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Embracing the network - Smashing Conf

Embracing the network - Smashing Conf

This version of the talk was originally presented at Smashing Conference in Barcelona, Spain on the 20th October 2015.

The network is intrinsically unreliable. More so, the network is out of your control as a developer. Therefore, we must design systems which embrace the unpredictability of the network and defend against it all costs. How can you prioritise the delivery of your core content? What best-practices can you use to optimise your assets? How can we design interfaces which adapt and respond to changing network conditions? And finally, how are new APIs such as ServiceWorker changing the way we think about the network?

During this talk Patrick will share his experiences delivering high-performance websites to millions of users over the past 3 years at The Guardian and Financial Times. Which – most importantly – are resilient to the network.

Patrick Hamann

October 20, 2015
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  1. Embracing the network
    Patrick Hamann — Smashing Conference, October 2015

    @patrickhamann
    Modern techniques for building resilient front ends
    !

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  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacies_of_distributed_computing
    FT.com

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  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacies_of_distributed_computing
    1. The network is reliable.
    2. Latency is zero.
    3. Bandwidth is infinite.
    4. The network is secure.
    5. Topology doesn't change.
    6. There is one administrator.
    7. Transport cost is zero.
    8. The network is homogeneous.

    The fallacies of distributed computing 

    PETER DEUTSCH — SUN MICROSYSTEMS, 1994
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacies_of_distributed_computing

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  4. Multiple points of failure
    Dmytrii Shchadei — http://www.slideshare.net/metrofun/reduce-mobile-latency
    " # #
    #
    $
    Internal latency
    Firewalls, Load Balancers,
    Servers
    %
    Internet routing latency
    CDNs, ISPs, Caches, Proxies
    Control plane latency
    ~600ms on average UK 3G connection ~200ms

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  5. The radio state machine
    http://developer.android.com/training/efficient-downloads/efficient-network-access.html
    Radio standby Radio low power Radio full power
    2s latency
    1.5s latency
    Radio idle for
    5 seconds
    Radio idle for
    12 seconds

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  6. Title Text
    Request Map: http://requestmap.webperf.tools/

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  7. Failure is inevitable
    • 1,000,000 page views a day
    • 3 years product life-time
    • (1000000*360)*3 = 1,080,000,000
    • 1 billion opportunities for something to go wrong.

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  8. Baking in the assumption that everything can and will fail
    leads you to think differently about how you solve problems.

    SAM NEWMAN — BUILDING MICROSERVICES, O’REILLY 2015
    http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920033158.do

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  9. 1. Testing and monitoring failure
    2. Designing for failure
    3. Embracing failure
    4. The future

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  10. Testing and monitoring failure

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  11. A single point of failure (SPOF) is a part of a system that, if it
    fails, will stop the entire system from working. SPOFs are
    undesirable in any system with a goal of high availability or
    reliability, be it a business practice, software application, or
    other industrial system.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_point_of_failure

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  12. Front end SPOFs
    http://www.stevesouders.com/blog/2010/06/01/frontend-spof/
    Chrome Firefox IE Opera Safari
    External script Blank below Blank below Blank below Blank below Blank below
    Stylesheet Flash Flash Blank below Flash Blank below
    inlined 

    @font-face
    Delayed Flash Flash Flash Delayed
    Stylesheet
    @font-face
    Delayed Flash Totally blank Flash Delayed
    Script then

    @font-face
    Delayed Flash Totally blank Flash Delayed

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  13. http://uk.businessinsider.com/doubleclick-for-publishers-down-2014-11

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  14. http://uk.businessinsider.com/doubleclick-for-publishers-down-2014-11

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  15. http://uk.businessinsider.com/doubleclick-for-publishers-down-2014-11

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  16. https://twitter.com/scottjehl/status/636303029533282304

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  17. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacies_of_distributed_computing

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  18. Comcast - https://github.com/tylertreat/Comcast
    $ comcast --device=eth0 --latency=250 --target-bw=1000 --packet-loss=10%

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  19. Jeremy Keith — https://flic.kr/p/o9thWy

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  20. Resource timing API
    http://www.w3.org/TR/resource-timing/
    var resourceList = window.performance.getEntriesByType(‘resource');
    for (i = 0; i < resourceList.length; i++) {
    if (/link|script/.test(resourceList[i].initiatorType)) {
    navigator.sendBeacon('https://stats.ft.com/', {
    resource: resourceList[i].name,
    timing: (resourceList[i].responseEnd - resourceList[i].startTime)
    });
    }
    }

