What and who are DNS, SMTP, and XMPP?

What and who are DNS, SMTP, and XMPP?

An introduction to the workings of, and the social structures around, three Internet protocols.

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Scott Robinson

April 02, 2011
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Transcript

  1. “...organizations which design systems ... are constrained to produce designs

    which are copies of the communication structures of these organizations.” Conway’s Law
  2. Communication systems produce management organizations which are copies of the

    structures of those systems.
  3. Domain Name Service

  4. Ce n'est pas l'Internet.

  5. “It seems about time to put an end to the

    absurd situation where each site on the network must maintain a different, generally out-of-date, host list for the use of its own operating system or user programs. For example, each of the sites to which I have access has a slightly different mapping between host names and host addresses: none is complete, and I believe each one differs in some way from the official list. Since the NIC has responsibility for maintaining the official list, it seems appropriate for them to maintain an on-line file, accessible to anyone, which lists names and host addresses in an easily machine- readable form.” L. Peter Deutsch (1973), RFC 606
  6. •OFFICE-1 •UCSB-MOD75 •SCRL •UTAH-10

  7. •AI.MIT.ARPA •F.ISI.ARPA •LINKABIT-DCN5.ARPA •UDEL.CSNET

  8. None
  9. None
  10. host.domain.tld

  11. •Addresses (A) •Mail Exchange (MX) •Name servers (NS)

  12. Delegation Name Server (NS) Record

  13. google.com (A) a.root-servers.net com (NS) a.gtld-servers.net a.gtld-servers.net (A) 192.5.6.30

  14. google.com (A) a.gtld-servers.net google.com (NS) ns1.google.com ns1.google.com (A) 216.239.32.10

  15. google.com (A) ns1.google.com google.com (A) 66.102.11.104

  16. •Question •Answer (RRs) •Authority (RRs) •Additional (RRs)

  17. •Name “thoughtworks.com” •Record Type “(A)ddress” •Class “(IN)ternet”

  18. •Name •Type •Class •Time to Live •Data

  19. • Verisign (A, J) • ISI (B) • Cogent (C)

    • University of Maryland (D) • NASA ARC (E) • ISC (F) • US DOD (G) • US ARL (H) • Netnod (I) • RIPE (K) • ICANN (L) • WIDE (M)
  20. “The United States Government intends to preserve the security and

    stability of the Internet's Domain Name and Addressing System (DNS). Given the Internet's importance to the world's economy, it is essential that the underlying DNS of the Internet remain stable and secure. As such, the United States is committed to taking no action that would have the potential to adversely impact the effective and efficient operation of the DNS and will therefore maintain its historic role in authorizing changes or modifications to the authoritative root zone file.” U.S. Principles on the Internet's Domain Name and Addressing System
  21. Simple Mail Transport Protocol

  22. 220 thoughtworks.com ready HELO macbookpro 250 spam me

  23. MAIL FROM:<sr@thoughtworks.com> 250 OK

  24. RCPT TO:<roy@thoughtworks.com> 250 OK

  25. DATA 354 Please end with <CRLF>.<CRLF> From: sr@thoughtworks.com To: roy@thoughtworks.com

    Subject: myThoughtWorks I still like e-mail best. . 250 OK
  26. •HELO •MAIL •RCPT •DATA

  27. Mail-from: DEC-MARLBORO rcvd at 3-May-78 0955-PDT Date: 1 May 1978

    1233-EDT From: THUERK at DEC-MARLBORO DIGITAL WILL BE GIVING A PRODUCT PRESENTATION OF THE NEWEST MEMBERS OF THE DECSYSTEM-20 FAMILY; THE DECSYSTEM-2020, 2020T, 2060, AND 2060T. THE DECSYSTEM-20 FAMILY OF COMPUTERS HAS EVOLVED FROM THE TENEX OPERATING SYSTEM AND THE DECSYSTEM-10 <PDP-10> COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE. BOTH THE DECSYSTEM-2060T AND 2020T OFFER FULL ARPANET SUPPORT UNDER THE TOPS-20 OPERATING SYSTEM. THE DECSYSTEM-2060 IS AN UPWARD EXTENSION OF THE CURRENT DECSYSTEM 2040 AND 2050 FAMILY. THE DECSYSTEM-2020 IS A NEW LOW END MEMBER OF THE DECSYSTEM-20 FAMILY AND FULLY SOFTWARE COMPATIBLE WITH ALL OF THE OTHER DECSYSTEM-20 MODELS. WE INVITE YOU TO COME SEE THE 2020 AND HEAR ABOUT THE DECSYSTEM-20 FAMILY AT THE TWO PRODUCT PRESENTATIONS WE WILL BE GIVING IN CALIFORNIA THIS MONTH. THE LOCATIONS WILL BE: TUESDAY, MAY 9, 1978 - 2 PM HYATT HOUSE (NEAR THE L.A. AIRPORT) LOS ANGELES, CA THURSDAY, MAY 11, 1978 - 2 PM DUNFEY'S ROYAL COACH SAN MATEO, CA (4 MILES SOUTH OF S.F. AIRPORT AT BAYSHORE, RT 101 AND RT 92) A 2020 WILL BE THERE FOR YOU TO VIEW. ALSO TERMINALS ON-LINE TO OTHER DECSYSTEM-20 SYSTEMS THROUGH THE ARPANET. IF YOU ARE UNABLE TO ATTEND, PLEASE FEEL FREE TO CONTACT THE NEAREST DEC OFFICE FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE EXCITING DECSYSTEM-20 FAMILY.
  28. Realtime Blackhole Lists

  29. MAIL FROM:<cmurphy@thoughtworks.com> 250 OK RCPT TO:<thoughtworks-australia@thoughtworks.com> 250 OK DATA 354

    Please end with <CRLF>.<CRLF> From: cmurphy@thoughtworks.com To: thoughtworks_-_australia@thoughtworks.com Subject: [ALL OFFICES] Friday Lunch Now extended to all days of the week. Dig in! . 250 OK
  30. MAIL FROM Sender Policy Framework From: DomainKeys Identified Mail DATA

    Statistical Filtering
  31. Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol

  32. “It started as the typical ‘programmer's itch’ -- having multiple

    friends on different IM services, and in general just seeing all the possibilities for extending an IM platform if it were open. Once I got started, I quickly realized the immense power of an open extensible real-time messaging network, and it grew quickly from there.” Jeremie Miller
  33. <message from='juliet@example.com' to='romeo@example.net' xml:lang='en'> <body> Art thou not Romeo, and

    a Montague? </body> </message> X M L
  34. <presence to='juliet@example.com' type='subscribe' /> <presence to='romeo@example.net' type='subscribed' /> <presence xml:lang='en'>

    <show>dnd</show> <status> Wooing Juliet </status> </presence>
  35. <iq to='juliet@example.com' type='result' id='roster_1'> <query xmlns='jabber:iq:roster'> <item jid='romeo@example.net' name='Romeo' subscription='both'>

    <group>Friends</group> </item> </query> </iq>
  36. <stream> </stream> <presence /> <message /> <iq />

  37. None
  38. XMPP Standards Foundation

  39. fin