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Child Development - Psychology Subject

Child Development - Psychology Subject

Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory & Behaviourism
Genetic Disorders: Cystic Fibrosis, Thalassemia, Down Syndrome, Turner syndrome, Sickle Cell Anemia, Klinefelter’s Syndrome
Child’s Sensation, Perception, Motor Development and Learning
Messy Play benefits child development (cognitive, physical and emotional)
Children need to play in nature, because...What’s your personal needs for friends and peers?
Questions for Guest Speakers - Nutritionist and Early Child Educator


Rachel Hong

April 28, 2021


  1. Child Development Psychology Subject

  2. Week 1 Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory & Behaviourism

  3. 1 Behaviorism ❏ Behaviorism is a psychological theory of human

    development that posits that humans can be trained, or conditioned. ➢ It is to help respond in specific ways to specific stimuli and that given the correct stimuli, personalities and behaviors of individuals, and even entire civilizations, can be codified and controlled Example : - A child learns that if she cries, she will get a response. And, she might figure out that a certain specific behavior will really get a response, such as throwing a temper tantrum, which no parent enjoys and wants over as quickly as possible Vygotsky Sociocultural Theory ★ Convinced that social interactions with adults and more learned peers along with culture is able to facilitate a child’s potential for learning ★ Each culture, provides "tools of intellectual adaptation” allow children to use their abilities to adapt to their respective cultures including in classrooms. Example: One culture teaches children to play with toys, while the other encourages them to play outdoors.
  4. 2 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory • Society bring huge contributions to

    individual development. • Culture is significant in learning • Language is the root of culture • Individuals learn and develop within their role in the community. • Example: In language learning, the first words we speak to our peers or adults are for communication, but once mastered, they are internalized into "inner language." Behaviorism • Focuses on the behavior that can be learned. • A theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. • Behavioral change occurs when individuals form associations between their actions and their outcomes. • Example:As a sister, Abby wanted her brother Zhin Ann to score well for his exam, so she add more cookies for him so that he will continue to study smart and score well for his exam.
  5. 3 Behaviorism • Learned through interaction with the environment with

    a process called conditioning. • Classic conditioning, operational conditioning, observation. • For example: a student get good grades in exam and rewarded with a sweet so the next time he will again try to get good grades so he can get sweet (Operational Conditioning). Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory • Learning is an inherently social process. • Views human development as socially mediated process in which children acquire their cultural values, beliefs and problem solving strategies through collaborative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society. • Emphasizes on the role of social interaction in the development of cognition. • For example: children are taught at the early stage of their childhood to read, speak, playing instrumental objects and be respectful when interacting with others.
  6. 4 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory • Culture is significant towards learning

    as it can help the individual develop and adapt within the community Example :- The mother tongue of an individual can help them gain knowledge and learn more effectively. Behaviorism - Theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. - Classical conditioning is a technique frequently used in behavioral training. - Example: When you come home wearing a baseball cap, you take your child to the park to play. So whenever your child see you come home with baseball cap, he is excited because he has associated your baseball cap with a trip to the park. - Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through reinforcements and punishments.
  7. 5 Behaviorism • This theory focuses on the behaviour which

    is learned because of a consequence. • It can be categorized into classical conditional, operant learning and observation. - Watson and Skinner • Law of effect in animal experiments -Thorndike • Classical conditioning in dog’s saliva and the ringing bell - Pavlov • Operant learning in giving rewards or punishments - Skinner • Observation in Bobo doll and the imitation of the child - Albert Bandura Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Believed that parents, caregivers, peers, and the culture at large were responsible for developing higher-order functions. • Children are born with basic biological constraints on their minds. • But, each culture provides "tools of intellectual adaptation” ◦ Allow children to use their abilities in a way that is adaptive to the culture in which they live. • Example ◦ One culture emphasize memory strategies such as note-taking ◦ Another culture might use tools like reminders or rote memorization.
  8. 6 Vygotsky Sociocultural theory believed that parents, caregivers, peers, and

