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A Cooking Language: A Pattern-Based Tool to Enhance Participation and Personalization in the Kitchen

A Cooking Language: A Pattern-Based Tool to Enhance Participation and Personalization in the Kitchen

Cooking language is a method/tool, derived from pattern language that captures recurrent structures among meals of a cuisine that bring good cooking/eating experiences. Similar to the purpose of the original patterns by Alexander, a cooking language allows for active participation in the kitchen. The paper will briefly cover philosophical aspects of the method, describe its creation method, introduce the first instance of a cooking language (the Washoku Language), and show results and analyses from two test cases of cooking using a cooking language. The research concludes that the tool has the following purposes: 1) providing frameworks for thinking of menus, 2) suggesting topics to trigger conversations, 3) opening up the train of thought to allow for collaborative design, and 4) providing an opportunity to discover, experience and create the cuisine.

Slides presented at the PURPLSOC 2017 Conference

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Taichi Isaku / 伊作太一

October 21, 2017
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Transcript

  1. A Cooking Language Taichi Isaku

  2. Taichi Isaku • Iba-school Pattern Writer/Researcher • Company Cofounder at

    CoCooking • Pattern Language / Cooking / Community / Creativity
  3. 1. Background and Motivation

  4. Pattern Language as a tool for Personalization and Participation

  5. The Despair of C.Alexander ▶ being forced to live in

    one of the “hundreds of houses produced by one form or another of semi-automatic processes” was the cause of the “alienation and despair which many people feel” [Alexander et al., 1985:22] ▶ He believed that the best way to overcome the issue was to have the residents be directly involved in the architectural process
  6. A book by Alexander and his associates that elaborates on

    a project where several families in Northern Mexico built their own houses using patterns. The book illustrates how patterns can allow for participation of novices into the architectural process. The Production of Houses (1985)
  7. “Lets ask Makaria herself, I said. We invited her to

    come and talk to us, and I asked her why the bedrooms in her house were so large, and the common areas so small ... This is what she said: ‘Of course, yes, we did it on purpose. You see, we ourselves, in our lives, have been poor. But we are determined that our children shall have every opportunity for a better life, ... we are giving each of ... (our children) the largest room we can afford, so that each one can use his room for anything he wants as he grows up ... As for the common room, the family room ... well, when we are there, we are all there together, and we want to be close together. So why do we need so much space? That is why we made the family and dining room quite small.’” [Alexander et al., 1985:202] Personalization effect of patterns..
  8. Like how Alexander’s APL allowed for participation and personalization in

    architecture, does the method have the same potentials in the kitchen?
  9. Architecture and Cooking: The Positive Analogies Between Architecture Cooking Towns

    and homes are an essential staff of life that everybody needs. Food is an essential staff of life that everybody needs. Architecture requires both an aesthetic and functional quality. Food requires both an aesthetic quality and functional quality (good taste, nutrition, etc.). Towns and homes are physical entities that must be formed. A dish is made of physical entities that are formed. There is usually a separation of between the architect and the residents. There is usually a separation between the chef and the guest. It is regarded a job that requires skills, but there exists highly-skilled architects. It is regarded a task that requires skills, but there exists highly-skilled chefs.
  10. A Cooking Language A Tool that allows for Participation into

    the kitchen, and Personalization of food to re-create the lost food-human connection
  11. 2. Defining Terms and Concepts

  12. original concept corresponds to one instance pattern language cooking language

