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Web Directions Respond: Performance: HTTP2 in a 1.5 world

Web Directions Respond: Performance: HTTP2 in a 1.5 world

HTTP2 is here to solve all our performance woes. Well, not quite, even on the 5% of websites that enable it, around 50% of traffic uses the older, slower protocol. It’s our job as web developers to account for both.

Discover some of the techniques available to developers during this transitional period, the new catches in HTTP2 and - importantly - how to keep your visitors from giving up before your site even loads.

Peter Wilson

April 08, 2016
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  1. Wed 29 Oct 1969
    ~ ucla$ ░

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  2. Wed 29 Oct 1969
    ~ ucla$ ░

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  3. Wed 29 Oct 1969
    ~ ucla$ lo ░
    gin

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  4. Wed 29 Oct 1969
    ~ ucla$ lo ░

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  5. Performance: HTTP/2 in a 1.5 world
    Peter Wilson • peterwilson.cc • @pwcc

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  6. View Slide

  7. Linnaea Mallette

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  8. Today

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  9. Bytes on the page

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  10. Total page size (MB)
    Nov 2011 - March 2016
    0.5
    1.0
    1.5
    2.0
    2.5
    1 Nov '11 15 May '12 1 Dec '12 15 Jun '13 1 Jan '14 15 Jul '14 1 Feb '15 15 Aug '15 1 Mar '16
    httparchive.org/trends.php, March 2016

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  11. Total page size
    Percent of Nov 2011
    50%
    100%
    150%
    200%
    250%
    300%
    1 Nov '11 15 May '12 1 Dec '12 15 Jun '13 1 Jan '14 15 Jul '14 1 Feb '15 15 Aug '15 1 Mar '16
    httparchive.org/trends.php, March 2016

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  12. Assets per page
    Nov 2011 - March 2016
    20
    40
    60
    80
    100
    120
    1 Nov '11 15 May '12 1 Dec '12 15 Jun '13 1 Jan '14 15 Jul '14 1 Feb '15 15 Aug '15 1 Mar '16
    httparchive.org/trends.php, March 2016

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  13. Webfonts
    Multiple of Nov 2011 (bytes)
    2
    4
    6
    8
    10
    12
    14
    16
    18
    20
    1 Nov '11 15 May '12 1 Dec '12 15 Jun '13 1 Jan '14 15 Jul '14 1 Feb '15 15 Aug '15 1 Mar '16
    httparchive.org/trends.php, March 2016

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  14. Load time
    httparchive.org/trends.php, March 2016

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  15. Load time
    Start render: 4.2 seconds

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  16. Load time
    Visually complete: 12.7 seconds

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  17. Load time
    Document complete: 15.23 sec

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  18. Herbie:
    Fully Loaded star Lindsay
    Lohan

    Australian from London color="#FF6633">Clive James

    Stand-up comedian color="#FF6633">Charlie Pickering

    Jebediah

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  19. View Slide

  20. Money

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  21. View Slide

  22. Walmart conversion rate
    slideshare.net/devonauerswald/walmart-pagespeedslide
    0 - 1
    1 - 2
    2 - 3
    3 - 4
    4 - 5
    5 - 6
    6 - 7
    7 - 8
    8 - 9
    9 - 10
    10 - 11
    11 - 12
    12 - 13
    13 - 14
    14 - 15
    15+

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  23. Shopzilla: 12% revenue increase
    globaldots.com/how-website-speed-affects-conversion-rates

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  24. Yahoo!: 9% traffic increase
    globaldots.com/how-website-speed-affects-conversion-rates

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  25. [A] slowdown of one second could
    cost [Amazon] $1.6 billion in sales
    pwcc.cc/respond/1.6billion

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  26. [A] slowdown of one second could
    cost [Amazon] $1.6 billion in sales
    Esther Vargas (CC) - flic.kr/p/fstSrg

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  27. Each 100ms delay costs 1% of sales
    pwcc.cc/respond/amazon (ppt)

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  28. Measure a starting point

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  29. View Slide

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  31. WebPageTest - webpagetest.org

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  32. WebPageTest - webpagetest.org

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  33. Key metrics
    Document Complete Fully Loaded
    Load Time First Byte Start Render Speed Index
    DOM
    Elements
    Time Requests Bytes In Time Requests Bytes In
    3.770s 0.771s 1.789s 1834 397 3.770s 27 635 KB 4.072s 33 661 KB
    WebPageTest - webpagetest.org

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  34. Timeline view

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  35. Comparison timelines
    Additional blocking request in HTML Header
    Timed using WebPageTest - pwcc.cc/respond/blocking
    0.5s 1.0s 1.5s 2.0s
    0% 0% 0% 100%
    0% 86% 100%
    Blocked
    Unblocked

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  36. Comparison timelines
    Additional blocking request in HTML Header
    Timed using WebPageTest - pwcc.cc/respond/blocking
    0.5s 1.0s 1.5s 2.0s
    0% 0% 0% 100%
    0% 86% 100%
    Blocked
    Unblocked

