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Programming the GPU easily with Python using NumbaPro

Programming the GPU easily with Python using NumbaPro

NumbaPro allows domain experts who use Python to target the GPU with simple Python syntax.

Travis E. Oliphant

November 20, 2013

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  1. Applications of Programming the GPU Directly from Python Using NumbaPro

    Supercomputing 2013 November 20, 2013 Travis E. Oliphant, Ph.D.
  2. Inroduction Enterprise Python Scientific Computing Data Processing Data Analysis Visualisation

    Scalable Computing Wakari •Products •Training •Support •Consulting Free Python distribution Enterprise version available which includes GPU support Scientific Python in your browser Available to install in your data-center
  3. Big Picture Empower domain experts, subject matter experts, and other

    occasional programmers with high-level tools that exploit modern hardware Array Oriented Computing ?
  4. Why Array-oriented computing •Express domain knowledge directly in arrays (tensors,

    matrices, vectors) --- easier to teach programming in domain •Can take advantage of parallelism and accelerators like the GPU Object Attr1 Attr2 Attr3 Object Attr1 Attr2 Attr3 Object Attr1 Attr2 Attr3 Object Attr1 Attr2 Attr3 Object Attr1 Attr2 Attr3 Object Attr1 Attr2 Attr3 Attr1 Attr2 Attr3 Object1 Object2 Object3 Object4 Object5 Object6
  5. Why Python License Community Readable Syntax Modern Constructs Batteries Included

    Free and Open Source, Permissive License • Broad and friendly community • Over 36,000 packages on PyPI • Commercial Support • Many conferences (PyData, SciPy, PyCon...) • Executable pseudo-code • Can understand and edit code a year later • Fun to develop • Use of Indentation IPython • Interactive prompt on steroids (Notebook) • Allows less working memory • Allows failing quickly for exploration • List comprehensions • Iterator protocol and generators • Meta-programming • Introspection • JIT Compiler and Concurrency (Numba) • Internet (FTP, HTTP, SMTP, XMLRPC) • Compression and Databases • Great Visualization tools (Bokeh, Matplotlib, etc.) • Powerful libraries for STEM • Integration with C/C++/Fortran
  6. Breaking the Speed Barrier (Numba!) Numba aims to be the

    world’s best array-oriented compiler. rapid iteration and development + fast code execution ideal combination! = Python syntax but no GIL Native code speed for Numerical computing (NumPy code)
  7. NumPy + Mamba = Numba LLVM Library Intel Nvidia Apple

    AMD OpenCL ISPC CUDA CLANG OpenMP LLVM-PY Python Function Machine Code ARM
  8. Compiler Overview LLVM IR x86 C++ ARM PTX C Fortran

    Numba Numba turns Python into a “compiled language”
  9. Anaconda Accelerate Python and NumPy stack compiled to Parallel Architectures

    (GPUs and multi-core machines) • Compile NumPy array expressions for the CPU and GPU • Create parallel-for loops • Parallel execution of ufuncs • Run ufuncs on the GPU • Write CUDA directly in Python! • Requires CUDA 5.5 Fast development and execution $ conda install accelerate
  10. NumbaPro Features •CUDA Python •Vectorize --- NumPy functions on the

    GPU •Array expressions •Parallel for loops •Access to fast libraries (cuRAND, cuFFT, cuBLAS)
  11. Compile NumPy array expressions import numbapro from numba import autojit