    the culture at large were responsible for developing higher-order functions. It is based upon the idea that a learner's environment plays a crucial role in his/her learning development Vygotsky scaffolding is part of the education concept "zone of proximal development"it he set of skills or knowledge a student can't do on her own but can do with the help or guidance of someone else. Teachers encourage students to do with clarifying indirectly . Behaviourism- It's a learning theory according to the idea that all the behaviour is learn by cthe conditioning. Conditioning occurs by environment. Three types of the behaviorism - Classical Conditioning, operant conditioning and observation Classical conditioning- Classical conditioning is a process commonly used in behavioural therapy. Example, before I sleep I will set the alam because when I hear the sound of the bell ring the next morning I will automatically wake up. Operant conditioning - is a learning process whereby deliberate behaviors are reinforced through consequences.For example students tend to do and finish their homeworks and tasks because they know they will be rewarded by for example some marks, some gifts Observation - Observation learning is referred to shaping, modeling and reinforcement. For example, a child watched a classmate get in trouble for hitting another child and he learned by observing this interaction that he should not hit others classmate.
  9. Week 2 Genetic Disorders

  10. Cystic Fibrosis is a hereditary disease that affects the lungs

    and digestive system. The body produces thick and sticky mucus that can clog the lungs and obstruct the pancreas. Interferes with pancreatic function by preventing enzymes from properly breaking down food, potentially leading to malnutrition. Cystic Fibrosis Treatments Symptoms ❖ Salty-tasting skin ❖ Persistent coughing ❖ Poor weight gain in spite of excessive appetite ★ Airway Clearance Techniques (ACT) > helps to loosen and get rid of mucus from lungs. ★ Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) > allow for proper flow of salt and fluids on the surface of the lungs, thinning the thick mucus. Causes CF is an inherited condition. For someone to have CF, they need to inherit the defective gene from both of their parents. People with only one copy of the defective gene are called carriers. They do not have the condition or its symptoms. To have the disease, both parents must be carriers.
  11. Shane was born in the summer of 2016 the first

    birth facility in a pediatric hospital specifically designed for mothers carrying babies with known medical problems requiring immediate treatment. Because CF is an “invisible” illness, Shane appeared healthy at first. But a sweat test shortly after he was born confirmed the prenatal tests that he had cystic fibrosis. Jessica and Greg began to focus on the future.Once he was born something changed for us,” Jessica says. “I think it was because we were confident in the care he was getting. Dr. Allen told us to focus on the things that are within our control. Don’t go looking for a cure, but focus on taking care of Shane, doing his chest physical therapy, giving him his enzymes, loving him, and treating him the same as we did our daughters when they were infants. It was phenomenal advice that we remind ourselves of on a regular basis.They were also reminded of the significant advancements taking place in the treatment of CF, which added to their confidence in Shane’s medical team. Jessica and Greg learned how to perform Shane’s CF chest physical therapy at home 45-minute sessions per day that focus on manually clearing the mucus in his lungs. As time went on, the couple found ways to adapt the sessions to make them more effective and easier. For example, they substitute their own cupped hands instead of percussor cups when doing his chest PT. They also put on his favorite shows (these days it’s the Wiggles, Topsy and Tim and Mickey Mouse Clubhouse) and, most days, he doesn’t put up a fight. They also learned early on that Shane’s pancreas does not produce enough enzymes to help his body digest fats, proteins and carbohydrates. Each night, Jessica breaks open each of the 15 to 18 capsules Shane will require for the next day’s feedings and distributes the tiny beads into pill cups. This saves time and allows Shane’s 10-year-old and 8-year-old sisters to help with the preparations adding the enzyme beads to his food. As for Shane, he is a happy toddler. “He is walking and talking and getting himself into a lot of mischief,” Jessica says. “He’s a little teaser, he likes to make people laugh … and he always has a smile on his face. We are truly blessed to have him as our son.” Cystic Fibrosis
  12. Thalassemia is a blood disorder which passed from parents to