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  21. • Test 1st and 3rd party dependencies for SPOFs
    • Use network shaping to simulate mobile conditions
    • Monitor all response times, timeouts and errors
    • Alert if metrics pass their thresholds

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  22. 1. Testing and monitoring failure
    2. Designing for failure
    3. Embracing failure
    4. The future

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  23. Designing for failure

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  24. There seems to be an excessive amount of waiting around for
    pages to refresh and load -it doesn't seem as quick as the
    previous version.
    Luke Wroblewski – http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1797

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  25. Little big details — http://littlebigdetails.com/post/56782380031/pinterest-before-image-is-loaded-the-background

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  26. Time and perception
    Delay User perception
    0 - 100ms Instant
    100 - 300ms Small perceptible delay
    300 - 1000ms Machine is working
    1000+ ms Likely mental context switch
    10,000+ ms Task is abandoned

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  27. • Respond within a 1000ms
    • Avoid loading spinners
    • Consider using skeleton screens
    • Re-use familiar UI patterns within error messaging
    • Use human friendly copy, especially in error states

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  28. 1. Testing and monitoring failure
    2. Designing for failure
    3. Embracing failure
    4. The future

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  29. Embracing failure

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  30. Pre-connect
    Ilya Grigorik — Eliminating roundtrips wth pre-connect: https://www.igvita.com/2015/08/17/eliminating-roundtrips-with-preconnect/
    socket setup

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  31. Pre-connect


    function preconnectTo(url) {
    var hint = document.createElement("link");
    hint.rel = "preconnect";
    hint.href = url;
    document.head.appendChild(hint);
    }
    Ilya Grigorik — Eliminating roundtrips wth pre-connect: https://www.igvita.com/2015/08/17/eliminating-roundtrips-with-preconnect/

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  32. When should I use resource hints?
    Method Use case Examples Frequecy
    preconnect
    Initiating an early connection to
    critical resources
    Image hosts, CDNs and
    analytics
    Often
    prefetch Fetch individual resource
    CSS or JS required for next
    page
    Limited
    prerender Fetch and execute HTML page Next page in a checkout flow Use with care

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  33. Caching
    Libraries Utilities Application
    Rarely change Frequent change

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  34. Caching
    Libraries Utilities Application
    Rarely change Frequent change

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  35. Caching
    Libraries Utilities Application
    Rarely change Frequent change
    &
    core.js
    &
    app.js

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  36. HTTP/2
    R.U.M data sampled over 1 month from https://next.ft.com/
    H2 Capable
    H2 Enabled
    Unsupported
    Mobile user load event
    0ms 2,000ms 4,000ms 6,000ms 8,000ms
    7,200
    5,325
    6,160

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  37. Loading fonts
    https://tabatkins.github.io/specs/css-font-rendering/
    Chrome Opera Safari Firefox IE
    Timeout 3s 3s no timeout 3s 0
    Fallback Yes Yes n/a Yes Yes
    Swap Yes Yes n/a Yes Yes

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  38. CSS Font Rendering Controls Module
    https://tabatkins.github.io/specs/css-font-rendering/
    @font-face {
    font-family: 'MyShinyFont';
    src: url('http://fonts.ft.com/async.woff2');
    font-display: swap;
    }
    @font-face {
    font-family: 'MyBlockingFont';
    src: url: url('http://fonts.ft.com/blocking.woff2');
    font-display: block;
    }

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  39. '
    ServiceWorker
    & (
    %

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  40. '
    ServiceWorker
    & (
    %

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  41. '
    ServiceWorker
    & (
    %

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  42. Cache only
    self.addEventListener('install', function(event) {
    event.waitUntil(
    caches.open(cacheName).then(function(cache) {
    return cache.addAll([
    ‘http://fonts.ft.com/fonts.css',
    'http://fonts.ft.com/serif',
    'http://fonts.ft.com/sans-serif'
    ]);
    })
    );
    });
    https://jakearchibald.com/2014/offline-cookbook

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  43. Cache only
    https://jakearchibald.com/2014/offline-cookbook
    self.addEventListener('fetch', function(event) {
    // If this is a request for font file
    if (/fonts\.ft\.com/.test(event.request)) {
    // If a match isn't found in the cache, the response
    // will look like a connection error
    event.respondWith(caches.match(event.request));
    }
    });

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  44. X
    Cache only
    '
    & (
    %