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  37. Comparison timelines
    Additional blocking request in HTML Header
    Timed using WebPageTest - pwcc.cc/respond/blocking
    0.5s 1.0s 1.5s 2.0s
    0% 0% 0% 100%
    0% 86% 100%
    Blocked
    Unblocked

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  38. Comparison timelines
    Additional blocking request in HTML Header
    Timed using WebPageTest - pwcc.cc/respond/blocking
    0.5s 1.0s 1.5s 2.0s
    0% 0% 0% 100%
    0% 86% 100%
    Blocked
    Unblocked

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  39. Speed index
    Document Complete Fully Loaded
    Load Time First Byte Start Render Speed Index
    DOM
    Elements
    Time Requests Bytes In Time Requests Bytes In
    3.770s 0.771s 1.789s 1834 397 3.770s 27 635 KB 4.072s 33 661 KB
    WebPageTest - webpagetest.org

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  40. 53 / 100
    Our PageSpeed score is
    you won’t believe how

    much it’s costing

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  41. World Super Cars at English Wikipedia (CC) • VIA Gallery (CC) - flic.kr/p/5QTEFc

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  42. ~$

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  43. ~$ nslookup example.com

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  44. ~$ nslookup example.com
    Non-authoritative answer:
    Name:example.com
    Address: 117.53.163.91
    ~$

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  45. ~$ telnet 117.53.163.91 80
    Connected to 117.53.163.91.

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  46. ~$ telnet 117.53.163.91 80
    Connected to 117.53.163.91.
    GET / HTTP/1.1
    Host: example.com

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  47. ~$ telnet 117.53.163.91 80
    Connected to 117.53.163.91.
    GET / HTTP/1.1
    Host: example.com
    nextSlideOnWindowFocus:"off",
    disableFocusListener:false,
    }
    });
    }
    }); /*ready*/






    <br/>/* <![CDATA[ */<br/>var scriptParams = {"google_search_engine_id":"017877086915232438708:-pvqphefyyw"};<br/>/* ]]> */<br/>


    <br/>/* <![CDATA[ */<br/>var qpprFrontData = {"linkData":{"http:\/\/example.com\/?p=3925":[0,1,"http:\/\/example.com\/?p=3893"],"http:\/\/example.com\/blog\/2014\/10\/sponsorship-directory\/":[0,1,""],"http:\/\/example.com\/?p=4437":[0,1,"http:\/\/example.com\/centrestage"],"http:\/\/example.com\/?<br/>p=4522":[0,1,"http:\/\/example.com\/blog\/vacancy\/2015-radiothon-fundraising-events-coordinator\/"],"http:\/\/example.com\/blog\/2015\/05\/remember-joy-join\/":[0,1,""],"http:\/\/example.com\/blog\/2015\/06\/taste-of-radio\/":[0,1,"http:\/\/example.com\/training\/taste-of-radio<br/>\/"],"http:\/\/example.com\/blog\/2015\/06\/new-music-to-weekdays\/":[0,1,"http:\/\/example.com\/music"],"http:\/\/example.com\/?p=4916":[0,1,"http:\/\/example.com\/rebel-heart-tour\/"],"http:\/\/example.com\/blog\/2015\/07\/centre-stage-the-winners\/":[0,1,"http:\/\/example.com\/<br/>centrestage"],"http:\/\/example.com\/blog\/2015\/08\/latest-podcasts\/":[0,1,"http:\/\/example.com\/podcasts"],"http:\/\/example.com\/?p=5079":[0,1,"https:\/\/www.surveymonkey.com\/r\/joy949survey"],"http:\/\/example.com\/blog\/2015\/12\/volunteer-vacancies\/":[0,1,"http:\/\/<br/>example.com\/vacancies-category\/volunteer\/"],"http:\/\/example.com\/blog\/2015\/11\/94days-of-summer-is-coming\/":[0,1,""],"http:\/\/example.com\/?p=5282":[0,1,"https:\/\/www.outix.net\/booktickets\/event\/JOYFundraiserDanish"],"http:\/\/example.com\/blog\/2016\/02\/new-taste-<br/>radio-dates\/":[0,1,"http:\/\/example.com\/training\/taste-of-radio\/"]},"siteURL":"http:\/\/example.com","siteURLq":"http:\/\/example.com"};<br/>/* ]]> */<br/>


    <br/>/* <![CDATA[ */<br/>var zoomOptions = [];<br/>/* ]]> */<br/>





    <br/>/* <![CDATA[ */<br/>var JQLBSettings = {"showTitle":"1","showCaption":"1","showNumbers":"1","fitToScreen":"1","resizeSpeed":"400","showDownload":"0","navbarOnTop":"0","marginSize":"20","slideshowSpeed":"4000","prevLinkTitle":"previous image","nextLinkTitle":"next image","closeTitle":"close image<br/>gallery","image":"Image ","of":" of ","download":"Download","pause":"(pause slideshow)","play":"(play slideshow)"};<br/>/* ]]> */<br/>