    children through genes.it happen when the body doesn't make enough of a protein called hemoglobin, an important part of red blood cells. Causes: it caused by mutations in the DNA of cells that make hemoglobin —the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body Symptoms: Fatigue,Weakness,Pale or yellowish skin,Facial bone deformities,Slow growth,Abdominal swelling, Dark urine Different types of thalassemia: • beta thalassemia, which includes the subtypes major and intermedia • alpha thalassemia, which include the subtypes hemoglobin H and hydrops fetalis • thalassemia minor Treatment: Doctors use three regular therapies. Blood transfusions, iron chelation (ke-LAY-shun) therapy, and folic acid supplements are included in these procedures. Other therapies have been developed, or are being tested, but are much less commonly used
  13. Real case story The lady name is Chanapa Tantibanchacha. She

    is 28 years old and live in Baltimore, Maryland, Chanapa work in the Food and Drug Administration as a officer. Chanapa grew up in a small town in Arizona that is still home to her parents. Her parents discovered when she was 8 months old that she had thalassemia. She began to lose hair as an infant, became fussy about eating, and her skin got unusually pale. No one else had thalassemia in her family, and her parents were unaware that they were carrying one of the genes that causes thalassemia.The diagnosis came to everyone as a shock. Thalassemia signs and symptoms can include: Fatigue Weakness Pale or yellowish skin Facial bone deformities Slow growth Abdominal swelling Dark urine
  14. Down Syndrome - It is a condition in which a

    person has an extra chromosome. The person has three copies of chromosome 21, instead of the usual two copies, in all cells. Causes - It’s caused by an abnormal cell division that occurs during the development of the sperm cell or the egg cell. Medical complications often accompany Down Syndrome - Hearing loss - Poor vision - Obesity - Hip problems (dislocation) - Chronic Constipation Treating Down Syndrome - No cure for Down Syndrome. - Special education teachers and therapists will help your child learn: - Sensory skills, social skills, self-helps skills, motor skills, language and cognitive abilities. Symptoms - Short neck - Small head and ears - Poor muscle tone - Bulging tongue
  15. Turner syndrome • Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that

    affects approximately 25 to 50 in every 100,000 girls born each year. • Known as 45,X, monosomy X and Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Cause : • Normally, a female has 2 X chromosomes in each cell. Turner syndrome occurs when all or part of one X chromosome is missing. • It can affect development before and after birth. Symptoms: ★ The main features of Turner syndrome are being short stature and having infertility (due to underdeveloped ovaries). ❖ Difficulty feeding in infancy, problems with hearing or eyesight, problems with coordination, puffiness of the hands and feet, slower sexual development, and problems with the heart, liver or kidneys.
  16. Diagnosis • Test for Turner syndrome before a baby is

    born if the ultrasound or other prenatal tests show signs of Turner syndrome. Sometimes a girl can have Turner syndrome and not have the condition diagnosed until childhood or puberty. • Whoever has been diagnosed with Turner syndrome will need to have medical checks to make sure they are staying healthy and will need hormones to replace those that normally come from the ovaries. If a woman with Turner syndrome wants to have children, she will probably need some help with her fertility. Turner syndrome increases the risk of some other medical conditions such as: • coeliac disease or gluten intolerance • bowel diseases • diabetes • low thyroid hormone • osteoporosis • hearing loss
  17. Sickle Cell Anemia Overview Symptoms Causes Treatments Sickle cell anemia

    is an inherited red blood cell disorder in which they aren’t enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout your body. • Anemia. • Episodes of pain. • Swelling of hands and feet • Frequent infections • Vision problems Caused by a mutation in the gene that tells your body to make iron-rich compound that makes your blood red and enables RBC to carry O2 from your lungs throughout your body (hemogoblin). • Medications such as Hydroxyurea, and Pain-relieving medication. • Blood transfusion • Stem cell transplant.
  18. Klinefelter’s Syndrome Overview : • A genetic condition where a

    boy will born with an extra ‘X’ chromosomes. • Men with Klinefelter’s syndrome usually have problem trying to have a child. Symptoms • Symptoms of Klinefelter vary with age Babies 1. Weaker muscles 2. More quiet than usual 3. Slower to learn to sit up, crawl, and talk. Children • A hard time making friends and talking about feelings • Low energy levels • Problems learning to read, write, and do math • Shyness and low confidence.
  19. Teenagers • Larger breasts than normal • Less facial and