    (
    X
    (
    (
    &

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  45. Loading CSS
    https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/performance/critical-rendering-path/analyzing-crp?hl=en
    Request page
    Network
    Render
    GET html
    Build DOM
    response
    Build CSSOM Render page
    GET css
    GET js
    response
    response
    idle idle
    Render blocking
    Run JS
    Render blocking

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  46. Loading CSS
    Request page
    Network
    Render
    GET html
    Build DOM
    response
    Build CSSOM Render page
    GET css
    GET js
    response
    response
    idle idle
    Async
    Render blocking
    Run JS
    https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/performance/critical-rendering-path/analyzing-crp?hl=en

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  47. https://github.com/filamentgroup/loadCSS

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  48. Loading CSS
    Request page
    Network
    Render
    GET html
    Build DOM
    response
    Build CSSOM Render page
    GET css response
    idle idle
    Async
    https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/performance/critical-rendering-path/analyzing-crp?hl=en
    Reflow

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  49. Stale-while-revalidate
    self.addEventListener('fetch', function(event) {
    // Get stale from cache
    event.respondWith(
    caches.open(cacheName).then(function(cache) {
    return cache.match(event.request).then(function(response) {
    // If in cache relvalidate
    var network = fetch(event.request).then(function(response){
    if(response.status < 400) {
    cache.put(event.request, response.clone());
    }
    });
    // Return stale or network if none
    return response || network;
    });
    })
    );
    });
    https://jakearchibald.com/2014/offline-cookbook

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  50. Stale-while-revalidate
    '
    & (
    %

    (

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  51. Stale-if-error
    self.addEventListener('fetch', function(event) {
    // Always fetch response from the network
    event.respondWith(
    fetch(event.request).then(function(response) {
    return caches.open(cacheName).then(function(cache) {
    // If we received an error response
    if(!response.ok) {
    return cache.match(event.request)
    } else {
    // Response was healthy so update cached version
    cache.put(event.request, response.clone());
    return response;
    }
    });
    })
    );
    });

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  52. Timeouts
    '
    & (
    %
    X *
    X

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  53. Timeout race
    function timeout(delay) {
    return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
    setTimeout(function() {
    resolve(new Response('', {
    status: 408,
    statusText: 'Request timed out.'
    }));
    }, delay);
    });
    }
    self.addEventListener('fetch', function(event) {
    // Attempt to fetch with timeout
    event.respondWith(Promise.race([timeout(2000), fetch(event.request)]));
    });

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  54. Dead letter queue
    '
    & (
    %
    X
    +
    offline

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  55. Dead letter queue
    '
    & (
    %
    +
    Online

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  56. Dead letter queue
    var queue = {};
    function queueFailedRequest(request) {
    queue[Date.now()] = request;
    }
    self.addEventListener('fetch', function(event) {
    if(/track\.ft\.com/.test(event.request.url) {
    event.respondWith(
    fetch(event.request).then(function(response){
    if(response.status >= 500) {
    return Response.error();
    } else {
    return response;
    }
    }).catch(function() {
    queueFailedRequest(event.request);
    })
    );
    }
    });

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  57. Dead letter queue
    self.addEventListener('sync', function(event) {
    event.waitUntil(
    return Promise.all(queue.map(function(request) {
    return fetch(request)
    }))
    );
    });

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  58. • Pre-connect sockets
    • Pre-fetch and cache critical resources
    • Bundle resources by their frequency of change
    • Serve stale and revalidate
    • Serve stale if error
    • Always use timeouts
    • Treat the network as an enhancement!

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  59. 1. Testing and monitoring failure
    2. Designing for failure
    3. Embracing failure
    4. The future

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  60. Offline
    Network unavaliable

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  61. Push notifications

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  62. Background sync
    navigator.serviceWorker.ready.then(function(registration) {
    regitration.periodicSync.register({
    tag: 'get-latet-news', // default: ''
    minPeriod: 12 * 60 * 60 * 1000, // default: 0
    powertState: 'avoid-draining', // default: 'auto'
    networkState: 'avoid-cellular' // default: 'online'
    }).then(function(periodicsyncReg) {
    // success
    }, function() {
    // failure
    });
    });

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  63. 1. Testing and monitoring failure
    2. Designing for failure
    3. Embracing failure
    4. The future

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  64. Thanks
    @patrickhamann
    speakerdeck.com/patrickhamann

    github.com/Financial-Times
    !
    ,
    -
    Do you want to help build this stuff? Join in.
    [email protected]

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