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Sufi Tabassum Gul - Optimization of Multi-standards Software Defined Radio

Fef83ca87fd2a7994d087631868acf8f?s=47 SCEE Team
October 29, 2009

Sufi Tabassum Gul - Optimization of Multi-standards Software Defined Radio

Fef83ca87fd2a7994d087631868acf8f?s=128

SCEE Team

October 29, 2009
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  1. 1 Seminar SCEE Optimization of Multi Optimization of Multi- -standards

    standards Software Defined Radio Software Defined Radio Equipments : Equipments : A Common Operators’ Approach A Common Operators’ Approach SUPELEC - Campus de Rennes SCEE – Signal, Communications et Electronique Embarquée IETR – UMR CNRS 6164 Institut d'Electronique et Télécommunications de Rennes Sufi Tabassum GUL 29th October, 2009 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 2 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline Multi-standard Design Issue Parametrisation Techniques for Software Radio Graph Modeling of SDR Equipment Optimization of Graph Models Case Studies of Common Operators Conclusions & Perspectives Publications
  2. 2 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    3 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Plan de la présentation Problème de la Conception Multi-standard Techniques de Paramétrisation pour la Radio Logicielle 1. Technique par Fonctions Communes 2. Technique par Opérateurs Communs o Approche Pragmatique o Approche Théorique Modélisation Graphique des Equipments de Radio Logicielle Modèles Théoriques de Graphes pour les Equipments Multi-standards de Radio Logicielle Optimisation de Modèles de Graphes Paramètres de Coût o Types de Coûts o Fonction de Coût Optimisation o Recherche Exhaustive o Recuit Simulé o Algorithmes Génétiques Cas d'Etudes d'Opérateurs Communs DMFFT LFSR FRMFB Conclusions & Perspectives Publications Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 4 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline Multi-standard Design Issue Parametrisation Techniques for Software Radio 1. Common Function Technique 2. Common Operators’ Technique o Pragmatic Approach o Theoretical Approach Graph Modeling of SDR Equipment Graph Theoretical Models of Multi-standards SDR Equipments Optimization of Graph Models Cost Parameters o Types of Costs o Cost Function Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing o Genetic Algorithms Case Studies of Common Operators DMFFT LFSR FRMFB Conclusions & Perspectives Publications
  3. 3 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    5 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline Multi-standard Design Issue Parametrisation Techniques for Software Radio 1. Common Function Technique 2. Common Operators’ Technique o Pragmatic Approach o Theoretical Approach Graph Modeling of SDR Equipment Graph Theoretical Models of Multi-standards SDR Equipments Optimization of Graph Models Cost Parameters o Types of Costs o Cost Function Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing o Genetic Algorithms Case Studies of Common Operators DMFFT LFSR FRMFB Conclusions & Perspectives Publications Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 6 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Multi-standard SDR design GPS Bluetooth Figure 1 : Multi-standards SDR design
  4. 4 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    7 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Multi-standard SDR Design Velcro Solution SDR Approach Our Approach Set of Reconfigurable Common Operators Approach x Figure 2 : Multi-standards design trends Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 8 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Multi-standard SDR Design To design multi-standard reconfigurable radio, we have choice between two extremes One extreme: go “Velcro” (Efficient but costly) o One self-contained module per standard. Other extreme: go “Primitive” (Cheaper but deadlines!) o Use only adders, multipliers, etc. o Provide “higher” functionality by multiple calls of simpler modules. There may be other choices Intermediate granularity (e.g. in NoC, SoC etc.) Formalization at an intermediate granularity Our aim is to find the best trade-off between: “Performance and Cost”
  5. 5 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    9 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline Multi-standard Design Issue Parametrisation Techniques for Software Radio 1. Common Function Technique 2. Common Operators’ Technique o Pragmatic Approach o Theoretical Approach Graph Modeling of SDR Equipment Graph Theoretical Models of Multi-standards SDR Equipments Optimization of Graph Models Cost Parameters o Types of Costs o Cost Function Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing o Genetic Algorithms Case Studies of Common Operators DMFFT LFSR FRMFB Conclusions & Perspectives Publications Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 10 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Parametrisation Techniques of parameterization were introduced in order to Identify commonalities Exploit these commonalities Parameterization can be considered as a sub-part of the digital radio design methodology. We propose “Parameterization technique should be considered as a method that searches for and finds all the commonalities inside single/between several different standards in order to optimize, the resources during equipment’s implementation and/or execution phases.”