    body hair, and it comes in later • Less muscle tone, and muscles grow slower than usual • Longer arms and legs, wider hips, and a shorter torso than other boys their age • Puberty never comes, comes later, or doesn’t quite finish • Small penis and small, firm testicles • Taller than usual for the family Adults • Infertility (can’t have children because they can’t make enough sperm) • Low sex drive • Low testosterone levels • Problems getting or keeping an erection.
  20. Causes : • Either the egg or the sperm that

    came together to create you had an extra X chromosome. • An extra X chromosome in every cell Diagnosis : • Prenatal screening. Testing after a healthcare provider notices abnormal growth during childhood, puberty or throughout the teen years. • Done by a blood test called karyotype Treatment : • Testosterone replacement therapy • Speech and language therapy
  21. Week 3 Child’s Sensation, Perception, Motor Development and Learning

  22. 1 Child’s sensations https://youtu.be/q1xNuU7gaAQ Child's motor development https://youtu.be/dvp9RfVaKkc Child’s perception

    https://youtu.be/gnArvcWaH6I / Child learning https://youtu.be/Uyf8vQn90Yg
  23. 2 / Motor skills - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yuVkkhpiHTA Child Development - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fojOMDS-PqI

    Perception - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sqYgU6CjGds Child Learning - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7hn0O_L6lfI Child Sensation - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Q3E-jTngAo
  24. 3 Motor, Sensory & Perception Development in Infancy & Childhood

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yR2BseDSUQg Child’s sensation - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vXXiyIGqliE Child’s Motor Skills - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yuVkkhpiHTA / Child’s Perception - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qEkXskJl99g Child learning - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uyf8vQn90Yg
  25. 4 Child Senses - https://youtu.be/O2-x-dLb_KM Child Perception - https://youtu.be/sqYgU6CjGds /

    Child Learning - https://youtu.be/xWgjwwvt9_w / Child Gross Motor Development - https://youtu.be/xd802M7NFJs
  26. 5 Child Motor Development https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xd802M7NFJs Child Perception https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sqYgU6CjGds Child Learning

    https://youtu.be/t4o4t4Xfaig / Child Sensation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kY5z0zMU23k
  27. 6 Child motor development https://youtu.be/ZGv8olaNdk8 Child perception https://youtu.be/HBW5vdhr_PA Child learning

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=edr2aL9Mjys Child sensation https://youtu.be/J46nuKWvhV0
  28. Week 3 Pros & Cons of Child’s Learning Centers

  29. 1 Swimming Lesson @ Happy Fish Swim School Located in

    Damansara Pros Cons • Water Familiarisation Children will learn how to explore in and around the water safely. • Breath Control Children will learn how to hold their breath when verbal and kinesthetic trigger is given. • Trauma-Free Submersion Children will develop confidence in submerging underwater and discover the freedom of buoyancy. • Free Floating Children will learn how to float without assistance to the ledge of pools or between adults. • Independency Children will learn how to swim between adults, grabbing shirts to pull themselves up, turn and swim back to the ledge and get out of the pool, all by themselves. • The programme tend to be expensive. • The children must wear snugly fitting swim diapers, and the parents must wear appropriate swim attire in the swimming pool. • Require the presence of parents. The parents cannot leave their children there and go to work. They will have to sacrifice their working hours and doing house chores. • Safety concerns - Such as swallowing too much water and exposure to cold temperatures. - If the children is not feeling well, they will be not able to attend the swimming class. - Expert entities disagree about whether early swim lessons can prevent drowning or not. - Many babies lack the neurological maturity to grasp the concepts presented in swim classes.
  30. 2 Pros ➢ Improves hand and eye coordination and motor

    skills ➢ Stimulates baby's senses ➢ Provides an interesting diversion in their daily routine ➢ Boosts cognitive development ➢ Encourages freedom and movement Cons • Safety concerns whether the place is baby proof • Separation anxiety • Less affordable • Learned behaviour • Child gets sick often Baby Jumper Gym ★ Located at Publika Shopping Gallery. It is an early learning centre for kids mainly focus on right-brain development through fun and games in their playschool sessions. ★ Their teaching method combines music, movement and a whole range of brain stimulation activities. ★ They have activities like jumping on mini trampolines, jump into ball pits and making cardboard cars ★ BJG has also been named ‘Best Baby Development Center’ and ‘Recommended Playschool’ by BabyTalk Magazine.
  31. 3 POP PIANO MUSIC ACADEMY • Located in Publika Shopping