    <br/>/* <![CDATA[ */<br/>var mejsL10n = {"language":"en-US","strings":{"Close":"Close","Fullscreen":"Fullscreen","Download File":"Download File","Download Video":"Download Video","Play\/Pause":"Play\/Pause","Mute Toggle":"Mute Toggle","None":"None","Turn off Fullscreen":"Turn off Fullscreen","Go<br/>Fullscreen":"Go Fullscreen","Unmute":"Unmute","Mute":"Mute","Captions\/Subtitles":"Captions\/Subtitles"}};<br/>var _wpmejsSettings = {"pluginPath":"\/wp-includes\/js\/mediaelement\/"};<br/>/* ]]> */<br/>





    <br/>/* <![CDATA[ */<br/>var JOYTwitter_config = {"ajaxurl":"https:\/\/example.com\/wp-admin\/admin-ajax.php","sec":"ecaf121956"};<br/>/* ]]> */<br/>



    window.NREUM||(NREUM={});NREUM.info={"beacon":"bam.nr-data.net","licenseKey":"70c3bbd35e","applicationID":"1953133","transactionName":"M1RRZ0FUX0ZTV0ZRWAoeclBHXF5bHV1cXFIc","queueTime":0,"applicationTime":<br/>1036,"atts":"HxNSEQlOTEg=","errorBeacon":"bam.nr-data.net","agent":""}

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  48. View Slide

  49. Assets on a page

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  50. Blockers
    HTML

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  51. Blockers
    HTML
    CSS

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  52. Blockers
    HTML
    CSS
    IMG
    IMG
    IMG
    FONTS

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  53. Blockers
    HTML
    CSS
    IMG
    IMG
    IMG
    JS
    FONTS

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  54. Blockers
    HTML
    CSS
    IMG
    IMG
    IMG
    JS
    IFRAME
    FONTS

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  55. Waterfall
    WebPageTest - webpagetest.org

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  56. Waterfall
    WebPageTest - webpagetest.org

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  57. Waterfall
    WebPageTest - webpagetest.org

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  58. Waterfall
    WebPageTest - webpagetest.org

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  59. But, we have HTTP/2 now.

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  60. Everything you know about
    performance is now wrong and
    former best practices are now an
    anti-pattern and considered
    harmful.

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  61. These titles are
    considered harmful

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  62. caniuse.com/http2, March 2016

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  63. caniuse.com/http2, March 2016

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  64. Sites using HTTP/2
    w3techs.com, March 2016

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  65. Traffic

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  66. Your site running HTTP/2

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  67. HTTP/2
    A fictional guide

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  69. ~$

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  70. ~$ ssh 117.53.163.91 443
    Connected to 117.53.163.91.

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  71. ~$ ssh 117.53.163.91 443
    Connected to 117.53.163.91.
    Handshake Type: Client Hello
    Version: TLS 1.2
    Server name: example.com

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  72. ~$ ssh 117.53.163.91 443
    Connected to 117.53.163.91.
    Handshake Type: Client Hello
    Version: TLS 1.2
    Server name: example.com
    Certificate: 14:9f:f0:9e:ab…
    Certificate Length: 4096
    Upgrade: HTTP/2

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  73. Handshake Type: Client Hello
    Version: TLS 1.2
    Server name: example.com
    Certificate: 14:9f:f0:9e:ab…
    Certificate Length: 4096
    Upgrade: HTTP/2
    ClientKeyExchange: 8C:77:82…
    GET / HTTP/2
    Host: example.com

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  74. Server name: example.com
    Certificate: 14:9f:f0:9e:ab…
    Certificate Length: 4096
    Upgrade: HTTP/2
    ClientKeyExchange: 8C:77:82…
    GET / HTTP/2
    Host: example.com
    GET /style.css HTTP/2
    GET /script.js HTTP/2

