Embracing the network - Web Directions

Embracing the network - Web Directions

This version of the talk was originally presented at Web Directions in Sydney, Australia on the 30th October 2015. The video for the talk is also now online: https://www.webdirections.org/blog/video-week-patrick-hamann-embracing-network/

The network is intrinsically unreliable. More so, the network is out of your control as a developer. Therefore, we must design systems which embrace the unpredictability of the network and defend against it all costs. How can you prioritise the delivery of your core content? What best-practices can you use to optimise your assets? How can we design interfaces which adapt and respond to changing network conditions? And finally, how are new APIs such as ServiceWorker changing the way we think about the network?

During this talk Patrick will share his experiences delivering high-performance websites to millions of users over the past 3 years at The Guardian and Financial Times. Which – most importantly – are resilient to the network.

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Patrick Hamann

October 30, 2015
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Transcript

  1. Embracing the network Patrick Hamann — Web Directions, October 2015


    @patrickhamann Modern techniques for building resilient front ends !
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  4. Why?

  5. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacies_of_distributed_computing <a href=“http://next.ft.com”>FT.com</a>

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  9. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacies_of_distributed_computing 1. The network is reliable. 2. Latency is zero.

    3. Bandwidth is infinite. 4. The network is secure. 5. Topology doesn't change. 6. There is one administrator. 7. Transport cost is zero. 8. The network is homogeneous. 
 The fallacies of distributed computing 
 PETER DEUTSCH — SUN MICROSYSTEMS, 1994 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacies_of_distributed_computing
  10. Multiple points of failure Dmytrii Shchadei — http://www.slideshare.net/metrofun/reduce-mobile-latency " #

    # # $ Internal latency Firewalls, Load Balancers, Servers % Internet routing latency CDNs, ISPs, Caches, Proxies Control plane latency ~600ms on average UK 3G connection ~200ms
  11. The radio state machine http://developer.android.com/training/efficient-downloads/efficient-network-access.html Radio standby Radio low power

    Radio full power 2s latency 1.5s latency Radio idle for 5 seconds Radio idle for 12 seconds
  12. Title Text

  13. Title Text Request Map: http://requestmap.webperf.tools/

  14. Failure is inevitable • 1,000,000 page views a day •

    3 years product life-time • (1000000*360)*3 = 1,080,000,000 • 1 billion opportunities for something to go wrong.
  15. Baking in the assumption that everything can and will fail

    leads you to think differently about how you solve problems. 
 SAM NEWMAN — BUILDING MICROSERVICES, O’REILLY 2015 http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920033158.do
  16. 1. Testing and monitoring failure 2. Designing for failure 3.

    Embracing failure 4. The future
  17. Testing and monitoring failure

  18. A single point of failure (SPOF) is a part of

    a system that, if it fails, will stop the entire system from working. SPOFs are undesirable in any system with a goal of high availability or reliability, be it a business practice, software application, or other industrial system. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_point_of_failure
  19. Front end SPOFs http://www.stevesouders.com/blog/2010/06/01/frontend-spof/ Chrome Firefox IE Opera Safari External

    script Blank below Blank below Blank below Blank below Blank below Stylesheet Flash Flash Blank below Flash Blank below inlined 
 @font-face Delayed Flash Flash Flash Delayed Stylesheet @font-face Delayed Flash Totally blank Flash Delayed Script then
 @font-face Delayed Flash Totally blank Flash Delayed
  20. http://uk.businessinsider.com/doubleclick-for-publishers-down-2014-11

  21. http://uk.businessinsider.com/doubleclick-for-publishers-down-2014-11

  22. http://uk.businessinsider.com/doubleclick-for-publishers-down-2014-11

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  24. https://twitter.com/scottjehl/status/636303029533282304

  25. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacies_of_distributed_computing

  26. Comcast - https://github.com/tylertreat/Comcast $ comcast --device=eth0 --latency=250 --target-bw=1000 --packet-loss=10%

  27. Facebook 2G Tuesdays - www.businessinsider.com.au/facebook-2g-tuesdays-to-slow-employee-internet-speeds-down-2015-10?op=1