    Washoku Language pattern cooking word washoku word Correspondence of Terms ▶ Unless otherwise defined, we assume that any idea/theory by Alexander on patten languages also apply to cooking languages to some extent.
  13. “…a unitary pattern of activity and space, which repeats itself

    over and over again, in any given place, always appearing each time in a slightly different manifestation.” [Alexander, 1979:181] “a morphological law, which establishes a set of relationships in space“ [1979:90] “The idea of a diagram, or pattern, is very simple. It is an abstract pattern of physical relationships which resolves a small system of interacting and conflicting forces” [Alexander, 1964:preface] Alexander’s description of a pattern
  14. ▶ A cooking word is a morphological law that establishes

    an abstract pattern of relationships in a dish and/or its surrounding atmosphere. ▶ This relationship forms a physical entity that appeals either to 1) one of our five senses, 2) our intellectual curiosity, or 3) our emotional satisfaction. ▶ These are entities that are recurrent across several ages within the cuisine of a specific country/region, always appearing each time in a slightly different manifestation. The Definition of a Cooking Word
  15. A Cooking Word is a “pattern” for creating good eating

    experiences recurrently seen in a certain cuisine that bring satisfaction to either the A simpler version Mind Body Heart or
  16. A Word on Culture Do we have to define the

    precise borders of a cuisine/culture in order to create a cooking language? Does the creation of a cooking language in turn define a culture/cuisine? ▼ No. The cooking language captures recurrent patterns among eating experiences within a certain country/region where its rationale can be found in the country/region’s history.
  17. What does a Cooking Language do? What does it not

    do? A cooking language will NOT: •define the borders of a culture/cuisine. •specify attributes that are exclusively present in that cuisine. •guarantee that a dish designed with the language will have have qualities of the cuisine in topic.
  18. ʲContextʳ ʲHistoryʳ ʲIdeaʳ ʲApplicationʳ The Format of a Cooking Word

    In what conditions can the idea be applied? What historical context does the idea come from? The idea that brings us satisfaction. How can the idea be applied in present- day cooking?
  19. You are arranging food onto a dish. Perhaps you are

    Eating the Season by using items that are shun (in season) Japan historically is very sensitive to subtle changes in the season.The Japanese have a lunisolar calendar system called the solar terms which divided the year into 24 seasonal sectors, and the even more precise 72 pentads. By having these concepts that capture the subtle changes in climate, the Japanese has nurtured an eye to appreciate and enjoy the ever-changing nature year-round. [Takahashi, 2015; Koizumi, 2002; Harada, 2014; Hata, 2009] Expressing the Season Arrange the food and design the atmosphere so that the meal would remind the guest of the current season through appealing to the five senses. Not only can you use seasonal items to Eat the Season, but you by making use of Tasty Arrangements, its seasonal sense will be amplified. For example, you can Express Microcosm by incorporating shapes and colors that remind the season, or use plates that match to create Fusion with the Plate. Not only the plate, but by using different items including flowers, leaves, and other natural decorations of the season, you can create Harmony with the Atmosphere to enjoy the season even more. Considering Seasonal Events would become another hint. ▼ In This Context ▼ Therefore ▼ For Example ʲContextʳ ʲHistoryʳ ʲIdeaʳ ʲApplicationʳ
  20. 3. Creating a Cooking Language

  21. ▶ An brief overview of the creation process of the

    Washoku Language. ▶ Though this was the first instance of creating a cooking language, the general process follows that of creating a pattern language (in the iba- style [Iba and Isaku, 2016]), with some points modified The case of the Washoku Language
  22. Research on the Japanese Cuisine ▶ 17 references that either

    look at the cuisine in terms of its historical development, or explains the status quo of the cuisine today (includes cookbooks and how-to texts). ▶ The below information were searched: 1. Specific styles and methods of eating / cooking that are (were) done 2. Cultural customs / traditions that are (were) performed around food 3. Reasonings behind the actions/customs 4. Pattern of similar thoughts / actions present across regions / ages
  23. The world-famous KJ Method (AKA the Affinity Diagram) generating categories

    from the information ▶ An anthropological method of grouping information in a bottom-up manner: aims to generate new categories (instead of introducing exisiting ones) [Kawakita, 1967; Sasabe, 2016] ▶ All information from the references were pooled for a synthesized grouping process
  24. Scribing, Photographing, and Structuring 1. Does the information provide readers

    with new discoveries? 2. Are there really present-day examples? 3. Does it remind me of past eating experiences? 4. Does it make me want to apply the idea to the next dish I cook? 5. Is the information correct and does it have sources? ▶ Received help from a professionally- trained Japanese chef to photograph each word ▶ Each formed category was written as a cooking word in roughly the same process that a pattern would be written, focusing on the following points: ▶ A second round of the KJ-method with the cooking words to organize its wholeness.
  25. A creative tool to learn, experience, and create the Japanese