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  75. Server name: example.com
    Certificate: 14:9f:f0:9e:ab…
    Certificate Length: 4096
    Upgrade: HTTP/2
    ClientKeyExchange: 8C:77:82…
    GET / HTTP/2
    Host: example.com
    GET /style.css HTTP/2
    GET /script.js HTTP/2
    .comment-respond{clear:both}
    @media only screen and (min-width:35em){.comment-form>div{width:50%;float:left}
    .Comment .comment-form>div{width:auto;float:none}
    .comment-form>div:nth-child(2n){padding-right:1rem}
    .Comment .comment-form>div:nth-child(2n){padding-right:0}
    .comment-form>div:nth-child(2n-1){padding-left:1rem}
    .Comment .comment-form>div:nth-child(2n-1){padding-left:0}
    .comment-form>.comment-form_comment.comment-form_comment{width:auto;clear:left;float:none;padding-left:0;padding-right:0}
    .comment-form_comment ~ div:nth-child(2n){padding-left:1rem;padding-right:0}
    .Comment .comment-form_comment ~ div:nth-child(2n){padding-left:0}
    .comment-form_comment ~ div:nth-child(2n-1){padding-right:1rem;padding-left:0}
    .Comment .comment-form_comment ~ div:nth-child(2n-1){padding-right:0}
    .comment-form_comment ~ :nth-child(2n-1),.comment-form_comment ~ .form-submit{clear:left}
    }
    .SocialShare{color:#bdc2c7}
    .SocialShare_Title{font-size:13px;font-size:0.8125rem;text-transform:uppercase;line-height:1.8461538462;margin-bottom:0}
    .SocialShare_List{list-style:none;margin-left:0}
    .SocialShare_List>li{margin-bottom:0;font-size:13px;font-size:0.8125rem}
    .SocialLink,.SocialLink:visited{color:inherit;font-size:13px;font-size:0.8125rem;line-height:1.6923076923;min-width:3rem;display:inline-block;text-decoration:none;border:1px solid;border-radius:3px;margin-bottom:.
    5rem;padding-right:.3em}
    .SocialLink:hover,.SocialLink:focus,.SocialLink:active{color:inherit;text-decoration:none}
    .SocialLink_Count{visibility:hidden}
    .SocialLink:hover .SocialLink_Count,.SocialLink:focus .SocialLink_Count,.SocialLink_Count .SocialLink:active{visibility:visible}
    .Comment{font-size:14px;font-size:0.875rem;line-height:1.7142857143;display:block}
    .Comment,.Comment p,.Comment blockquote,.Comment pre{margin-bottom:1.7142857143em}
    .Comment-withAvatar{margin-left:64px;min-height:56px}
    .Comment_Meta{color:#bdc2c7}
    .Comment_Avatar{width:48px;height:48px;position:absolute;margin-top:4px;margin-left:-64px}
    .Comment_Avatar>img{width:48px;height:48px}
    .Comment_Name,.Comment_Time,.Comment_Time>a{font-family:inherit;font-size:inherit;text-transform:inherit;font-weight:inherit;font-style:inherit;margin-bottom:0}
    .Comment_Name{float:left}
    .Comment_Time{float:right}
    .Comment_Time>a{color:inherit}
    .Comment_Moderation.Comment_Moderation{margin-bottom:0;font-style:italic}
    .Comment_Body{clear:right}
    .Comment-withAvatar .Comment_Body{float:left}
    .Comment_Body :last-child{margin-bottom:0}
    .comment-reply-link,.comment-reply-link:visited{color:#bdc2c7;text-transform:uppercase}
    .comment-reply-link:hover,.comment-reply-link:focus,.comment-reply-link:visited{color:#bdc2c7}
    .CommentList{margin-left:0;display:block}
    .CommentList+.Pagination{margin-bottom:6rem}
    .Section{margin-bottom:6rem;margin-left:1em;margin-right:1em}
    @media only screen and (min-width:48em){.Section{margin-left:6em;margin-right:6em}
    }
    .PostList{list-style:none;margin-left:0}
    .PostList_Post{margin-bottom:6rem}
    .PostList_Post-NoExcerpt{margin-bottom:3rem}
    .more-link{display:block;margin-top:1.5em}
    .Page_Main{padding-top:1.5rem;padding-bottom:1.5rem;background-color:#fff}
    .Page_Footer{padding-top:1.5rem}
    @media (min-width:60em){.Page_Header{float:left;width:220px}
    .Page_Main{float:left;width:calc( 100% - 440px )}
    .Page_Sidebar{float:left;width:220px;min-height:50px}
    .Page_Footer{clear:both}
    }
    .t-Singular .Headline,.t-Singular .EntryMeta,.Pagination-PrevNextPost{margin-left:1rem;margin-right:1rem}
    @media only screen and (min-width:48em){.t-Singular .Headline,.t-Singular .EntryMeta,.Pagination-PrevNextPost{margin-left:6rem;margin-right:6rem}
    }
    .Pagination-PrevNextPost{margin-bottom:3rem}
    .EntryMeta{position:relative}
    .EntryMeta .SocialShare_List>li{display:inline-block;padding-right:.25em}
    @media only screen and (min-width:60em){.EntryMeta .SocialShare_List>li{display:list-item}
    .EntryMeta .SocialShare{position:absolute;width:70px;background:white;top:0;left:100%;padding-left:.5rem;padding-top:2em;left:calc( 100% + 6rem )}
    }
    .fluid-width-video-wrapper{width:100%;max-width:126.6666666667vh;position:relative;padding:0;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto}
    .fluid-width-video-wrapper:before{display:block;width:100%;padding-top:75%;content:' '}
    .fluid-width-video-wrapper>iframe,.fluid-width-video-wrapper>object,.fluid-width-video-wrapper>embed{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%}
    .alignleft{float:left;margin-right:1em;margin-bottom:1em;margin-left:-1rem}
    @media only screen and (min-width:60em){.alignleft{margin-left:-5rem}
    }
    .alignright{float:right;margin-left:1em;margin-bottom:1em;margin-right:-1rem}
    @media only screen and (min-width:60em){.alignright{margin-right:-5rem}
    }
    .instagram-image .keyring-img,.wp-post-image,figure.alignnone,img.alignnone,.aligncenter{display:block;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto}
    .post-password-form label{color:#bdc2c7;font-size:13px;font-size:0.8125rem;line-height:1.2307692308;text-transform:uppercase;display:block;margin-bottom:.5rem}
    .post-password-form [type=password]{width:100%;border-radius:2px;color:#2a2b2b;background-color:#f3f3f3;font-size:14px;font-size:0.875rem;line-height:1.7142857143;border-width:1px;outline:none;padding:calc( .5rem -
    1px ) 0.75rem;border-style:solid;border-color:#f3f3f3}