  6. 6 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    11 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Parametrisation Techniques for SDR Parametrisation : A promising technique of designing radio systems entities Takes advantages of the programmable or at least reconfigurable capabilities An optimal sharing between hardware and software resources. Parametrisation Techniques can be divided into : 1. Common Function Technique 2. Common Operators’ Technique Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 12 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Common Function Technique CF technique : function sharing among different standards [1]. Non-duplication of redundant components & Possible save in complexity. Figure 3 : Multi-standards transmitter data processing tasks [1]. W. H. W. Tuttlebee, Software Defined Radio: Enabling Technologies. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. UK, 2002. Details about chapter 8 to be added
  7. 7 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    13 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Common Function Technique Some conclusions about CF : As stated in [2], CF is not sufficient because CF technique depends highly upon the selected standards. The evolution to new standards must require the addition of the distinct components of each function in the associated CF. As a consequence, the CF should be redefined and redesigned to be capable to meet the requirements of the advanced standards. Due to standards’ dependency, our feeling is that the CF technique is not flexible enough for SDR applications. [2]. Arnd Rhemiere Details to be added Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 14 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Common Operator Technique Common operator technique : identification of common elements based on structural aspects. CO Performs operations without knowing their application. CO is independent of implementation of a terminal. CO is to be considered as an Open Technique [3]. CO can be called and re-called by distinct functions several times all along the terminal. [3]. L. Alaus, J. Palicot, C. Roland, Y. Louët, and D. Noguet, “Promising Technique of Parametrisation For Reconfigurable Radio, the Common Operators Technique: Fundamentals and Examples,” Springer Science + Business Media LLC, 2009
  8. 8 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    15 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Common Operator Technique Figure 4: Generalized block diagram showing the breakdown of several standards Very Fine Grain Velcro Increasing Granularity Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 16 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Common Operator Technique The goal is to find the maximum number of common elements and then share their functionalities between several processing tasks. In order to attain the best cost-performance trade-off Identify some level of granularity CO technique consists in increasing the granularity of the basic primitive levels elements to address in an SDR.
  9. 9 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    17 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Common Operator Technique A trade-off could be proposed between CF and CO, with the following rules: 1. A CF can call (one or several) functions, 2. A CF can use (one or several) operators, 3. A CO cannot call a function. Figure 5: Two technique of parametrisation (trade-offs) Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 18 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Common Operator’ Technique Common Operators’ can be identified either by : 1. Pragmatic approach (PA) or o The initial approach developed to identify or create possible COs and follows two stages: – Existing Search & – Constructive Search 2. Theoretical approach (TA) o An attempt to formalize SDR design. o It consists in moving the classical breaking down of Figure. 4 into a graphical approach. o Applies optimization process in order to find the most relevant COs (or their combination) present in the graph derived. o The optimisation process related to the TA is performed by a specific cost function to be minimized.
  10. 10 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    19 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES The Theoretical Approach Our vision of the parameterization: “The parameterization techniques are the means to find the optimal path in the tree derived from Figure 2. Here we are considering a global optimality” Three challenges arise: 1. The definition of the graph 2. The definition of cost parameters, finding costs and development of the cost function 3. The optimization algorithms Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 20 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Candidates for Common Operator A common operator is a tuneable operator which can carry out some common functions of several standards. FFT/Butterfly[3], DMFFT[4] and LFSR[5] are strong candidates for common operators as they can be used in the implementation of numerous important tasks of a communication transceiver, e.g. filtering, equalization, channelization, OFDM (de)modulation, convolutional coding, scrambling, etc. [3]. J. Palicot, C. Roland, “FFT: a Basic Function for a Reconfigurable Receiver,” ICT’03 Conference, Thaiti, France, 2003. [4]. Ali Al Ghouwayel, Yves Lou¨et and Jacques Palicot, “A Reconfigurable Butterfly Architecture for Fourier and Fermat Transforms,” IEEE WSR’2006, Karlsrhue, Germany, March 2006. [5]. L. Alaus, D. Noguet and J. Palicot, “A Reconfigurable Linear Feedback Shift Register Operator for Software Defined Radio Terminal,” ISWPC, Santorini, Greece, May 2008.