    Gallery, Kuala Lumpur • Emphasizes Play By Ear Piano teaching with Pop Piano improvisation for kids • This academy’s aim is also to help kids learn to play their favourite songs. PROS 1. Improves children’s attention span 2. Improves children’s motor skills 3. Playing piano reduces stress 4. Playing music instruments such as piano improves children’s creativity and problem solving skills CONS 1. The practice time itself. 2. Piano instrument and the classes are costly. 3. Children could be prone to mental illness as there are possibilities that they could be compared to their peers who are making a better progress than them.
  32. 4 Young Chefs Academy - Located at Desa Sri Hartamas,

    50480 Kuala Lumpur - unique culinary experience which offers cooking classes to children aged 3 to 17 in a safe environment that encourages discovery and creativity. - Each class and event incorporates supplemental subject matter which ties into each theme. Pros - Self-fulfillment - Room of Creativity - Learning different culture - Respectable - Availability Job Cons - Risky - Expensive Training - Poor pay - Demanding Job - Stressing
  33. 5 • Fun • Improve level of creativity • Improve

    coordination skills • Meet new friends • Better to control own emotions • Time Consuming • Costly • Mental Issues • Need to spend extra more time to get the ideal instrument Peekaboo Music Academy • Located at Taman Desa, Kuala Lumpur • Brought educations for children from newborn to 7 years old • Aspiring music learners in a wide range of musical instruments such as piano, ukulele, including voice. • Offer a Junior chef programme, which allow kids to learn different skills. (Creating a dish and Handle Kitchen tools ) Pros Cons
  34. 6 Cons 1. May not lead to learning 2. Children

    still need guidance 3. Could lead to social bullying & exclusion 4. Could be unsafe in some instances 5. Is not always the best approach Dramatic play supports children’s development- Engaging in dramatic play improves the growth of young people. Predending improves social skills, makes kids more mindful on their own thoughts, and encourages common language and problem solving As a child-centered play activity, dramatic play is most successful, where the children are in control of the storey and decide individually how to act it out. Pros 1) Relief from emotional tension 2) Children feel powerful 3) Language development 4) Teaches conflict resolution 5) Understanding symbolism,building ingenuity 6) Recognising what is real and what is fantasy
  35. Week 6 Messy Play benefits child development (cognitive, physical and

  36. 1 Cognitive : The children will use their senses to

    understand their surrounding. For example, they use their eyes to see the objects and recognise that them as toys or their parents; they use their nose to smell the food and recognise whether if it is their favourite food. Physical : The children will then move their bodies either to nearer or away from the objects or their family. If the toys are new to them, they will try to take it and feel it if it is soft or hard, for example, hands-on activities help children to compare textures and temperatures and to develop their sense of touch. Emotional : The children will show their feelings by smiling if they are happy or crying if they are sad or angry or hungry. There is no “right way” in messy play. Give your child positive feedback. For an example, say “wow! Look at those colors!”. This gives her freedom to express herself and helps building self-esteem and confidence. Messy play : Also known as sensory play, it is the term for any activities allowing children to work with their hands to create a controlled mess. Often involving traditionally messy ingredients like paint, sand, slime, water, clay or mud, it is geared toward exploring feelings and imagination.
  37. 2 Messy Play- Also known as sensory play, is the

    term for any activities allowing children to work with their hands to create a controlled mess. Often involving traditionally messy ingredients such as paint, sand, slime, water, clay or mud, it is geared toward exploring feelings and imagination. Benefits Cognitive - It encourages children to interact with their environment and learn about the objects around them. Physical - It helps the child to develop their motor skills and help them develop better muscle strength. Emotional - It helps them to obtain a better understanding of their emotions and help gain better control of them like joy and frustration.
  38. 3 Messy play- Messy play is the way that encouraging

