DevOps Data Storage

DevOps Data Storage

What data do we need to store to be more devopsy? How can we use the data? What data stores are out there, where and why might we use them?

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Brad Lhotsky

February 21, 2017
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  1. 2.

    Brad Lhotsky • Systems and Security
 at Craigslist • Infrastructure

    Monitoring & Security
 at Booking.com • Recovering • Perl Programmer • Linux/BSD Systems Admin • Network Security Specialist • PostgreSQL Administrator • ElasticSearch Janitor • DNS Voyeur • OSSEC Core Team Member https://github.com/reyjrar https://twitter.com/reyjrar
  2. 5.

    Administrative & Meta-Data ‣ Inventory ‣ Hardware ‣ Software ‣

    Builds or Roles ‣ Services ‣ Users and Groups ‣ Employee/Contractor ‣ Managers ‣ ACLs
  3. 6.

    Monitoring ‣ State ‣ OK / NOT OK ‣ UP

    / DOWN ‣ Package Version ‣ Time Series ‣ Counter ‣ Rate ‣ Statistical Summaries
  4. 7.

    Events ‣ State Changes ‣ Package Updated ‣ Service Stopped

    ‣ System Events ‣ Syslog Message ‣ SNMP Traps ‣ Application Events ‣ Access ‣ Errors ‣ Traces
  5. 10.

    -Nicole Forsgren - Monitorama PDX 2016 How Metrics Shape Your

    Culture “Metrics are your culture.”
  6. 11.

    "How Metrics Shape Your Culture" • You can't improve what

    you don't measure • Always measure things that matter • Things measured are things managed • Metrics can be gamed • Metrics inform incenticves • Not everything that can be counted counts • Hard to measure doesn't mean it isn't worth measuring
  7. 13.

    Alerting ‣ Disrupting People's Lives at 95% Disk Full ‣

    Thresholds -> Change Detection ‣ State Change Thresholds
  8. 14.

    Automation ‣ Can a Machine read my data? ‣ Autoscale

    ‣ Trend detection ‣ Service Level Roll Ups in Alerting ‣ Reporting
  9. 18.

    Open and Extensible ‣ Integrations with other projects ‣ Open

    API ‣ Good Documentation ‣ Modular / Plugin Structute ‣ Community
  10. 20.

    Retention ‣ How easy is it to age data off?

    ‣ What regulations of laws apply to the data? ‣ Expectations from: ‣ Customers ‣ Employees ‣ Managers ‣ Peers ‣ Legal
  11. 21.

    Privacy and Security ‣ What do you keep on your

    users in your ops data? ‣ Who might come calling for it? ‣ How comfortable are you handing it over to Trump? ‣ Anyone hear about MongoDB? ‣ Can the store provide security?
  12. 23.

    ‣ Large Community ‣ Forks and Oracle ‣ Performance First

    ‣ SQL Interface ‣ Limited Data Types ‣ Web > BI ‣ Suitable for Administrative Data
  13. 24.

    ‣ Large Community ‣ Reliability First ‣ Open and Extensible

    ‣ PGXN ‣ CitusData ‣ GreenPlum ‣ EnterpriseDB ‣ Native Support for IP Addresses ‣ Extensible Data Types ‣ Suitable for Administrative Data
  14. 25.

    ‣ Large Community ‣ Interchangeable Components, ala, MicroServices ‣ Simple

    API ‣ Rampant Open Source Adoption ‣ Scalable ‣ Compatibility ‣ Grafana, Statsd, Riemann, Bosun, Cabot, Seyren ‣ etc., etc., ‣ Suitable for Time Series Data ‣ Smallest Resolution: seconds
  15. 30.

    ‣ Metrics 2.0 ‣ Hadoop / Hbase backed ‣ SQL-like

    Language ‣ Zero Data Loss ‣ Compatibility ‣ Carbon, Grafana, Statsd, Riemann, Bosun ‣ Suitable for Time Series Data ‣ Smallest Resolution: milliseconds
  16. 31.

    ‣ Metrics 2.0 ‣ SQL-like Language ‣ Zero Data Loss

    ‣ Compatibility ‣ Carbon, Grafana, Statsd, Riemann, Bosun ‣ Suitable for Time Series Data ‣ Smallest Resolution: nanoseconds
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    ‣ Well Documented API ‣ Many Open Source Integrations ‣

    Lucene backed text search ‣ Scalable ‣ "Jepsen ElasticSearch" re:CAP
  18. 35.

    App::ElasticSearch::Utilities Search Stuff! = Querying Indexes: lhr4-access-2015.06.03,ams4-access-2015.06.03 @timestamp src_ip src_ip_country

    file 2015-06-03T11:39:27+0200 217.36.201.217 GB /B1D671CF- E532-4481-99AA-19F420D90332/netdefender/hui/ndhui.css 2015-06-03T11:39:26+0200 92.56.217.84 ES /hotel/es/ null.es.html # Search Parameters: # {"query_string":{"query":"dst:www.booking.com AND crit:404"}} # Displaying 3 of (CENSORED) in 0 seconds. # Indexes (2 of 4) searched: ams4-access-2015.06.03,lhr4-access-2015.06.03 https://github.com/reyjrar/es-utils $ es-search.pl --base access dst:www.booking.com and crit:404 \ --show src_ip,src_ip_country,file --size 2
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    Aggregate Stuff https://github.com/reyjrar/es-utils $ es-search.pl --base access --days 1 dst:www.booking.com

    \ --top src_ip --size 3 = Querying Indexes: ams4-access-2015.06.03,lhr4-access-2015.06.03 count src_ip (CENSORED) 66.249.92.71 (CENSORED) 66.249.92.59 (CENSORED) 66.249.92.65 # Search Parameters: # {"query_string":{"query":"dst:www.booking.com"}} # Displaying 3 of (CENSORED) in 5 seconds. # Indexes (2 of 2) searched: ams4-access-2015.06.03,lhr4-access-2015.06.03 # # Totals across batch # count src_ip (CENSORED) 66.249.92.71 (CENSORED) 66.249.92.59 (CENSORED) 66.249.92.65
  20. 37.