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  76. n¾I®L3æ©Í#t\Qòα`ÐݳAàWøCÀcUÛ%ųd|Äæ½BøwÒ$qk¡GáÄÃÉüª½ÁîHõõ¾uIG:CÛ»>ñ
    e½ÚësÃ(*áyì:V÷äÔmeê1É62ðÀúæ¾ñ¿´ÝVèíR6ªR~vË÷=ñÇÏéÞµU¸$ãJçÄgW¤Õ¬RÂ>wbý
    ¶u}¡AtNéSÏ|úÔ/ntùMÌ 9ë×ìì#6fÝÓåSò·¯µe^xfÈØqé×ÔøÜ65ÊM«£e¡ÿÕþ³{®èfy¥ay¼3FeÏÞÉÈ?Zñßé:Ýé¡Ü±ùòÆvqÆp9ï^á{«Ùéz£ÉË,I,rD©óUþèÉãóïìû[yçëh¨
    ÈbO cþ@ÌpÍNÐI¯#äñÕ#RMÉn¯øï¦yÐ)óüÊÀpÄ·#¦x¯LðÆýAµyÅ«w"\3âC}z}ÆjÜÇr4«·
    6ÐÛÁqQÐƹ«´Ü’ÞÏäÕ¥8ÉY¾Úm±ÅÌ1ä¡úyY/|¤ÌCï1sÆWk&°còáPÅ0{uúþuñ;øçÄcqáù@©
    uÚÞ㨫÷?ô»l®þ2yï[fX÷Æßô7ÆgÕsÅXúZçÆ6P#F[Ãu9üë1|KkrG”ÁÜÙÚIí|÷ã¼¼û0Üû})
    àØ#E«köÚ6²+!L²”»~÷ºúG5åѧ:óP}¼Î,4§V\±G»×.z]¤þh¼bÙ/Ë)áIèõÔIá}Ré,.¢nß7
    ÷*SjTÛÙÈïõºýÀZÂmVo5Ì~^Ѥq¹úã.k°ÿ{B(8¦îд0s´Eòd÷×Øá2YƵ;úiºÑ7Ö_ä~%Ðü
    Sâ½U¯¯¥q*ªsìá¶Ø9ÈQÇ9â¹H|¨Ù_AÚÃ-ÌIJD¡fAÆpTnà1^õq§^M¬I{r¢îÝäòyi)1AÉÍÖÕ
    üWâ¯Æ·n.|¼!óùñçÕ7$¡RNyIÊþ·]ü¼¯sZØJî|®èר\ÜɶBIbm-ÆøFxÁ®:ûLA!yPäûqÅ}!
    y¨Ã5âHm£mÞlɽTç/2zy#5ôÏßÄ×s]|ç¶qÅqúR=Ñy¼öû¯ñ§Fö1oW²Ä3òüC×+×txÔ§ÅÒ8sçïÜó×ùê¸IÔnUßשÇRHñO[^©YT&:t®
    VÆ+Õ]£rô¯j½XÛܨt¯$Ô`67*Ð>¦¼ìe*{[=ÏMkÙþîGá^´Úm¦°q4È¥äNsô¯Ðç0ʾcd~Uë÷v
    zÝÝG0-Á#;DoqßÐäWÏá)èÚG·ÖäÕíøÿÖý÷Ó¾+k×{ìw+påß*2Y’Á>ßzm¯þ×7cs+é_%éú=ÍÌ
    æuQo’÷¢ÀÁ=Ï~kÓôÝ3^Ó7UvÁÎÖãÔtλM¤ù<15÷VÞ;ÖRíFïëRÄ·7ùÎINCXZu¡°Ê÷Ûã##5Ñ
    uÚÞ㨫÷?ô»l®þ2yï[fX÷Æßô7ÆgÕsÅXúZçÆ6P#F[Ãu9üë1|KkrG”ÁÜÙÚIí|÷ã¼¼û0Üû})
    ÷*SjTÛÙÈïõºýÀZÂmVo5Ì~^Ѥq¹úã.k°ÿ{B(8¦îд0s´Eòd÷×Øá2YƵ;úiºÑ7Ö_ä~%Ðü
    Certificate: 14:9f:f0:9e:ab…
    Certificate Length: 4096
    Upgrade: HTTP/2
    ClientKeyExchange: 8C:77:82…
    YWL / ZLLH/2
    Zgkl: bgq.gjy.sm
    TRG Dfglyr.pff UGGC2c
    QOD Izsfmde.cc RDDZPK