    children to learn about the raw material such as mud, sand, water and paint without restrictions. It also allow your child to mess thing up so they can use their senses in a logical and educational way. Cognitive-Messy play is the basis for early STEM learning. Using hands-on play, children get a feel for experimentation by seeing for themselves how things work. They learn valuable science skills like cause and effect, problem-solving and the scientific method. They can also learn basic math skills like classification, sorting, matching and more. Physical -Using the hands and fingers promotes fine motor development such as finger dexterity, hand strength and shoulder strength. These skills are the building blocks for future handwriting. Using the senses of balance and body awareness enhance gross motor skills. Emotional- emotional is the ability that let child to express and understand their feelings. And it's also to let them maintain or make them emotion in a good condition in order to avoid bad emotion. This also can let them to learn how to control their emotion.
  39. 4 • Also known as sensory play • It can

    be any form of activities and it allows children to work with their own hands to create a controlled mess. • Ingredients Involved: Paint, sand,slime,water ,clay or mud. Cognitive • Learn valuable science skills like cause and effect, problem-solving and the scientific method. • Learn basic math skills like classification, sorting, matching Physical • Practice controlled movements that require hand-eye coordination Emotion • Help them recognize and name their emotions and figure out how to avoid getting upset in the future. Messy Play Benefits
  40. 5 Messy Play Allows children to make a controlled mess

    so, they can use their senses in a logical and educational way. While the idea of making a huge mess often puts parents off, the benefits of messy play are huge and totally worth the minimal inconvenience. This includes rice play, jelly on plate, oats or cereal play, chocolate mud and kinetic sand. Cognitive - helps develop brains bridge nerve connections and assists children in learning differences and similarities. The use of sensory material creates hands-on, self-directed and self-centred play, and it encourages discovery and development. This approach appeals to children who have different learning and thinking styles. It develops and enhances memory. Emotion - Encourage children to work together and cooperate in group play or one-on-one play. They learn about personal boundaries, understanding someone else's ideas and views, and they have the opportunity to express their own. Physical - Using the hands and fingers promotes fine motor development such as finger dexterity, hand strength and shoulder strength. These skills are the building blocks for future handwriting. Using the senses of balance and body awareness enhance gross motor skills. Creative Development - It leaves the child in control of the outcome and they have the freedom to explore and test different theories. This can boost their self-confidence and also encourage them to find new ways to do things by using their imagination and creativity.
  41. 6 Messy Play • Term for any exercises permitting children

    to work with their hands to make a controlled wreck. Frequently including customarily chaotic fixings like paint, sand, ooze, water, mud or mud, it is intended for investigating emotions and creative mind. Messy play allows children to have freedom which brings out their creativity. Benefits: • Curiosity: One of the great things about childhood is the sense of freedom you have. Experimentation is something to be encouraged through all stages of our lives. • Fine Motor Skills: Movements that use small muscles in the fingers, hands and forearms but they aren’t fully developed until around 8 years old. Actions such as grabbing and gripping will strengthen the muscles and improve those skills. • Communication: In terms of communication, they are able to express their likes and dislikes as well as offering affection and empathy to other children who may be feeling down/crying.
  42. Week 8 Children need to play in nature, because...

  43. 1 A - Play is the most fundamental part in

    child development as it allows children to explore the world be it in the nature or in the kitchen. Play is a child's context for learning as it nurtures children’s curiosity. It enables children to explore and make sense of the world around them, and develop their imagination and creativity. B - Spending time in nature can help kids to get expose to the nature. They will be able to feel everything in nature with all their senses. Young kids will see the sand first before touching it. They will also try to see if it is possible to make something with their hands, which develop their thinking skill. On the same time, they can smell what the sand is like. Sometimes, they might accidentally taste the sand and then express their emotions. Other than that, they can hear the sound of the sea waves, the noise of the crowd and the animals at the beach. This will give them an idea of what it is like how to enjoy and have fun at the beach. C - By playing in nature children’s able to express they emotions by make a noise- shout and play with other children, free to explore and move such run, jump, roll and more. Moreover, nature create a sense of peacefulness to children’s.
  44. 2 Learning through play, appears to be a simple notion,