  28. Jeremy Keith — https://flic.kr/p/o9thWy

  29. Resource timing API http://www.w3.org/TR/resource-timing/ var resourceList = window.performance.getEntriesByType(‘resource'); for (i

    = 0; i < resourceList.length; i++) { if (/link|script/.test(resourceList[i].initiatorType)) { navigator.sendBeacon('https://stats.ft.com/', { resource: resourceList[i].name, timing: (resourceList[i].responseEnd - resourceList[i].startTime) }); } }
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  31. • Test 1st and 3rd party dependencies for SPOFs •

    Use network shaping to simulate mobile conditions • Monitor all response times, timeouts and errors • Alert if metrics pass their thresholds
  32. 1. Testing and monitoring failure 2. Designing for failure 3.

    Embracing failure 4. The future
  33. Designing for failure

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  35. There seems to be an excessive amount of waiting around

    for pages to refresh and load -it doesn't seem as quick as the previous version. Luke Wroblewski – http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1797
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  40. Little big details — http://littlebigdetails.com/post/56782380031/pinterest-before-image-is-loaded-the-background

  41. Time and perception Delay User perception 0 - 100ms Instant

    100 - 300ms Small perceptible delay 300 - 1000ms Machine is working 1000+ ms Likely mental context switch 10,000+ ms Task is abandoned
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  45. • Respond within a 1000ms • Avoid loading spinners •

    Consider using skeleton screens • Re-use familiar UI patterns within error messaging • Use human friendly copy, especially in error states
  46. 1. Testing and monitoring failure 2. Designing for failure 3.

    Embracing failure 4. The future
  47. Embracing failure

  48. Pre-connect Ilya Grigorik — Eliminating roundtrips wth pre-connect: https://www.igvita.com/2015/08/17/eliminating-roundtrips-with-preconnect/ socket

    setup
  49. Pre-connect <link href='https://media.ft.com/' rel=‘preconnect’> <link href='https://api.livefyre.com/' rel='preconnect' crossorigin> function preconnectTo(url)

    { var hint = document.createElement("link"); hint.rel = "preconnect"; hint.href = url; document.head.appendChild(hint); } Ilya Grigorik — Eliminating roundtrips wth pre-connect: https://www.igvita.com/2015/08/17/eliminating-roundtrips-with-preconnect/
  50. When should I use resource hints? Method Use case Examples

    Frequecy preconnect Initiating an early connection to critical resources Image hosts, CDNs and analytics Often prefetch Fetch individual resource CSS or JS required for next page Limited prerender Fetch and execute HTML page Next page in a checkout flow Use with care
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  52. Caching Libraries Utilities Application Rarely change Frequent change

  53. Caching Libraries Utilities Application Rarely change Frequent change

  54. Caching Libraries Utilities Application Rarely change Frequent change & core.js

    & app.js
  55. HTTP/2 R.U.M data sampled over 1 month from https://next.ft.com/ H2

    Capable H2 Enabled Unsupported Mobile user load event 0ms 2,000ms 4,000ms 6,000ms 8,000ms 7,200 5,325 6,160
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  58. Loading fonts https://tabatkins.github.io/specs/css-font-rendering/ Chrome Opera Safari Firefox IE Timeout 3s

    3s no timeout 3s 0 Fallback Yes Yes n/a Yes Yes Swap Yes Yes n/a Yes Yes
  59. CSS Font Rendering Controls Module https://tabatkins.github.io/specs/css-font-rendering/ @font-face { font-family: 'MyShinyFont';

    src: url('http://fonts.ft.com/async.woff2'); font-display: swap; } @font-face { font-family: 'MyBlockingFont'; src: url: url('http://fonts.ft.com/blocking.woff2'); font-display: block; }
  60. ' ServiceWorker & ( %

  61. ' ServiceWorker & ( % 

  62. ' ServiceWorker & ( %

  63. Cache only self.addEventListener('install', function(event) { event.waitUntil( caches.open(cacheName).then(function(cache) { return cache.addAll([