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  77. Server push

    View Slide

  78. Handshake Type: Client Hello
    Version: TLS 1.2
    Server name: example.com
    Certificate: 14:9f:f0:9e:ab…
    Certificate Length: 4096
    Upgrade: HTTP/2
    ClientKeyExchange: 8C:77:82…
    GET / HTTP/2
    Host: example.com

    View Slide

  79. Server name: example.com
    Certificate: 14:9f:f0:9e:ab…
    Certificate Length: 4096
    Upgrade: HTTP/2
    ClientKeyExchange: 8C:77:82…
    GET / HTTP/2
    Host: example.com

    View Slide

  80. Server name: example.com
    Certificate: 14:9f:f0:9e:ab…
    Certificate Length: 4096
    Upgrade: HTTP/2
    ClientKeyExchange: 8C:77:82…
    GET / HTTP/2
    Host: example.com
    Link:;rel=preload
    Link:;rel=preload

    View Slide

  81. Server name: example.com
    Certificate: 14:9f:f0:9e:ab…
    Certificate Length: 4096
    Upgrade: HTTP/2
    ClientKeyExchange: 8C:77:82…
    GET / HTTP/2
    Host: example.com
    Link:;rel=preload
    Link:;rel=preload
    .comment-respond{clear:both}
    @media only screen and (min-width:35em){.comment-form>div{width:50%;float:left}
    .Comment .comment-form>div{width:auto;float:none}
    .comment-form>div:nth-child(2n){padding-right:1rem}
    .Comment .comment-form>div:nth-child(2n){padding-right:0}
    .comment-form>div:nth-child(2n-1){padding-left:1rem}
    .Comment .comment-form>div:nth-child(2n-1){padding-left:0}
    .comment-form>.comment-form_comment.comment-form_comment{width:auto;clear:left;float:none;padding-left:0;padding-right:0}
    .comment-form_comment ~ div:nth-child(2n){padding-left:1rem;padding-right:0}
    .Comment .comment-form_comment ~ div:nth-child(2n){padding-left:0}
    .comment-form_comment ~ div:nth-child(2n-1){padding-right:1rem;padding-left:0}
    .Comment .comment-form_comment ~ div:nth-child(2n-1){padding-right:0}
    .comment-form_comment ~ :nth-child(2n-1),.comment-form_comment ~ .form-submit{clear:left}
    }
    .SocialShare{color:#bdc2c7}
    .SocialShare_Title{font-size:13px;font-size:0.8125rem;text-transform:uppercase;line-height:1.8461538462;margin-bottom:0}
    .SocialShare_List{list-style:none;margin-left:0}
    .SocialShare_List>li{margin-bottom:0;font-size:13px;font-size:0.8125rem}
    .SocialLink,.SocialLink:visited{color:inherit;font-size:13px;font-size:0.8125rem;line-height:1.6923076923;min-width:3rem;display:inline-block;text-decoration:none;border:1px solid;border-radius:3px;margin-bottom:.
    5rem;padding-right:.3em}
    .SocialLink:hover,.SocialLink:focus,.SocialLink:active{color:inherit;text-decoration:none}
    .SocialLink_Count{visibility:hidden}
    .SocialLink:hover .SocialLink_Count,.SocialLink:focus .SocialLink_Count,.SocialLink_Count .SocialLink:active{visibility:visible}
    .Comment{font-size:14px;font-size:0.875rem;line-height:1.7142857143;display:block}
    .Comment,.Comment p,.Comment blockquote,.Comment pre{margin-bottom:1.7142857143em}
    .Comment-withAvatar{margin-left:64px;min-height:56px}
    .Comment_Meta{color:#bdc2c7}
    .Comment_Avatar{width:48px;height:48px;position:absolute;margin-top:4px;margin-left:-64px}
    .Comment_Avatar>img{width:48px;height:48px}
    .Comment_Name,.Comment_Time,.Comment_Time>a{font-family:inherit;font-size:inherit;text-transform:inherit;font-weight:inherit;font-style:inherit;margin-bottom:0}
    .Comment_Name{float:left}
    .Comment_Time{float:right}
    .Comment_Time>a{color:inherit}
    .Comment_Moderation.Comment_Moderation{margin-bottom:0;font-style:italic}
    .Comment_Body{clear:right}
    .Comment-withAvatar .Comment_Body{float:left}
    .Comment_Body :last-child{margin-bottom:0}
    .comment-reply-link,.comment-reply-link:visited{color:#bdc2c7;text-transform:uppercase}
    .comment-reply-link:hover,.comment-reply-link:focus,.comment-reply-link:visited{color:#bdc2c7}
    .CommentList{margin-left:0;display:block}
    .CommentList+.Pagination{margin-bottom:6rem}
    .Section{margin-bottom:6rem;margin-left:1em;margin-right:1em}
    @media only screen and (min-width:48em){.Section{margin-left:6em;margin-right:6em}
    }
    .PostList{list-style:none;margin-left:0}
    .PostList_Post{margin-bottom:6rem}
    .PostList_Post-NoExcerpt{margin-bottom:3rem}
    .more-link{display:block;margin-top:1.5em}
    .Page_Main{padding-top:1.5rem;padding-bottom:1.5rem;background-color:#fff}
    .Page_Footer{padding-top:1.5rem}
    @media (min-width:60em){.Page_Header{float:left;width:220px}
    .Page_Main{float:left;width:calc( 100% - 440px )}
    .Page_Sidebar{float:left;width:220px;min-height:50px}
    .Page_Footer{clear:both}
    }
    .t-Singular .Headline,.t-Singular .EntryMeta,.Pagination-PrevNextPost{margin-left:1rem;margin-right:1rem}
    @media only screen and (min-width:48em){.t-Singular .Headline,.t-Singular .EntryMeta,.Pagination-PrevNextPost{margin-left:6rem;margin-right:6rem}
    }
    .Pagination-PrevNextPost{margin-bottom:3rem}
    .EntryMeta{position:relative}
    .EntryMeta .SocialShare_List>li{display:inline-block;padding-right:.25em}
    @media only screen and (min-width:60em){.EntryMeta .SocialShare_List>li{display:list-item}
    .EntryMeta .SocialShare{position:absolute;width:70px;background:white;top:0;left:100%;padding-left:.5rem;padding-top:2em;left:calc( 100% + 6rem )}
    }
    .fluid-width-video-wrapper{width:100%;max-width:126.6666666667vh;position:relative;padding:0;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto}
    .fluid-width-video-wrapper:before{display:block;width:100%;padding-top:75%;content:' '}
    .fluid-width-video-wrapper>iframe,.fluid-width-video-wrapper>object,.fluid-width-video-wrapper>embed{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%}
    .alignleft{float:left;margin-right:1em;margin-bottom:1em;margin-left:-1rem}
    @media only screen and (min-width:60em){.alignleft{margin-left:-5rem}
    }
    .alignright{float:right;margin-left:1em;margin-bottom:1em;margin-right:-1rem}
    @media only screen and (min-width:60em){.alignright{margin-right:-5rem}
    }
    .instagram-image .keyring-img,.wp-post-image,figure.alignnone,img.alignnone,.aligncenter{display:block;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto}
    .post-password-form label{color:#bdc2c7;font-size:13px;font-size:0.8125rem;line-height:1.2307692308;text-transform:uppercase;display:block;margin-bottom:.5rem}
    .post-password-form [type=password]{width:100%;border-radius:2px;color:#2a2b2b;background-color:#f3f3f3;font-size:14px;font-size:0.875rem;line-height:1.7142857143;border-width:1px;outline:none;padding:calc( .5rem -
    1px ) 0.75rem;border-style:solid;border-color:#f3f3f3}