  11. 11 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    21 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline Multi-standard Design Issue Parametrisation Techniques for Software Radio 1. Common Function Technique 2. Common Operators’ Technique o Pragmatic Approach o Theoretical Approach Graph Modeling of SDR Equipment Graph Theoretical Models of Multi-standards SDR Equipments Optimization of Graph Models Cost Parameters o Types of Costs o Cost Function Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing o Genetic Algorithms Case Studies of Common Operators DMFFT LFSR FRMFB Conclusions & Perspectives Publications Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 22 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES We Model radio as graph : Progressively simpler processing elements (PE). When necessary, a PE is called multiple times (not replicated). 2 critical parameters per PE: o cost and time (computational delay) Graph Modeling
  12. 12 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    23 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Overview of Our Methodology Our objective is to find commonalities and hence Common Operators We want to optimize graphs of multi-standard systems based on these Common Operators Our procedure consists of three steps: 1. Drawing graphs of a radio system 2. Assigning cost parameters to various blocks of radio system 3. Running optimization algorithms to find the optimum solution Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 24 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Graph Modeling Left: PE A needs: Either B OR C Right: PE A needs: Both B AND C “Hypergraph” in order to introduce two different types of dependencies between the nodes: OR dependency AND dependency Figure 7: A hypergraph of tri-standard SDR system Figure 6: Two Possible Dependencies in Graph
  13. 13 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    25 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Graph Modeling NAND NOT XOR AND OR WiFi #1 WiFi #2 WiFi #3 WiMAX Scrambler/ Randomiser Convolutional Coder Interleaver Constellation Mapper FFT-N RS Encoder Butterfly Adder Multiplier LFSR LUT a a’ b b’ Very Fine Grain Velcro Increasing Granularity Figure 8: A simplified hypergraph of tri-standard SDR system Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 26 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline Multi-standard Design Issue Parametrisation Techniques for Software Radio 1. Common Function Technique 2. Common Operators’ Technique o Pragmatic Approach o Theoretical Approach Graph Modeling of SDR Equipment Graph Theoretical Models of Multi-standards SDR Equipments Optimization of Graph Models Cost Parameters o Types of Costs o Cost Function Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing o Genetic Algorithms Case Studies of Common Operators DMFFT LFSR FRMFB Conclusions & Perspectives Publications
  14. 14 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    27 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Cost Parameters Parameters associated with PE 1. Building Cost (BC) & o The cost of the block/PE capable of computing a function, called building cost (BC) and it is paid once during the useful life of a radio. 2. Computational Cost (CC) o The computing time required to perform a particular function, called computational cost (CC) and it is paid every time a component is brought into play. Parameters associated with arcs 1. Number of Calls (NoC) o The NoC parameter specifies the number of times a lower level PE is called to perform the functionality of higher level PE. In order to solve the optimization problem that finds balance between economy and computing efficiency we consider these parameters in our cost/objective function. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 28 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Types of Costs We have considered 3 types of costs for PEs Cost#1 : In terms of equations o Number of multiplications and/or additions, generic cost. Cost#2 : FPGA/ASIC implementation o In terms of gates/LUT/Slice/hardware synthesis (HW) Cost#3 : DSP(SW)/HW execution time o In terms of number of cycles/Time of execution These costs are based on: Design objectives and may be design phase (in terms of equations : at early design phase for instance) Implementation figures availability Required precision Sometimes BC Sometimes CC Obviously BC Obviously CC Sometimes BC Sometimes CC
  15. 15 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    29 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Cost Function denotes the building cost of ith component in the system. indicates if the ith node is present in the system or not. is the total building cost of all the components that are present in the SDR system. } { N n ,..., 2 , 1 = indicates that there may be n standards present in an SDR where i.e. if we choose N=3 then it means that there are three 3 2 1 , , , S and S S standards present namely in an SDR system. denotes the computational cost of kth component in the system. n S } { N n ,..., 2 , 1 = is the total computational cost of any of , where . Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 30 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Cost Function n S } { N n ,..., 2 , 1 = is the total computational cost of all of , where .       + = ∑∑ ∑ ∈ ∈ n k N n n k n i i i S bool SDR S CC w N BC w C N n n ) ) (( . . min _ ) ) (( Provide a balance between relative costs of BC and CC ω ωn Coarse grain oriented design Towards Velcro Fine grain oriented design Towards primitive level If ω << ωn If ω >> ωn where