    ‘http://fonts.ft.com/fonts.css', 'http://fonts.ft.com/serif', 'http://fonts.ft.com/sans-serif' ]); }) ); }); https://jakearchibald.com/2014/offline-cookbook
  64. Cache only https://jakearchibald.com/2014/offline-cookbook self.addEventListener('fetch', function(event) { // If this is

    a request for font file if (/fonts\.ft\.com/.test(event.request)) { // If a match isn't found in the cache, the response // will look like a connection error event.respondWith(caches.match(event.request)); } });
  65. X Cache only ' & ( %  ( X

    ( ( &
  66. Loading CSS https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/performance/critical-rendering-path/analyzing-crp?hl=en Request page Network Render GET html Build

    DOM response Build CSSOM Render page GET css GET js response response idle idle Render blocking Run JS Render blocking
  67. Loading CSS Request page Network Render GET html Build DOM

    response Build CSSOM Render page GET css GET js response response idle idle Async Render blocking Run JS https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/performance/critical-rendering-path/analyzing-crp?hl=en
  68. https://github.com/filamentgroup/loadCSS

  69. Loading CSS Request page Network Render GET html Build DOM

    response Build CSSOM Render page GET css response idle idle Async https://developers.google.com/web/fundamentals/performance/critical-rendering-path/analyzing-crp?hl=en Reflow
  70. Stale-while-revalidate self.addEventListener('fetch', function(event) { // Get stale from cache event.respondWith(

    caches.open(cacheName).then(function(cache) { return cache.match(event.request).then(function(response) { // If in cache relvalidate var network = fetch(event.request).then(function(response){ if(response.status < 400) { cache.put(event.request, response.clone()); } }); // Return stale or network if none return response || network; }); }) ); }); https://jakearchibald.com/2014/offline-cookbook
  71. Stale-while-revalidate ' & ( %  (

  72. Stale-if-error self.addEventListener('fetch', function(event) { // Always fetch response from the

    network event.respondWith( fetch(event.request).then(function(response) { return caches.open(cacheName).then(function(cache) { // If we received an error response if(!response.ok) { return cache.match(event.request) } else { // Response was healthy so update cached version cache.put(event.request, response.clone()); return response; } }); }) ); });
  73. Timeouts ' & ( % X * X

  74. Timeout race function timeout(delay) { return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {

    setTimeout(function() { resolve(new Response('', { status: 408, statusText: 'Request timed out.' })); }, delay); }); } self.addEventListener('fetch', function(event) { // Attempt to fetch with timeout event.respondWith(Promise.race([timeout(2000), fetch(event.request)])); });
  75. Dead letter queue ' & ( % X + offline

  76. Dead letter queue ' & ( % + Online

  77. Dead letter queue var queue = {}; function queueFailedRequest(request) {

    queue[Date.now()] = request; } self.addEventListener('fetch', function(event) { if(/track\.ft\.com/.test(event.request.url) { event.respondWith( fetch(event.request).then(function(response){ if(response.status >= 500) { return Response.error(); } else { return response; } }).catch(function() { queueFailedRequest(event.request); }) ); } });
  78. Dead letter queue self.addEventListener('sync', function(event) { event.waitUntil( return Promise.all(queue.map(function(request) {

    return fetch(request) })) ); });
  79. • Pre-connect sockets • Pre-fetch and cache critical resources •

    Bundle resources by their frequency of change • Serve stale and revalidate • Serve stale if error • Always use timeouts • Treat the network as an enhancement!
  80. 1. Testing and monitoring failure 2. Designing for failure 3.

    Embracing failure 4. The future
  81. The future

  82. None
  83. Offline Network unavaliable

  84. Push notifications

  85. Background sync navigator.serviceWorker.ready.then(function(registration) { regitration.periodicSync.register({ tag: 'get-latet-news', // default: ''

    minPeriod: 12 * 60 * 60 * 1000, // default: 0 powertState: 'avoid-draining', // default: 'auto' networkState: 'avoid-cellular' // default: 'online' }).then(function(periodicsyncReg) { // success }, function() { // failure }); });
  86. 1. Testing and monitoring failure 2. Designing for failure 3.

    Embracing failure 4. The future
  87. Conclusion

  88. Thanks @patrickhamann speakerdeck.com/patrickhamann
 github.com/Financial-Times ! , - Do you want

    to help build this stuff? Join in. jobs@labs.ft.com