    @autojit def formula(a, b, c): a[1:,1:] = a[1:,1:] + b[1:,:-1] + c[1:,:-1] @autojit def express(m1, m2): m2[1:-1:2,0,...,::2] = (m1[1:-1:2,...,::2] * m1[-2:1:-2,...,::2]) return m2
  12. Create parallel-for loops “prange” directive that spawns compiled tasks in

    threads (like Open-MP parallel-for pragma) import numbapro # import first to make prange available from numba import autojit, prange @autojit def parallel_sum2d(a): sum = 0.0 for i in prange(a.shape[0]): for j in range(a.shape[1]): sum += a[i,j]
  13. Fast vectorize NumPy’s ufuncs take “kernels” and apply the kernel

    element-by-element over entire arrays Write kernels in Python! from numbapro import vectorize from math import sin, pi @vectorize([‘f8(f8)’, ‘f4(f4)’]) def sinc(x): if x==0.0: return 1.0 else: return sin(x*pi)/(pi*x) x = numpy.linspace(-5,5,100) y = sinc(x)
  14. Ufuncs in parallel (multi-thread or GPU) from numbapro import vectorize

    from math import sin @vectorize([‘f8(f8)’, ‘f4(f4)’], target=‘gpu’) def sinc(x): if x==0.0: return 1.0 else: return sin(x*pi)/(pi*x) @vectorize([‘f8(f8)’, ‘f4(f4)’], target=‘parallel’) def sinc2(x): if x==0.0: return 1.0 else: return sin(x*pi)/(pi*x) x = numpy.linspace(-5,5,1000) y = sinc(x) # On GPU z = sinc2(x) # Multiple CPUs
  15. Example Benchmark Overhead of memory transfer is over-come after about

    1 million floats for simple computation About 1ms of overhead for memory transfer and set-up
  16. Using Vectorize from numbapro import vectorize sig = 'uint8(uint32, f4,

    f4, f4, f4, uint32, uint32, uint32)' @vectorize([sig], target='gpu') def mandel(tid, min_x, max_x, min_y, max_y, width, height, iters): pixel_size_x = (max_x - min_x) / width pixel_size_y = (max_y - min_y) / height x = tid % width y = tid / width real = min_x + x * pixel_size_x imag = min_y + y * pixel_size_y c = complex(real, imag) z = 0.0j for i in range(iters): z = z * z + c if (z.real * z.real + z.imag * z.imag) >= 4: return i return 255 Kind Time Speed-up Python 263.6 1.0x CPU 2.639 100x GPU 0.1676 1573x Tesla S2050
  17. Grouping Calculations prototype = "void(float32[:,:], float32[:,:], float32[:,:])" @guvectorize([prototype], '(m,n),(n,p)->(m,p)', target='gpu')

    def matmul(A, B, C): m, n = A.shape n, p = B.shape for i in range(m): for j in range(p): C[i, j] = 0 for k in range(n): C[i, j] += A[i, k] * B[k, j] Create “generalized ufuncs” whose elements are “arrays” # creates an array of 1000 x 2 x 4 A = np.arange(matrix_ct * 2 * 4, dtype=np.float32 ).reshape(1000, 2, 4) # creates an array of 1000 x 4 x 5 B = np.arange(matrix_ct * 4 * 5, dtype=np.float32 ).reshape(1000, 4, 5) # outputs an array of 1000 x 2 x 5 C = matmul(A, B)
  18. Using cuBLAS import numpy as np from numbapro.cudalib import cublas

    A = np.array(np.arange(N ** 2, dtype=np.float32).reshape(N, N)) B = np.array(np.arange(N) + 10, dtype=A.dtype) D = np.zeros_like(A, order='F') # NumPy E = np.dot(A, np.diag(B)) # cuBLAS blas = cublas.Blas() blas.gemm('T', 'T', N, N, N, 1.0, A, np.diag(B), 1.0, D)
  19. FFT Convolution with cuFFT from numbapro.cudalib import cufft # host