    Cuisine (washoku) 4. The Washoku Language
  26. A Cooking Language: The Washoku Language

  27. You are arranging food onto a dish. Perhaps you are

    Eating the Season by using items that are shun (in season) Japan historically is very sensitive to subtle changes in the season.The Japanese have a lunisolar calendar system called the solar terms which divided the year into 24 seasonal sectors, and the even more precise 72 pentads. By having these concepts that capture the subtle changes in climate, the Japanese has nurtured an eye to appreciate and enjoy the ever-changing nature year-round. [Takahashi, 2015; Koizumi, 2002; Harada, 2014; Hata, 2009] Expressing the Season Arrange the food and design the atmosphere so that the meal would remind the guest of the current season through appealing to the five senses. Not only can you use seasonal items to Eat the Season, by making use of Tasty Arrangements, its seasonal sense will be amplified. For example, you can Express Microcosm by incorporating shapes and colors that remind the season, or use plates that match to create Fusion with the Plate. Not only the plate, but by using different items including flowers, leaves, and other natural decorations of the season, you can create Harmony with the Atmosphere to enjoy the season even more. Considering Seasonal Events would become another hint. ▼ In This Context ▼ Therefore ▼ For Example ʲContextʳ ʲHistoryʳ ʲIdeaʳ ʲApplicationʳ
  28. No Category Name Photo Abstract 1 Fresh and quality ingredients

    Diverse Indigenous Ingredients Japan, though a small country, contains a variety of geographic features and climate zones across the island. The diverse vegetation and inhabitation that resulted from this brought a wide range of ingredients particular to the different areas/seasons to be used in the Japanese cuisine. 2 Rich Clear Water Japan's scenic beauty is made possible by its rich supply of clean water full of minerals. Its cuisine is representative of this environment with dishes and cooking methods that use ample amounts of this water. It is said that the delicate taste of these dishes is determined mostly by the quality of the water. 3 Nutritious Fish With the ample supply of Rich Clear Water and its geographical position being surrounded by the ocean, Japan has a wealthy supply of fish. With also its historical background of being ascetic and prohibiting animal meat, their traditional meals eat fish as their main source of protein. 4 Rice at the Heart Rice is at the center of most Japanese meals. The country's climate and the ample supply of Rich Clear Water made it historically possible to produce abundant supplies of good tasting rice. The "ichiju-sansai" which is a meal with rice, soup, and three side dishes is the very basic form of a Japanese meal. 5 Power of Microorganisms The Japanese people are able to ingeniously control microorganisms to create fermented products that are full of umami. Fermented products include shoyu, miso, mirin, sake, natto (fermented beans), etc..
  29. No Category Name Photo Abstract 6 Rational and Satisfying Menus

    Kata of Meals The ichijyu-sansai, which is a meal consisting of three side dishes with a soup and some rice, is the very basic form of a Japanese meal that has infinite variations but is very easy to plan. 7 Overall Satisfaction Japanese meals, at the first bite, may not necessarily blast you with flavor like a juicy hamburger would. But after finishing the meal you should feel a sense of overall sense of satisfaction that lasts for a long time. 8 Quick and Easy Meals The Japanese are historically a race of people that does not spend a long time preparing and eating food. Some examples of Japanese fast food include the "domburi," where ingredients are just cut and topped on top of a bowl of rice, or "onigiri" which are rice balls that can be made in just minutes and be taken anywhere as a packed lunch. 9 Rational Meals The Japanese were good at utilizing nature's functionality that food items naturally possess. By eating fish and vegetables that are shun (in season) when it naturally tastes the best, they were able to intake vital nutrients needed to survive the corresponding season. They were also skilled at finding good combination of food to eat both taste-wise and functionality-wise. 10 Enjoying Meals with Drinks Japanese meals were historically designed to be enjoyed with drinks. Though it had several stages of development, meals in Japan were in most cases enjoyed with either sake (Japanese rice wine) or Japanese tea. The simple yet deep flavor of these drinks go along well with almost any kind of meal.
  30. No Category Name Photo Abstract 11 Eating with the five