    but has profound meaning. It helps children make sense of the world around them through discovery, allowing them to develop cognitively, socially, emotionally and physically. Piaget’s Stages of Play Viewed play as integral to the development of intelligence in children. His theory of play argues that as the child matures, their environment and play should encourage further cognitive and language development. • Functional play • Constructive play • Symbolic/Fantasy play • Games with rules Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development ❖ Kids need to be comfortable in their natural environment sometimes it might be dirty when they tend to play in sand ❖ That is how they discover thing and by discovering new things the tend to develop their learning skills. ❖ As they are in a new environment they make new connections it can be their friends, teachers, and parents too. ❖ Also, they are able to learn and develop within their role in the community. For example, when they tend to utter their first words to their peers they learn to communication. This helps them to be a collaborative and cooperative person as well.
  45. 3 A: Children can learning through playing. Kids can view,

    enjoy playing through the nature such as sand. They can use sand to build the castle. Children will think that water is came out from the tape because they haven't see waterfall, beach and river before. Even children see animal also be so happy. As parents and teacher, we encourage them bring children to zoo, jungle so they can more interact and view the environment and nature because it can help their health and physical development. B: Learning through experiencing , children learn the nature in a productive way, they learn about environment and their surround by direct interact with them. So this method let them to have an idea about what they have in nature C: Children can learn when they playing, kids can learn things through observation. They will look at people and imitate it. Besides, environment and the people around them will direct influence them
  46. 4 A: Learning through play helps kids understand and learn

    about the objects in their environment by encouraging them to interact and examine the objects around them. B: Children learn and gain experiences through play. Playing in nature gives children free rein to their imaginations.
  47. 5 A: Allowing children to play in the nature gives

    them the freedom to experience things and enjoy things. They get to learn about different facts and it allows their imagination to run free. B: Playing in nature provides them the opportunity to learn based on what they observe. This also enhances children’s intelligence as they are able to learn without much guidance. In other words, they learn based on their own experience.
  48. 6 A • Children need to play in nature because

    they will learn to discover new knowledge by themselves. • Can foster their creativity • Only through nature, children can understand more about the knowledges that they owned. B • Children needs to play in nature because it is important for their healthy development, peacefulness and would benefits them. • It’s a different way for the child to acquire information and learn. • They will be able to understand more when they discover thing on their own.
  49. Week 11 What’s your personal needs for friends and peers?

  50. A • Child - friendly, helpful, get along well, always

    keep in touch, always play games together in a large group after inviting others to join along • Adult - responsible, honest, patience, can get along well, can talk about anything, friendly, helpful, keep in touch anytime, good in giving explanation if I am very lost at something, enjoy exchanging ideas • *Hardly can accept those with two-sided faces, bully, betray, jealous others B • Child ◦ Fun to be with ◦ Friendly ◦ Approachable ◦ Understanding • Adult ◦ Reliable ◦ Open-minded ◦ Respectful ◦ (I’m fine with anyone honestly)
  51. A As a child: Be friends with everyone except for

    people who bully others. (school) As an adult: Compatible personality, be honest and sincere to people B As a child: I befriend everyone, i didn’t exactly looked for anyone. Everyone is a good friend if they are my friends. (I was the bad friend lol) As an adult: I don’t think i have the needs to look for more friends although i don’t mind making some. As long as they have good personalities, honest, not two faced, all’s good.
  52. A As a child: -sharing their toys -doing everything together