  16. 16 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    31 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline Multi-standard Design Issue Parametrisation Techniques for Software Radio 1. Common Function Technique 2. Common Operators’ Technique o Pragmatic Approach o Theoretical Approach Graph Modeling of SDR Equipment Graph Theoretical Models of Multi-standards SDR Equipments Optimization of Graph Models Cost Parameters o Types of Costs o Cost Function Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing o Genetic Algorithms Case Studies of Common Operators DMFFT LFSR FRMFB Conclusions & Perspectives Publications Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 32 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Optimization Techniques Techniques that give exact optimal solution Exhaustive Search Require a computing effort that increases exponentially with number of nodes. Techniques that provide near-optimal solution in less computing Simulated Annealing Genetic Algorithms
  17. 17 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    33 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Exhaustive Search Exact methods require a high computing effort (increases exponentially with number of nodes). Only for problems involving fewer nodes (say 10 nodes). Used to check if sub-optimal methods find a good solution (for simple cases). Figure 9 : A generic view of SDR equipment Figure 10 : Results of running ES on generic example 200 200 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 34 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Simulated Annealing Simulated Annealing : gives a near-optimal solution A random-search technique. Exploits an analogy of metal cooling into a minimum energy crystalline structure . Figure 11 : Results of running SA on generic example Optimization tendency
  18. 18 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    35 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Genetic Algorithms Genetic Algorithms (GA) are a family of computational models inspired by evolution. An implementation of a GA begins with a population of (typically random) chromosomes. Over successive generations, the population evolves toward an optimal solution. Figure 12 : Results of running GA on generic example Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 36 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Comparison on generic example Figure 13 : Results of running GA on generic example
  19. 19 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    37 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Sum-up 1. Use graph to list each possible design. 2. For each design, calculate its total cost: i.e. BC and CC (time to perform each top PE). 3. Use Algorithms e.g. exhaustive search, simulated annealing, etc. to optimize design (finds the lowest cost solution). 4. Choose least expensive design that performs the functionality of each top PE. 5. After exploring various optimization techniques we came to the conclusion that SA is best suited to the problem at hand. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 38 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline Multi-standard Design Issue Parametrisation Techniques for Software Radio 1. Common Function Technique 2. Common Operators’ Technique o Pragmatic Approach o Theoretical Approach Graph Modeling of SDR Equipment Graph Theoretical Models of Multi-standards SDR Equipments Optimization of Graph Models Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing o Genetic Algorithms Case Studies of Common Operators DMFFT LFSR FRMFB Conclusions & Perspectives Publications
  20. 20 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    39 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Sub-design examples Goal: validate our approach Means: integrating the results of other PhD students of research team Also permits to mature our approach Confront to reality: the theoretical approach DMFFT: In collaboration with Ali Al-GHOUWAYEL LFSR: In collaboration with Laurent ALAUS FRMFB: In collaboration with R. MAHESH A GUI was developed to facilitate these case studies Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 40 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Figure 14 : Graphical user interface GUI Tool In order to facilitate the drawing of graphs and associating costs for different costs parameters a GUI was developed. Figure 15 : Parameters’ management window
  21. 21 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    41 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #1: DMFFT DMFFT : Dual mode FFT Context of an OFDM demodulation with RS decoding Figure 16 : An example of FFT sharing between OFDM demodulation and RS decoding over GF(Ft ). Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 42 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #1: DMFFT Figure 17 : A simplified tri-standard SDR system
  22. 22 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    43 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #1: DMFFT Best solution implement FFT through DMFFT and RBPE CO RBPE BC/CC =128 FFT-N 1 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 44 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #2: LFSR A linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is a shift register whose input bit is a linear function of its previous state. There are two implementation styles of LSFRs: Fibonacci RF-LFSR and Galois RG-LFSR. The study of common operators has lead us to build the architectures called R-LFSR and ER- LFSR respectively.