    senses Sound of Taste The shokkan, or the sound and texture of the food when bitten and chewed on, is an important aspect of taste in Japanese dishes. With the Diverse Indigenous Ingredients that the cuisine uses, we are able to enjoy a diverse range of sounds when eating a meal. 12 Unique Mouthfeel The "Mouthfeel," or the texture you feel with the tongue when eating food is an important aspect of taste when enjoying a Japanese dish. With the Diverse Ingredients that the cuisine uses, some of the food items have unique textures that are sometimes squishy, sticky, smooth, glossy, etc., that are rare in other cuisines. 13 Amplifying Aroma The natural aroma that the food items contain are an important point in enjoying Japanese dishes. The cuisine has many wisdom of not killing and amplifying this aroma through sensitive cooking skills. Topping the item with small amounts of yakumi, or Japanese spices such as wasabi are one way this is done. 14 Tasteful Arrangements The arrangements of the food items on the dish is an important aspect of the Japanese cuisine. By creating depth height, and volume through the arrangement, it makes the dish look visually appetizing. 15 Various Means of Cooking The system of Japanese cooking withholds various cooking techniques including but not limited to cutting, dressing, boiling, simmering, roasting, frying, steaming, stirring, pickling, smoking, drying, and pickling. Through these different techniques, the same ingredient can turn itself into various kinds of dishes with different taste and texture.
  31. No Category Name Photo Abstract 16 The Various Tastes of

    Japan Eating the Season Eating food items that are in season when they are the most enjoyable is at the heart of the Japanese cuisine. Thus, the taste of Japanese dishes is never set in stone, but changes in a supple manner with the cycle of the four seasons. 17 Simple and Satisfying Dashi The elegant technique of extracting dashi (Japanese-style broth), most commonly from kombu (edible kelp) and katsuobushi (dry fermented shipjack tuna), is at the base of all Japanese cooking. Its umami brings a sense of satisfaction after the meal. Yet, due to its elegance, it does not bring satiation even if you have it every meal. 18 Fresh and Raw Freshness of the food is very important for the Japanese cuisine which values eating items that are 'shun' (in season). In pursuit for the ultimate freshness, the Japanese often enjoy raw fish. Eating things raw can only be done since they are fresh and in season. 19 Sweetness in Dishes Japanese dishes often use sweetness as a part of their flavor, even if it is not a dessert dish. Mirin, a type of sweet rice wine, is primarily the source of this sweetness, but different types of sugar is sometimes used too. 20 Light Round Taste Japanese dishes often make use of the soft, light, and simple flavoring. For example, they use mirin (a type of sweet rice alcohol) instead of sugar to get the roundness in the sweet taste, or when using salt, they would use sea salt to get the depth of umami from the minerals included.
  32. No Category Name Photo Abstract 21 Appealing to the Eye

    Fusion with the Plate The plate which the food is arranged on is considered an important part of the dish. Choosing the perfect dish that would visually supplement the dish is part of the chef's cooking skills. By doing this, the guest will be able to enjoy the season and the special occasion. 22 Suggestive Whitespace When arranging food on a plate, chefs sometimes use oversized plates or place only a small amount compared to the plate's size to leave whitespace around it. The space created brings a visual sense of aftertaste for the guests. 23 Contrast and Coexistence There is an idea called the Inyo-Gogyo in which contrasting elements coexist to create balance on the plate. For example, dark and light colors, strong and lite taste, front and back, circles and rectangles, etc. For example square cut ingredients are best arranged on a round plate to create contrast and balance. 24 Five Basic Colors Appreciating visual colors of the different ingredients is part of enjoying Japanese meals with the eye. Red, yellow, green, white and black are the five basic colors used. These five colors not only bring visual joy to the guest, but also hints that the dish has a good balance of nutrients. 25 Harmony and Ambiguous Boundaries The “wa” in washoku means harmony: many dishes exist where contrast ingredients are mixed together, their boundaries become indistinguishable, and creates a homogeneous whole.
  33. No Category Name Photo Abstract 26 Incorporating Meanings Expressing the