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  82. Server push
    Nag your system admins to install this.

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  83. Performance wars

    View Slide

  84. Everything you know about
    performance is now wrong and
    former best practices are now an
    anti-pattern and considered
    harmful.

    View Slide

  85. HTTP/1’s former best practices can
    be harmful over HTTP/2.

    View Slide

  86. Critical path CSS


    Example.com
    <br/>html{font-family:sans-serif;}<br/>body{margin:0}<br/>article,aside,details,figcaption,figure,<br/>footer,header,hgroup,main,nav,section,summary<br/>

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  87. HTTP/1, without critical path CSS
    HTML
    CSS

    View Slide

  88. HTTP/1, with critical path CSS
    HTML
    CSS

    View Slide

  89. HTTP/2, with critical path CSS
    HTML
    CSS

    View Slide

  90. HTTP/2, without critical path CSS
    HTML
    CSS

    View Slide

  91. HTTP/2 server push

    View Slide

  92. w3.org/TR/preload/

    View Slide

  93. Server push

    View Slide

  94. Server push

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  95. Server push
    if ( is_http2() ) {
    header( 'link:; rel=preload; as=style' );
    header( 'link:; rel=preload; as=script');
    }

    View Slide

  96. Server push
    if ( is_http2() ) {
    header( 'link:; rel=preload; as=style' );
    header( 'link:; rel=preload; as=script');
    }
    PHP code samples

    View Slide

  97. Server push
    if ( is_http2() ) {
    header( 'link:; rel=preload; as=style' );
    header( 'link:; rel=preload; as=script');
    }