    As an adult: -understanding -honest -someone who listens and not judge -funnyyyy B As a child: - Invite me to play along - Share their snacks and toys - Know how to take turns when playing As an adult: - Promotes a positive outlook on life - Brings out the best in each other - Good at managing disagreements - Share the same sense of humour - Have a big heart and is generous
  53. A As a child: • Friendly, sharing food and toys,

    can play together all the time As an adult: • Friendly, responsible, honest and kind, effective listener, if I need you, you must with me, understand my position and we can travel together and make fun together. When I am sad she need to accompanying me. • In don't want my friend like same guy that I like. B As a child: - Friendly, kind, sharing toys to play, As an adult: - Must be a honest person, kind, understanding, listen without judging anyone, and funny.
  54. A As a child: sharing snack and drink , sharing

    their toys, doing everything together As an adult: Loyalty Honesty Understanding B As a child : I be friend with everyone without caring if they are good or bad. Because for me, as long as they are there for me and wants to share their food or toy with me, they’re considered my friend. As an adult : I’d look for a friend who is honest, supportive, understanding and the one that won’t leak out my secrets. Having only one is more than enough. :D
  55. A As a child: I would say an individual who

    is loyal to people in his/her surroundings. It is okay if that person may not be able to provide help at all times as long as he or her will stay by my side at the end of the day through the good and bad times As an adult: No difference from child. Actually one additional criteria which is honesty. That person can be self-centered or selfish but as long as he or she is an honest person, someone who I know who is trustworthy, then it would be a great pleasure for me to have that friend. B As a child : i would prefer someone who is energetic and also outgoing. Also prefer some who is genuine and also able to be there whenever i need them As an adult : I prefer someone open minded and also someone who is responsible and also know how to have fun in the correct way.
  56. A As a child, i need friends that will play

    with me and talk to me. As for now, i just need friends and peers that support me and won’t betray me. Understand what I want, can motivate each other. B As a child, I just need a friend that have a lot of fun thing can play with them. As a adult, just hope there have somebody can talk with
  57. A As a child, I’ll just tag along with my

    brother and befriend anyone to have fun. As an adult, I’ll look for people who I’ll trust and who’ll help me when I’m in need. Also people I can have fun and spend time with.
  58. Questions for Guest Speaker Nutritionist Q1. What is the healthier

    food for kids? Q2.What kind of nutritional approach would you take to help children who are at risk of developing diabetes and in chronic disease Q3. what kind of vitamins is necessary for babies? Q4. What kind of healthy food should I consume on a daily basis in your opinion Miss? How do one overcome his/her addiction of junk food? Q5. What is the intern training like to be a qualified nutritionist? Is it in pharmacy, hospital or diet center? Is it always working together with doctors or requires to do a lot of article reviewed? How do I know if I'm getting all the nutrition I need at red zone during this pandemic? Early Child Educator Q1. I want to be an Early Child teacher and do you have any advice for me because I want to be ready. If children fight in front of you how you overcome it? Because they are young. How to make children follow the instructions? Q2. Have you ever identified learning disabilities within your students? How did you go through that situation? Q3. How do I provide aid to children who could be having social anxiety after getting publicly humiliated? What is the best method to educate children especially those who are making slower progress than others? Q4. What is the toughest and easiest to be the educator? Q5. How to handle kids throwing tantrums? What are the reasons for a kid to throw tantrums?
  59. Questions for Guest Speaker Nutritionist Q6. Is it possible for

    diet to cause a side effect on teenagers or during their puberty period? Q7. What food or method can prevent blood pressure to become low? Q8. How many calories should a child consume in a day ? Will it increase if they play sports ? Q9. How much protein does a child need?Is it okay to give the same foods to child every day if they are healthy? Q10. What kind of nutritional approach would you take to help children who are at risk of developing diabetes? Q11. can drastic weight loss have a negative effect on an individuals health ? Q11. Is it normal to not remember what we ate yesterday and the day before ? 2. Is it important to keep track of what we eat? Early Child Educator Q6. What to do if child is insecure? Q7. How will you exercise patience when interacting with children? Q8. What is the difference between good and bad sugar ? What is the acceptable amount of sweet treats to give a child ? Q9. How do you describe a perfect learning environment for a child? Q10. what are the skills needed as a early childhood educator ? Q11. What is your view on sex education for children in Malaysia? Q12. Do you think that technological appliances play a great role in the development of the new generations? 2. What is your say on, YouTuber parents who show their children on camera ?