    Season Japanese dishes often express the beauty of nature particular to the current season. The ingredients, color, smell, food arrangement, etc., of a dish should remind the guest of the season through appealing to the five senses. 27 Meaningful Ingredients The Japanese often give rhetoric meanings to the food items they create. Many of these are based on mere word puns and do not have any nutritional significance. However with the special meanings given by words, these food items gain a tone of celebration to be enjoyed for a special occasion. 28 Metaphoric Arrangements The Japanese cuisine sometimes uses an ingredient to express objects in nature. This makes the plate artistically enjoyable at the same time enforcing its seasonal sensations. 29 Expressing Microcosm A Japanese dish sometimes expresses its own view of the world. This kind of a dish encapsulates a unique and beautiful atmosphere, and the guest will be able to submerge themselves in that microcosm. 30 Appreciating Encounters Treasuring the one-time-only encounters of the day is an important concept for Japanese meals. Meals are designed to place spotlight on the ingredients and people that the chef met that day
  34. No Category Name Photo Abstract 31 Unique Knowledge and Skills

    Sophisticated Techniques The Japanese cuisine historically had many restrictions imposed upon. Working under and around these restrictions nurtured a high sense of skills in the chefs — notably their ability to tame the sharp Japanese knives. 32 Elegance of Iki "Iki"is an old Japanese term used to describe the elegant and lively manner of the chef and plates. Since the cuisine requires the chef to be ascetic by keeping flavoring to the bare minimum, she instead cuts and arranges the food items in a beautiful manner to express Iki 33 Pureness of Taste The efforts by Japanese chef in pursuit for pure taste are elegant. For example, when making dashi (Japanese cooking broth) scooping away the aku (the froth that causes harshness in taste) is an essential step in getting a clear taste. Other examples include the use of sake (Japanese alcohol) or different yakumi (Japanese spices) to get rid of the raw smell from food. 34 Eating Skills The sensitive Japanese cuisine requires the guest to eat with chopsticks. This needs some skills to carefully pick up the right amount of food and carrying it from the plate to the mouth. Also, since multiple plates are served all at once, the guest must keep pace at which she eats each item to avoid being left with too much of one item at the end. 35 Wisdom of Preservation The Japanese have historically been good at preserving food items. Among dried food and pickling, the most notable among their wisdom was the skill of fermentation. By letting microorganisms that are beneficial for the human body to cultivate, it prevented harmful bacteria from contaminating the food.
  35. No Category Name Photo Abstract 36 Creating the Atmosphere Omotenashi

    Hospitality Omotenashi is an idea at the center of Japanese cuisine. It is a kind of altruistic yet casual hospitality that cares for every detail of the guests' stay from the heart of making the best out of their experience. 37 Seasonal Events Meals have a deep connection with seasonal events that happen year around; each seasonal event is linked with a specialty that in most cases is only enjoyed on that day. For example, the osechi is a type of meal enjoyed on Shogatsu and the few days following. The unagi, or eel, is a specialty enjoyed on a certain day in July. 38 Cirlce of Danran As with many other cultures, eating together as a family is an important aspect of the Japanese food culture. The nabe, or the relatively shallow and wide cooking pots are often at the center of the family meal, where everyone eating from the same pot is symbolic of the family bond. 39 Thankfulness for Nature Whilst cooking or eating Japanese meals, one must always keep reverence for nature. The "Itadaki-masu" and "Gochiso-sama" are special phrases said before and after each meal to show gratitude for the food. These words are not just towards the chef , but mostly towards nature who provided us with the blessings. 40 Unity with the Atmosphere Japanese dishes and meals aren't complete by itself. The host/chef must also consider the atmosphere that the guest eats in, and create harmony between the dishes and the atmosphere.
  36. 5. Cooking with a CL

