϩισΟͷ3ͭͷݪଇʯͷ֓ཁ • ͜͜·Ͱݟ͖ͯͨɼʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯͰ͕͢ɼօ ͞Μ͕ઌ΄Ͳ࡞ͬͨݪߘ΋ɼ͜ͷ࿮૊ΈͰߟ ͑ͯΈΔ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖·͢ɻ • ݟฦͯ͠ΈͯɼͲͷ୯ޠ͕ݴ͍ʹ͍͘Ͱ͔͢ʁ ͲͷΑ͏ʹ۠੾Ε·͔͢ʁͦͷ۠੾Γͷதͷɼ Ͳ͕͜໨ཱͪ·͔͢ʁͱνΣοΫͯ͠Έ·͠ΐ ͏ɻ

    • ࣍͸ɼͦΕΛߟ͑ͯɼ΋͏Ұ౓ࣗ෼ͷൃදΛ ৼΓฦͬͯΈ·͠ΐ͏ɻ 44
  39. ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷߏ੒ 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 3.Ͳ͜ʹؾΛ഑Δʁ 4.΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 5.ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ 46

  40. 4. ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛ ֶ෦ੜʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 1ʣݪߘΛԻ੠తʹ֬ೝ͢Δʢ4෼ʣ • Ұ౓ॻ͍͍ͯΔݪߘΛɼ୯ޠͷΞΫηϯτͷ νΣοΫɼػೳޠɾ಺༰ޠͷ֬ೝɼ۠੾Γͷ νΣοΫɼ۠੾Γͷதͷ໨ཱͪΛ֬ೝ͢Δɻ • ͦΕΛޱ಄Ͱ఻͑Δʹ͍͸Ͳ͏ಡΊ͹͍͍͔Λ ߟ͑Δɻ 47
  41. 4. ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛֶ෦ੜʹ ӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 2ʣϖΞͰൃදΛ࣮ફ͢Δʢ1min × 2 ճʣ • ϖΞͷਓ͕౰֘ͷֶ෦ੜͰ͋Δͱݟཱͯɼൃද͠·͠ΐ ͏ɻ • ૬ํ͸ϝϞΛऔΓͳ͕Βฉ͖·͠ΐ͏ɻ • εϚϗͳͲͰ࿥Իɾ࿥ըͰ͖Δਓ͸ͦΕ΋ੋඇɻ • ͜͜͸Ұํ޲ͰɼൃදޙɼϑΟʔυόοΫΛͯ͠Լ͞ ͍ɻ 48
  42. 4. ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • λεΫ1ɿ 1 min presentationΛ΍ͬͯΈΔ • ͓୊ʮࣗ਎ͷݚڀྖҬɾݚڀ෼໺ͷΩʔϫʔυΛ ֶ෦ੜʹӳޠͰ঺հ͢Δʯ

    • 3ʣৼΓฦΓʢ3෼ʣ • ϖΞͷਓͱৼΓฦΓΛ͠ͳ͕ΒɼҰճ໨ͷ࣌ͱ ൺֱΛ͢Δɻ • ݪߘͷॻ͖ࠐΈΛ͓ޓ͍ʹݟͤ߹͍ͭͭɼͲ͏ ಡΜͰ͍ͯྑ͔͔ͬͨɼͲ͏ಡΊ͹ߋʹྑ͔ͬ ͔ͨ֬ೝΛ͢Δɻ 49
  43. 4. ΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ • ͕࣌ؒ͋Ε͹… • λεΫ2ɿ ഑෍ࢿྉ p.3 ͷ໺ޱɾ޾ॏʢ2007 p.118ʣͷྫΛͲ͏ಡΉ͔Λݕ౼ͯ͠੠ʹग़

    ͯ͠ΈΔɻ • ϖΞͷਓͱ୯ޠɾ۟ɾจͷڧऑͷ֬ೝɻ • ಺༰ޠɾػೳޠͷ֬ೝɼ۠੾Γɼͦͷத ͷ໨ཱͪΛ֬ೝͷ্ɼ੠ʹग़ͯ͠ΈΔɻ 50
  44. ຊϫʔΫγϣοϓͷߏ੒ 1.͸͡Ίʹ 2.·ͣ͸΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 3.Ͳ͜ʹؾΛ഑Δʁ 4.΋͏Ұճ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʂ 5.ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ 52

  45. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ 1.ࠓճͷʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ࢖ͬͯɼεΫϦ ϓτΛ࡞ͬͨΒߟ͑ͯɼͦΕΛϦϋʔα ϧ͢Δɻ←ࠓίί 2.෼͔Γ΍͘͢ݴ͍׵͑ΔͨΊʹ… “Mystery Words” ͷ࿅श 3.ͱʹ͔͘ϖΞͰ͠Ό΂ΔͨΊʹ…

    “One Minute Chat” ͷ࿅श 53
  46. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ 1.ࠓճͷʮ3ͭͷݪଇʯΛ࢖ͬͯɼεΫϦ ϓτΛ࡞ͬͨΒߟ͑ͯɼͦΕΛϦϋʔα ϧ͢Δɻ 2.෼͔Γ΍͘͢ݴ͍׵͑ΔͨΊʹ… “Mystery Words” ͷ࿅श ←͜Ε΋͋Δ

    3.ͱʹ͔͘ϖΞͰ͠Ό΂ΔͨΊʹ… “One Minute Chat” ͷ࿅श ←͜Ε΋͋Δ 54
  47. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ Mystery Words