  23. 23 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    45 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #1: DMFFT Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 46 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #2: LFSR x-LFSR 22ER 8R 14ER 2R 6RG x-LFSR WiFi
  24. 24 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    47 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #2: LFSR 22ER 8R 14ER 2R 6RG x-LFSR WiFi Best solution CO Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 48 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #3: Channelizers Best solution FRMFB CO FRMFB Figure 16 :
  25. 25 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    49 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #3: Channelizers OFDM Modulation/ Demodulation FFT Figure 16 : Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 50 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #3: Channelizers Best solution Implement RS decoding and Channelization through DMFFT and RBPE CO RBPE Figure 16 :
  26. 26 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    51 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Conclusion on use cases Graphs Modeling air interface standards as graphs Cost parameters and costs Optimization techniques local optimal vs global optimal Confirm results found in other studies without the graphical approach (these are usually local optimums) Here can be mixed/merged with others to find global optimums. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 52 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline Multi-standard Design Issue Parametrisation Techniques for Software Radio 1. Common Function Technique 2. Common Operators’ Technique o Pragmatic Approach o Theoretical Approach Graph Modeling of SDR Equipment Graph Theoretical Models of Multi-standards SDR Equipments Optimization of Graph Models Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing o Genetic Algorithms Case Studies of Common Operators DMFFT LFSR FRMFB Conclusions & Perspectives Publications
  27. 27 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    53 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Conclusions Ever increasing demands of users, manufactures and service providers : Focus has been shifted toward SR approach. Optimization aspects of flexible radio system design : reducing the cost, complexity and size of the radio terminals/base- stations We presented various case studies to validate our approach. We also elaborated how our approach can be used to find the global optimal solution. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 54 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Perspectives 1. Scheduling issue 2. Investigation regarding other optimization algorithms e.g. GA etc. Two new PhDs are starting to address 1 & 2. 3. More and more complete graphs More and more standards PHY layer was addressed Aim is to draw graph from application to PHY layer including intermediate layers to exploit cross layer optimization aspects 4. Exploration of other techniques to formulate cost function. 5. Detailed study of costs for mixed designs consisting of FPGA, DSP etc.
  28. 28 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    55 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Perspectives 6. Find new COs 7. Provide an industrial tool for designers of future SDR and CR equipments’ That allows to optimize multi-standards SDR design & That provides a choice to orientate the design towards high granularity or low granularity It is certainly interesting to follow the research directions mentioned above to further enhance the proposed ideas. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 56 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Publications International Journal Papers 1. S. T. Gul, Ali Al-Ghouwayel, C. Moy and Y. Louët, “A Novel Design of Reconfigurable Fourier Transform Operator Over C C and GF( GF(F Ft t ) ) for Future Multi-standards SDR Equipments,” International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems-IJCNDS, Accepted in June 2009 for publication by the end of 2009. 2. S. T. Gul, L. Alaus, C. Moy, J. Palicot and D. Noguet, “Optimal set of LFSR Common Operators for Multi- Standards Cognitive Radio Terminals,” International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications- IJAACS, Special Issue on Cognitive Radio Systems, Accepted in July 2009 for publication in 2010. 3. S. T. Gul, R. Mahesh, C. Moy, J. Palicot and A. P. Vinod “Filter Bank Techniques for SDR Channelizers and their Optimization using Graph Theoretical Approach,” EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, Special Issue on Filter Banks for Next Generation Multicarrier Wireless Communications, Submitted, June, 2009. International Conference Papers 1. S. T. Gul, C. Moy and J. Palicot, “Graphical Modeling and Optimization of Air Interface Standards for Software Defined Radios,” 12th IEEE International Multitopic Conference-INMIC2008, Karachi, Pakistan, pp. 473-479, December 2008. 2. S. T. Gul, R. Mahesh, C. Moy, A. P. Vinod and J. Palicot, “A Graphical Approach for the Optimization of SDR Channelizers,” International Union of Radio Science (Union Radio Scientifique Internationale-URSI); XXIX General Assembly, Chicago, Illinois, USA, August 2008. 3. S. T. Gul, C. Moy and J. Palicot, “Two scenarios of flexible multi-standard architecture designs using a multi-granularity exploration,” The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communication- PIMRC’07, Athens, Greece, pp. 1-5, September 2007. International Conference Workshops 1. S. T. Gul, L. Alaus, D. Noguet, C. Moy and J. Palicot “The Common Operator Technique: An Optimization Process to Identify and Design a Set of Common Operators to Perform SDR Equipment (project NEWCOM++),” Dynamic Spectrum Management in Cognitive Radio Networks, ICT-MobileSummit 2009, Santander, Spain, June 2009.
  29. 29 Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009

    57 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Thanks for your attention Questions? Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 29 th Oct. 2009 58 IETR - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Relative Weights of BC & CC