  37. Some test cases of cooking using the Washoku Language Designing

    a Japanese Dinner Bridging the Expert-Novice Gap
  38. Two college students with a gap in cooking sklls ▶

    each participant rated their cooking ability on a five degree scale, along with a brief description of their cooking experience Student Gʢrating=4ʣ Started cooking at 8, now cooking and baking is her hobby Student Fʢrating=2ʣ Since she lives with her parents, she almost never cooks at home.
  39. Excerpt from the menu-planning session using the Washoku Language G:

    What kind of soup do you want. F: Let’s see, soup. Well of course the first thing that comes to mind is misoshiru. Or tonjiru. F: Tonjiru seems good. G: Then lets make one with these five colors. One with the Five Basic Colors. F: Ooh, that’s perfect. G: Then we have Rice at the Heart so we’ll cook some rice. F: We’ll cook rice and... G: We can make like two dishes?
  40. Excerpt from the reflection session using the Washoku Language G:

    The other thing, I usually rarely take in Nutritious Fish by myself, and today I probably said I wanted to eat fish when I saw this word, and, how can I say this… I’m honestly really glad we did this today, and F: I agree with you. Usually you’d think, ok should I make meat or fish the main part of the meal, but it takes much more to settle on fish, just because it is fish. the threshold is much higher. G: But really all you have to do is stick it in the grill so it’s much easier than meat. F: That’s partly because we chose cuts today [instead of whole fish], but, I don’t know why but when you hear salt-grilling it suddenly seems harder than say steak or barbecue, but in many cases it is easily done than said. G: I agree. So now I feel I can make it again F: Thats for sure!
  41. Analyzing the Results ▶ Transcripts from the planning and reflection

    sessions of two test cooking sessions were analyzed. ▶ Each time a cooking word appeared in the conversation, the role it played were noted. ▶Each record was written on a post-it, and then categorized using the KJ-method.
  42. Analysis Results Based on using the washoku language in actual

    cooking sessions, the below four effects of the cooking language were observed: Provide topics of considerations that drive conversations Provides frameworks for thinking of menus/ Sheds light on until- then hidden aspects of cooked dishes Opens up the train up thought so everyone - even novices can join in on the collaborative menu design. Discover, Learn, + Experience the Cuisine Enhancing Conversations Discover cooking ideas Collaboration tool The historical ideas provide its users with new learnings about the cuisine, and also guides them through the experience
  43. D: Then we’d get some color there A: Five Basic

    Colors C: [reading] Red, yellow, green, yellow, white, black… What do we have now? White and green? Is that it? A: White and green and, um... C: Red, yellow, black? FACILITATOR: The fish can count as black A: Oh so if we have the fish— B: Isn’t it white and black? C: I see. Ok, so? B: Aren’t we missing the red? and the yellow also. A : Red yellow... D: Eggs are yellow C: Oh yeah, we have the ojiya. Function 1 - A ʲEnhancing Conversationsʳ: Topic to Think of Menus →Helps discuss what to make
  44. C: How about Rational Meals? A: I thought it was

    quite rational. C: [reading] Washoku is a rational cuisine that makes use of nature-borne functionality, providing us with the nutrients that we need for the current season. A: It seems legitimate. B: You think so? How? A: Well, our original theme was to make a meal that’s good for our digestion, and from there we came up with the idea of ojiya. And then about the seasons, if what it says here about vegetables in season having vital nutrients for our bodies, then we did that with the kabocha and the fish…besides, we had vegetables and a main dish so I think the meal was very rational in terms of nutrition. Function 1 - BʲEnhancing Conversationsʳ: Discuss Cooked Dishes →Explain the dish they cooked with the cooking words
  45. A: Tofu C: Yeah, I thought of that too. I

    was looking at Light Round Taste and it says here that tofu has a tampaku taste— A: It’s on the third page here. C: that will bring out the white taste. I think that’s what they mean when they say tampaku but tasteful. We were just talking about wanting to eat tofu earlier. Function 2 - A ʲDiscover IdeasʳɿOn what to Eat →Discover the taste you want to eat A: I see. Tofu. I just remembered, we just did nabe the other day. C: Did you put in some tofu? A: Yes we did. It breaks apart easily. We were like, aaaaah. It was all messy by the end.
  46. C: Number 18, how do you pronounce this? Fresh and