    Find Pages Viewed by Most Countries https://github.com/reyjrar/es-utils $ es-search.pl --base

    access --days 1 dst:www.booking.com \ --top file --by cardinality:src_ip_country --size 3 = Querying Indexes: lhr4-access-2015.06.03,ams4-access-2015.06.03 cardinality:src_ip_country count file 239 (CENSORED) / 236 (CENSORED) /rt_data/city_bookings 234 (CENSORED) /wishlist/get # Search Parameters: # {"query_string":{"query":"dst:www.booking.com"}} # Displaying 3 of (CENSORED) in 21 seconds. # Indexes (2 of 2) searched: ams4-access-2015.06.03,lhr4-access-2015.06.03
  21. 38.

    Pipeline Queries https://github.com/reyjrar/es-utils $ es-search.pl --base access --days 1 dst:www.booking.com

    \ --top src_ip --by sum:attack_score --size 3 \ --data-file top_attackers.dat $ es-search.pl --base access --days 1 dst:www.booking.com \ src_ip:top_attackers.dat[-1] --size 3\ --show attack_score,src_ip,crit,dst,method,resource \ --sort attack_score:desc
  22. 39.

    Pipeline Queries https://github.com/reyjrar/es-utils = Querying Indexes: lhr4-access-2015.06.03,ams4-access-2015.06.03 @timestamp attack_score src_ip

    crit dst method resource 2015-06-03T04:20:59+0200 340 107.150.42.90 404 www.booking.com GET /plus/ search.php?keyword=as&typeArr[111%3D@`%5C'`)+/*!50000And*/+(/*!50000SeLECT*/+1+/*!50000frOM*/+(/*! 50000SeLECT*/+/*!50000Count(*)*/,concat(floor(rand(0)*2),(substring((/*!50000SeLECT*/ +CONCAT(0x40,userid,0x7c,substring(pwd,4,16))+from+`%23@__admin`+limit+0,1),1,62)))a+/*! 50000fRom*/+information_schema.tables+/*!50000gROUP*/+by+a)b)%23@`%5C'`+]=a 2015-06-03T00:50:43+0200 340 107.150.42.90 404 www.booking.com GET /plus/ search.php?keyword=as&typeArr[111%3D@`%5C'`)+/*!50000And*/+(/*!50000SeLECT*/+1+/*!50000frOM*/+(/*! 50000SeLECT*/+/*!50000Count(*)*/,concat(floor(rand(0)*2),(substring((/*!50000SeLECT*/ +CONCAT(0x40,userid,0x7c,substring(pwd,4,16))+from+`%23@__admin`+limit+0,1),1,62)))a+/*! 50000fRom*/+information_schema.tables+/*!50000gROUP*/+by+a)b)%23@`%5C'`+]=a 2015-06-03T05:18:19+0200 340 107.150.42.90 404 www.booking.com GET /plus/ search.php?keyword=as&typeArr[111%3D@`%5C'`)+/*!50000And*/+(/*!50000SeLECT*/+1+/*!50000frOM*/+(/*! 50000SeLECT*/+/*!50000Count(*)*/,concat(floor(rand(0)*2),(substring((/*!50000SeLECT*/ +CONCAT(0x40,userid,0x7c,substring(pwd,4,16))+from+`%23@__admin`+limit+0,1),1,62)))a+/*! 50000fRom*/+information_schema.tables+/*!50000gROUP*/+by+a)b)%23@`%5C'`+]=a # Search Parameters: # {"terms":{"src_ip":["107.150.42.90","37.59.7.157","74.84.138.120"]}} # {"query_string":{"query":"dst:www.booking.com"}} # Displaying 3 of 793 in 0 seconds. # Indexes (2 of 2) searched: ams4-access-2015.06.03,lhr4-access-2015.06.03
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    Data Types Meta-Data State Time Series Events Graphite No No

    Yes Kinda InfluxDB Kinda Yes Yes Kinda OpenTSDB Kinda Yes Yes Kinda MySQL Yes Yes No Kinda PostgreSQL Yes Yes No Kinda ElasticSearch No Kinda Kinda Yes
  25. 42.

    Features of Your Data Interval Cardinality Data Type Aging Graphite

    Fixed, Regular Low Numeric Roll up InfluxDB Fixed (best) Any High Any Configurable OpenTSDB Any High Numeric n/a MySQL Any Keys: Low Values: High Structured* None PostgreSQL Any Keys: Low Values: High Structured* None ElasticSearch Any Keys: Low Values: High Any None
  26. 43.

    Features of the Store Security Scalability Performance Reliability Graphite Low

    High High* Medium InfluxDB Low High Medium High OpenTSDB Low High Low High MySQL Medium Medium Medium* High* PostgreSQL High Medium Medium* High ElasticSearch Low High High Low