Small Wonders of BioAccumulators

498ff1380b82b62223dae8ea8f9ad10d?s=47 Sagar Nikam
December 30, 2012

Small Wonders of BioAccumulators

Smart Wonders of Bioaccumulators : Pollutant Soaking Plants (Phytoindicators) & Mysteries behind Environmental Protection
Oral Presentation in
National Seminar on “Innovations in Basic Sciences in the Realm of Modern Education System” INNERVATE-2008, 27th & 28th Dec 2008 at Jankidevi Bajaj College of Science, Wardha ( Maharashtra )

498ff1380b82b62223dae8ea8f9ad10d?s=128

Sagar Nikam

December 30, 2012
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Transcript

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    MYSTERIES BEHIND MYSTERIES BEHIND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION SMART WONDERS

    SMART WONDERS (PHYTOINDICATORS) (PHYTOINDICATORS) & & BIOACCUMULATORS BIOACCUMULATORS OF OF POLLUTANT SOAKING PLANTS POLLUTANT SOAKING PLANTS
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    Government College of Pharmacy Government College of Pharmacy Amravati-444604.(M.S.) INDIA.

    Amravati-444604.(M.S.) INDIA. Nikam S.J*, Bhojane G.S. Nikam S.J*, Bhojane G.S. Yawale M.J., Raut R.R. Yawale M.J., Raut R.R.
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    Objective :- Objective :- reviewed enquiry of phytoindicators at molecular

    level as bioaccumulators for environmental protection role in pollution prevention with mechanism role in pollution prevention with mechanism of action. action. why we save valuable plants from utter destruction ?
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    Why ? Topic Why ? Topic -On both side of

    roads we see trees in series -Why certain trees like Peepal, Bel, Pakur, Bargad, Neem have been worshipped from times immemorial ?
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    -plants that have ability to assess levels of pollution. -serve

    as index of state of environmental of particular region. -Shows acute injury with externally visible symptoms in presence of high toxic pollutants. -indicative phenomena :- Bio-indication Bio-indication Pollutant soaking plants Pollutant soaking plants
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    Retains toxic pollutants/metabolic products of Retains toxic pollutants/metabolic products of

    plant-pollutant interaction in their bodies plant-pollutant interaction in their bodies Scavengers Scavengers Pollution mitigator plants Pollution mitigator plants Bioaccumulators Bioaccumulators Phytoremediation Phytoremediation
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    Symptoms Symptoms Chlorosis (yellowing/whitening of green plants tissues due to

    ↓ Chlorosis (yellowing/whitening of green plants tissues due to ↓ chlorophyll) chlorophyll) Necrosis (death of cells/tissues by disease ) Necrosis (death of cells/tissues by disease ) Deformities of plants organs & ultimately death. Deformities of plants organs & ultimately death. Physiological Physiological changes Low photosynthetic activity Changes in cell sap pH & membrane permeability Low growth rate & crop yield Stimulation of respiration & irregularity in enzyme action.
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    Parameters to select good phytoindicators (in ecosystem) 1)Survival 2)Mortality 3)Pollutant

    uptake Efficiency varies with ecotypes b’coz diff. in geographical & climatic conditions. Relatively easy to understand by non-scientists & other users. Sensitive to manageable human activity. Relatively tightly linked in space & time to that activity. Easily & accurately measured, with a low error rate. Ideal Properties of indicators:- Ideal Properties of indicators:-
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    Designed by TheTemplateMart.com During uptake of essential nutrients through roots,

    absorbs metallic, non-metallic wastes, different toxic chemicals (PPCP), heavy metals (Cu ++,Zn++, Cd, Ag, Pb, Hg), inorganic biocides accumulated in stable plant parts (root/shoot) Phytochelatins Phytochelatins Metallothioneins Metallothioneins Phytoindicators Phytoindicators sulphur containing polypeptides of low mol.wt. How ? How ?
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    Phytochelatins Phytochelatins -group of proteins that inducible when they are

    faced with heavy metal stress. -Algae, Gymnosperms ,Monocots, Dicots -Cysteine, Glycine, Glutamic acid y-(GluCys)n-Gly conformation y-carboxylamide bond PCs r no direct result of expression of metal tolerance gene A product of biosynthetic pathway with glutathione ( detoxifying agent) Cd ++
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    Ultra structure of Ultra structure of Phytochelatins Phytochelatins Fig.1-Phytochelatins bind

    to metal ions & transport oxidized metal to vacuoles for storage
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    Metallothioneins Metallothioneins -similar proteins to PCs with high no. of

    cysteine molecules in -similar proteins to PCs with high no. of cysteine molecules in proteins proteins Characteristics Characteristics low mol.wt. low mol.wt. large fraction of cysteine residue large fraction of cysteine residue -high metal content in metal- thiolate clusters -high metal content in metal- thiolate clusters Cu ++
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    Ultra structure of Metallothioneins Ultra structure of Metallothioneins Fig.2-Metallothioneins bind

    metal ions for transport to Fig.2-Metallothioneins bind metal ions for transport to deficient parts deficient parts
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    Plants Plants Heavy Metals Phytochelatin Synthase Glutathione substrate PCs (Phytochelatins)

    Continues untill all metals r complexed e.g. Cd ++ + + Generalized Synthesis of Phytochelatins Generalized Synthesis of Phytochelatins
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    Glutamine & Cysteine y-GluCys y-GluCys Glutathione (GSH) Glutathione (GSH) y-glutamylcysteine

    y-glutamylcysteine Cd Cd ++ ++ Vacuole Vacuole Phytochelatin Phytochelatin synthase(Cad1) synthase(Cad1) PCs PCs Cd Cd ++ ++ + + ↓ ↓ PC-Cd complexes PC-Cd complexes + + ↑ ↑CdS -PC complexes CdS -PC complexes Glutathione synthase Glutathione synthase Cd Cd ++ ++ + + Sulfides Sulfides
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    Air Purifiers/Pollutant Soaking Plants Air Purifiers/Pollutant Soaking Plants Peepal (Ficus

    rligiosa) Bel (Aegle marmelos) Neem (Azadirachta indica), Amaranthus graecizans Argemone mexicana Boerhaavia diffusa Weeds Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna) Makhan katori (Ficus krishnae) Kadam (Anthocephalus cadamba )
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    Acknowledgement Acknowledgement The authors expresses their sincere gratitude towards Respected

    Mr. Dinesh Gandhi Sir Mr. Rahul Akotkar Sir Mr. Vijay Waghulkar Sir for giving their valuable time for work.
  18. 18.

    Dipanjan Ghosh: Science Reporter; NISCAIR, (CSIR), Vol. 43, No.6, June

    2006. Cobbett CS: Phytochelatins and their roles in heavy metal detoxification. Plant Physiol 123: (2000) 825−832 Clemens S: Molecular mechanisms of plant metal tolerance and homeostasis. Planta(2001) 212: 475−486 References References
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