    Raw? I was wondering if we had this today, but the tororo was raw? Oh and the negi, and I was surprised at how much raw products we ate. B:The tororo was good. C: Yep. The tororo too, it was fresh and so it was good, and the negi too. All we did was throw some cut negi over cooked dishes, and it made the dish a little better. A: It’s a good accent to have Function 2 - B ʲDiscover IdeasʳɿOn Dishes you Ate →Discover new aspects of dishes you ate
  47. Function 3 - A ʲCollaboration ToolʳɿAllow for Novices to Join

    F: Was this the one with the season? G: I think so Expressing the Season? FACILITATOR: Sorry the two are similar. One says to use ingredients that are in season, and the other talks about expressing seasonal essences in how its arranged on the plate. G: I see. F: Got it. Then let’s do the arrangements too. G: Yeah, let’s. Seasonal arrangements huh? F: I’m not sure how, I just said it to make things interesting. →Novices can join in the process using the cooking words
  48. Function 3 - B ʲCollaboration ToolʳɿOpening the Train of Thought

    C: Hey about the tofu, can we just put it into the misoshiru? If we're going to enjoy Light Round Taste should we make it into yudofu or something? D: How about that taste, um… A: Ankake? Suimono? D: No, not miso. A: So suimono. D: Yes. A: Suimono with tofu seems weird? I mean, isn’t it too frugal? C: Colors A: Yes, it makes me want more colors. B: I see. C: Maybe we should use the tofu for something besides the misoshiru? Yudofu or something? Maybe we indeed are missing some colors. →Share what you are thinking to involve people in the discussion
  49. Function 4 - AʲDiscover the Cuisineʳ: Pure Learnings About the

    Cuisine A: I just saw this one. Eating Skills? C:Eating Skills? B: I was looking at that one too. A: It says here since washoku requires guests to eat with chopsticks, the guests needs to have sensitive skills to eat, and I think this is really true since washoku serves everything at once, so you have to adjust your eating pace, unlike a course where you don’t have to worry about that kind of thing since everyone is served the same thing at the same time and then its taken away once everyone’s finished… →Learn by linking the day’s experience to the info on the cooking words
  50. Function ᶆ - BʲDiscover the Cuisineʳ: Sense of Efficacy F:

    The thing I remember, or I mean, that surprised me was the Kata of Meals. When I thought about making an ichijyu-sansai, especially with myself involved in the process, I at first it was impossible. But then, sure we were a team of three, but when we actually did it, it was way easier than I thought. It didn’t take as much effort nor time, and I was surprised. That’s my biggest impression of the day. G: Yeah I agree. It says here kata, but with it made it easier for me to think. It was easy to make variations. F: I think so too. It’s a good kata. It doesn’t restrict our thought but rather expands it. That’s why it’s so good. →Strengthens the feeling that you were able to cook the cuisine
  51. Analysis Results Based on using the washoku language in actual

    cooking sessions, the below four effects of the cooking language were observed Provide topics of considerations that drive conversations Provides frameworks for thinking of menus/ Sheds light on until- then hidden aspects of cooked dishes Opens up the train up thought so everyone - even novices can join in on the collaborative menu design. Discover, Learn, + Experience the Cuisine Enhancing Conversations Discover cooking ideas Collaboration tool The historical ideas provide its users with new learnings about the cuisine, and also guides them through the experience
  52. Pattern Language as a tool for Personalization and Participation

  53. Personalization and Participation In the Kitchen as a tool for

    Cooking Language
  54. A Cooking Language Taichi Isaku