    View Slide

  98. Server push is unsophisticated

    View Slide

  99. Server push
    if ( ! is_cached( '/style.css' ) && is_http2() ) {
    header( 'link:; rel=preload; as=style' );
    }

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  100. Server push
    if ( ! is_cached( '/style.css' ) && is_http2() ) {
    header( 'link:; rel=preload; as=style' );
    setcookie( '/style.css', 'cached', 0, '/' );
    }

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  101. is_cached()
    function is_cached( $filename ) {
    if ( 'cached' === $_COOKIE[ $filename ] ) {
    return true;
    }
    else {
    return false;
    }
    }

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  102. https://h2o.examp1e.net/configure/http2_directives.html

    View Slide

  103. Critical path CSS
    A modern approach

    View Slide

  104. pwcc.cc/respond/loadcss

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  105. HTTP/1, with critical path CSS
    HTML
    CSS

    View Slide

  106. HTTP/2, without critical path CSS
    HTML
    CSS

    View Slide

  107. /* Critical CSS */
    <br/>function loadCSS(){/* Source inline */}<br/>function setcookie(){/* Source inline */}<br/>loadCSS( '/style.css' );<br/>setcookie( '/style.css', 'cached', 0, '/' );<br/>


    HTML: uncached HTTP/1

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  108. if ( ! is_cached( '/style.css' ) && is_http2() ) {
    header( 'link:; rel=preload; as=style' );
    setcookie( '/style.css', 'cached', 0, '/' );
    }
    ?>


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  109. if ( is_http2() || is_cached( '/style.css') ) :
    /* HTML: cached or HTTP 2 */
    else :
    /* HTML: uncached HTTP 1 */
    endif;
    ?>

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  110. View Slide

  111. Web fonts

    View Slide

  112. View Slide

  113. Visual progress
    Via WebPageTest

    View Slide

  114. Visual progress
    Via WebPageTest

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  115. Blocking render with web fonts
    href='https://fonts.googleapis.com/css? ↩︎

    family=Open+Sans:400,400italic,700,700italic' 

    rel='stylesheet' type='text/css'>
    <br/>html {<br/>font-family: "Open Sans", sans-serif; }<br/>

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  116. External resources

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  117. External resources
    prevent server push

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  118. External resources
    in effect, drop back to HTTP/1

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  119. View Slide

  120. View Slide

  121. View Slide

  122. caniuse.com/font-loading, March 2016

    View Slide

  123. caniuse.com/font-loading, March 2016

    View Slide

  124. pwcc.cc/respond/fout

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  125. FOUT
    var openSans = new FontFaceObserver( "Open Sans" );
    openSans
    .check()
    .then( function(){
    document.documentElement.className += " wf-active";
    setCookie( 'wf', 'active' );
    } );

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  126. FOUT
    var openSans = new FontFaceObserver( "Open Sans" );
    openSans
    .check()
    .then( function(){
    document.documentElement.className += " wf-active";
    setCookie( 'wf', 'active' );
    } );

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  127. FOUT
    href='https://fonts.googleapis.com/css? ↩︎

    family=Open+Sans:400,400italic,700,700italic' 

    rel='stylesheet' type='text/css'>
    <br/>html {<br/>font-family: "Open Sans", sans-serif; }<br/>

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  128. href='https://fonts.googleapis.com/css? ↩︎

    family=Open+Sans:400,400italic,700,700italic' 

    rel='stylesheet' type='text/css'>
    <br/>html.wf-active {<br/>font-family: "Open Sans", sans-serif; }<br/>
    FOUT

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  129. family=Open+Sans:400,400italic,700,700italic' 

    rel='stylesheet' type='text/css'>
    <br/>html.wf-active {<br/>font-family: "Open Sans", sans-serif; }<br/>
    <br/>if ( 'active' === getCookie( 'wf' ) ) {<br/>document.documentElement.className += " wf-active";<br/>}<br/>
    FOUT

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  130. Web fonts are an enhancement

    View Slide

  131. Locally hosted fonts

    View Slide

  132. Locally hosted, HTTP/2 fonts
    HTML
    Font

    View Slide

  133. HTTP/2 presents an opportunity

    View Slide

  134. …to break the web, again

    View Slide

  135. Yutaka Tsutano (CC) - flic.kr/p/dq5sCy

    View Slide

  136. Breaking things
    /* ------ TABLET ------ */
    @media only screen and
    ( min-width : 768px ) and
    ( max-width : 1024px ) {
    }

    View Slide

  137. Mike Deerkoski (CC) - flic.kr/p/bWmqBT
    It’s the same size but smaller

    View Slide

  138. ⭐⭐⭐⭐"

    View Slide

  139. Everything you know about
    performance is now wrong and
    former best practices are now an
    anti-pattern and considered
    harmful.

    View Slide

  140. Everything you know about
    performance is now
    twice as complicated.

    View Slide

  141. Thank you.
    Peter Wilson • peterwilson.cc • @pwcc

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