  48. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ • Mystery Words – paraphrasing activity with your

    partner – ੍ݶ࣌ؒ಺ʹઆ໌͕૬खʹ఻ΘΕ͹ண ੮ – avoid ݻ༗໊ࢺ – avoid gestures • ࣗ෼ͷ੒௕ͷόϩϝʔλͱͯ͠ɻ
  49. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ • ্ͷӳޠΛࣗ෼ͷݴ༿Ͱ paraphrase͢Δͱʁ presentation

  50. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ • ӳӳࣙॻͩͱ͜ΜͳఆٛͰઆ໌͞Ε͍ͯ·͢ɻ • presentation … is “the act

    of showing something or of giving something to somebody.” (Oxford Learners’ Dictionary) • presentation … is “an activity in which someone shows, describes, or explains something to a group of people.” (Merriam Webster Learner’s Dictionary) presentation
  51. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ • ্ͷӳޠΛࣗ෼ͷݴ༿Ͱ paraphrase͢Δͱʁ aluminum

  52. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ • ӳӳࣙॻͩͱ͜ΜͳఆٛͰઆ໌͞Ε͍ͯ·͢ɻ • aluminium (BrE)… is “a chemical

    element. Aluminium is a light, silver-grey metal used for making pans, etc..” (Oxford Learners’ Dictionary) • aluminum (AmE) … is “a silver metal that is strong and light and that is used for making many products — often used before another noun.”(Merriam Webster Learner’s Dictionary) aluminum
  53. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ One Minute Chat

  54. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ • One Minute Chat – ϖΞʹΑΔର࿩׆ಈ – 1෼ؒϖΞͰ͋ΔτϐοΫʹ͍ͭͯ࿩͠ଓ͚

    Δ׆ಈ – ফ͠ΰϜ͔Կ͔ΛλʔϯςΠΩϯάͷҹʹ ࢖ͬͯʢͰ͖Δ͚ͩͨ͘͞ΜλʔϯΛऔΔ Α͏ʹʣ – ͋ͱͰɼԿ͕ݴ͑ͯɼͲ͏͢Ε͹ΑΓྑ͔ͬ ͔ͨɼͳͲΛৼΓฦΔ
  55. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ Today’s Topic: Would you rather be completely invisible

    for one day or be able to fly for one day? ͱʹ͔͘؆୯ͳ࿩୊Ͱɼ1෼͕Μ͹Ζ͏
  56. 5. ීஈ͔Β͜Μͳ࿅श͍͔͕Ͱ͠ΐ͏ʁ •ݴ͍׵͑࿅शͱͯ͠ͷ“Mystery Words”ͱλʔϯ਺Λ ଟ͘ͱΔͨΊͷ“One Minute Chat”Λࢼͯ͠Έ·ͨ͠ɻ •લऀ͸ɼઐ໳༻ޠ΍֓೦ͳͲΛ෼͔Γ΍͘͢ݴ͍׵͑ Δ࿅शͱͯ͠ɼ͞·͟·ͳ୯ޠͰࢼ͢͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖·͢ɻ •ޙऀ͸ɼ࣭ٙ΍ϙελʔϓϨθϯͳͲɼଈڵੑ͕ٻΊ

    ΒΕΔ৔Ͱͷॠൃྗͷཆ੒ͱͯ͠࿅शΛߦ͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ ͖·͢ɻ •ੋඇɼ೔ʑͷऔ૊ΈͷதʹऔΓೖΕͯ΋Β͑Ε͹ͱࢥ ͍·͢ɻ 64
  57. ·ͱΊ 65 • ࠓճͷϫʔΫγϣοϓΛ௨ͯ͡ɼࢀՃऀͷ օ͞ΜʹɼӳޠϓϨθϯʹ͍ͭͯɼ - ࠷ॳͷҰาͱͯ͠ݪߘΛ४උͯ͠ɼ - ·ͣ͸ͦΕΛ෼͔ΔΑ͏ʹಡΜͰɼ಺༰Λ ͖ͪΜͱ఻͑Δʹ͸Ͳ͏͢ΔͱΑ͍͔ɼ

    - ීஈͷ࿅श͸ͲΜͳ͜ͱ͕ྑ͍͔ɼ • Λ෼͔ͬͯ΋Β͏͜ͱΛ໨తͱ͍ͯ͠·͠ ͨɻ
  58. ·ͱΊ 66 • ऴΘͬͨݱࡏɼօ͞Μ͕ɼϓϨθϯςʔγϣϯͷ४උΛ͍ͯ͠ Δࡍʹɼ - ४උΛͨ͠ݪߘΛݟͯɼ - ͲͷΑ͏ʹಡΉͱɼ಺༰͕ฉ͖खʹ͖ͪΜͱ఻ΘΔͷ͔ɼ -

    ͲͷΑ͏ͳ࿅शΛ͢Ε͹Α͍ͷ͔ɼ - ීஈͷ࿅श͸ͲΜͳ͜ͱ͕ྑ͍͔ɼ • Λ෼͔ͬͯ΋Β͍ͬͯͯɼ࣮ࡍɼͦͷΑ͏ʹͯ͠΋Β͑Δͱ͋ Γ͕͍ͨͰ͢ɻ • ߋʹɼͦͷ݁ՌͳͲΛϑΟʔυόοΫͯ͠Լ͞Δͱɼͪ͜Βͱ ͯ͠͸ߋʹ͋Γ͕͍ͨͰ͢ɻ • ͝ҙݟɾٙ໰౳͍͟͝·ͨ͠Βɼ͝ԕྀͳ͓͘ਘͶԼ͍͞·ͤɻ