    -> device d_img = cuda.to_device(img) # image d_fltr = cuda.to_device(fltr) # filter # FFT forward cufft.fft_inplace(d_img) cufft.fft_inplace(d_fltr) # multply vmult(d_img, d_fltr, out=d_img) # inplace # FFT inverse cufft.ifft_inplace(d_img) # device -> host filted_img = d_img.copy_to_host() @vectorize(['complex64(complex64, complex64)'], target='gpu') def vmult(a, b): return a * b works with 1d,2d,3d
  20. Monte-Carlo Pricing and cuRAND from numbapro import vectorize, cuda from

    numbapro.cudalib import curand @vectorize(['f8(f8, f8, f8, f8, f8)'], target='gpu') def step(last, dt, c0, c1, noise): return last * math.exp(c0 * dt + c1 * noise) def monte_carlo_pricer(paths, dt, interest, volatility): n = paths.shape[0] blksz = cuda.get_current_device().MAX_THREADS_PER_BLOCK gridsz = int(math.ceil(float(n) / blksz)) # Instantiate cuRAND PRNG prng = curand.PRNG(curand.PRNG.MRG32K3A) # Allocate device side array d_normdist = cuda.device_array(n, dtype=np.double) c0 = interest - 0.5 * volatility ** 2 c1 = volatility * math.sqrt(dt) # Simulation loop d_last = cuda.to_device(paths[:, 0]) for j in range(1, paths.shape[1]): prng.normal(d_normdist, mean=0, sigma=1) d_paths = cuda.to_device(paths[:, j]) step(d_last, dt, c0, c1, d_normdist, out=d_paths) d_paths.copy_to_host(paths[:, j]) d_last = d_paths from numbapro import jit, cuda @jit('void(double[:], double[:], double, double, double, double[:])', target='gpu') def step(last, paths, dt, c0, c1, normdist): # expands to i = cuda.threadIdx.x + cuda.blockIdx.x * cuda.blockDim.x i = cuda.grid(1) if i >= paths.shape[0]: return noise = normdist[i] paths[i] = last[i] * math.exp(c0 * dt + c1 * noise) Tuned kernel
  21. CUDA Python from numbapro import cuda from numba import autojit

    @autojit(target=‘gpu’) def array_scale(src, dst, scale): tid = cuda.threadIdx.x blkid = cuda.blockIdx.x blkdim = cuda.blockDim.x i = tid + blkid * blkdim if i >= n: return dst[i] = src[i] * scale src = np.arange(N, dtype=np.float) dst = np.empty_like(src) array_scale[grid, block](src, dst, 5.0) CUDA Development directly in Python
  22. Example: Matrix multiply @cuda.jit(argtypes=[f4[:,:], f4[:,:], f4[:,:]]) def cu_square_matrix_mul(A, B, C):

    sA = cuda.shared.array(shape=(tpb, tpb), dtype=f4) sB = cuda.shared.array(shape=(tpb, tpb), dtype=f4) tx = cuda.threadIdx.x ty = cuda.threadIdx.y bx = cuda.blockIdx.x by = cuda.blockIdx.y bw = cuda.blockDim.x bh = cuda.blockDim.y x = tx + bx * bw y = ty + by * bh acc = 0. for i in range(bpg): if x < n and y < n: sA[ty, tx] = A[y, tx + i * tpb] sB[ty, tx] = B[ty + i * tpb, x] cuda.syncthreads() if x < n and y < n: for j in range(tpb): acc += sA[ty, j] * sB[j, tx] cuda.syncthreads() if x < n and y < n: C[y, x] = acc bpg = 50 tpb = 32 n = bpg * tpb A = np.array(np.random.random((n, n)), dtype=np.float32) B = np.array(np.random.random((n, n)), dtype=np.float32) C = np.empty_like(A) stream = cuda.stream() with stream.auto_synchronize(): dA = cuda.to_device(A, stream) dB = cuda.to_device(B, stream) dC = cuda.to_device(C, stream) cu_square_matrix_mul[(bpg, bpg), (tpb, tpb), stream](dA, dB, dC) dC.to_host(stream)
  23. How to get it •Anaconda Accelerate (Anaconda Add-On) •Available as

    part of on-premise Wakari •On wakari.io --- cloud based Python (GPU instances coming soon) •http://github.com/ContinuumIO/numbapro- examples conda install accelerate pip install conda conda init conda create -n test accelerate Anaconda User Other Python users enterprise.wakari.io