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Vidhika Bansal - Pensieves & Crystal Balls: Mitigating Bias When Investigating Past Behavior and Future Intent - Transcript

Vidhika Bansal - Pensieves & Crystal Balls: Mitigating Bias When Investigating Past Behavior and Future Intent - Transcript

As design researchers, we’re constantly trying to ascertain what people do and why.

Often this means digging into what people have done in the past and asking them to predict what they’d do in the future. There’s only one problem: people are notoriously bad at accurately recalling past events and reliably forecasting future ones.

In this talk we’ll explore key ways in which memories and predictions can be unreliable, what this means for our craft, and strategies to mitigate some of these biases for even better research.

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uxaustralia
PRO

March 19, 2021
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Transcript

  1. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . www captionslive com au | captionslive outlook com | UX A a a D R a c Da 3 F a , 19 Ma c 2021 Ca ioned b : Hila Cadd
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    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 2 lea e and a i ilege o ha e, like, o be n he e e en and be able o ho hem, and I am al a e a ecia i e of he fac ha o all ake o ime o of o o k da , o of o li e o a end o confe ence . So on behalf of Annabelle and m elf, hank o all e m ch fo being he e Oka . O fi alk fo he da . Le ' ge a ed, Vidhika Ban al f om In i join . No , Vidhika, I'm no e he e in he o ld o ' e joining f om. Hello. VIDHIKA BANSAL: Hello. I'm joining o f om Wa hing on DC. STEVE BATY: Wonde f l. I ' likel cold and o ' e j a ing o come o of he de h of a no he n in e . VIDHIKA BANSAL: Defini el eah. I'm looking fo a d o he ne eek. STEVE BATY: When o ' e ead I'll hand o e , o can ha e o c een and kick off fo he da . VIDHIKA BANSAL: A e ome. I'm going o ha e m c een. J le me kno if o can ee e e hing oka . STEVE BATY: Ye indeed. O e o o . VIDHIKA BANSAL: Wonde f l. So hi e e one and hank again S e e fo he in o. I ' eall g ea o be he e oda , e en ho gh I'm on he o he ide of he o ld. M name i Vidhika Ban al an I lead a US eam a In i and I'm going o be alking o o oda abo Pen ie e & C al Ball hich I ill ge in o a li le bi mo e. B gene all ho e can do
  3. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 3 e ea ch in ch a a ha e make e ha e a e acco n ing fo ho bia can kind of c ee in hen e a k eo le abo hei a a ell a hen e a k eo le abo hei f e, hich e end o be no e a edic ing. E en iall , one of he hing ha I hink abo a lo , m backg o nd i in cholog , o I'm al a alking abo he a in hich cholog and he h man b ain infl ence ho e do e e hing, and ha incl de ho e can do be e e ea ch, info m be e deci ion and de ign be e hing . So I'm eall e ci ed o be eaking i h all of o oda abo hi . I'm going o ge o ha e ome of m a ien e e imen i h o hich i e ci ing... I'm going o a b ho ing o hi code e . Don' o if o can' ead i . I ' in , I kno . I didn' come i h hi b he a . The c ea o a e a he bo om of he lide. I ' a onde f l c ll minim m na ion fo all he e diffe en bia e ha affec a h man hich in ome a h o deci ion . Toda I'm no going o be alking abo all of hem. E en if e had all da oge he , i o ldn' be eno gh. B I hink going o be alking o o abo a li he . E eciall I'm alking o o abo he ice ha can c o . When e do e ea ch ha in i e hem o edic hei f e beha io , in i emo ion , hing like ha . So he e' a g ea o e b Ma ga e Mead, an Ame ican c l al an h o ologi he a : ha eo le a , ha eo le do and ha he a he do a e en i el diffe en hing . Thi i la gel ha I'll be foc ing on oda . Wha a e ome of he e ga in ha eo le a he do and ha he do and ho can e o b idge hem. I an ed o a off i h a ick o abo ome ick o gone a . Abo a decade ago no he film named 'A a a ' came o . I a h ge, making headline , bea ing all o of eco d and i became e emel o la . One of he o he hing ha ha ened a o nd abo
  4. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 4 hi ime, com anie a ed ge ing e ci ed abo he idea of 3D TV. The e e e e e al man fac e ha decided o go all o on 3D TV , he e a a lo of en h ia m. Thi came f om a lo of e ea ch ha ho ed ha eo le e e jagged of he idea of being able o a ch TV on 3D and ha o nded g ea , hich i h he com anie en o and did ha , b a o ma ha e g e ed 3D TV didn' ick a o nd, he didn' gain a lo of ac ion. The ended being a flo . Pa of he e ea ch ha he e ea ch aid ha 3D TV e e going o be g ea b he ended being no o g ea a beca e he e ea ch a hea il elian on eo le edic ing he f e and leaning on he a a li le oo m ch. Peo le had j had hi e e ience a ching hi mo ie 'A a a ', e e one a e ci ed abo i . Al o he e a he fac ha if o a ked omeone like o ld o e a 3D TV, eo le e e e ci ed, i eemed in e e ing, ne . In eali he e en' o g ea beca e i ned o he e i ed gla e o a ch. The of en ca ed neck ain and headache , and he e a all he e addi ional co fo acce o ha i eo le e en' o ha abo . I didn' o k o ell beca e he e ea ch a oo ed in a lo of bia . J beca e omeone like ome hing in he momen doe n' nece a il mean he ' e going o like i do n he oad. A good ca iona ale fo o kee in mind. Wha I an o con e o o oda i ha o memo ie a e fallible and edic ion can be mi leading. Toda I'm going o alk o o abo ho o memo ie can be fallible, mi leading and ha a e ome of he hing e can do o hel mi iga e he bia . We can' ge id of i com le el . Cha e 1, he en ie e, fo ho e of o a li le o ho ha e ne e engaged i h he Ha Po e ni e e, a en ie e allo o o emembe memo ie . I o ld ha e a memo and ake i o and i in m en ie e and if I e e an ed o eli e i I co ld ake i o again and
  5. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 5 eli e ha memo . In o o ld, in he non- i a ding o ld e don' ha e ome hing like a en ie e. The clo e e ha e i a eco ding like hi . We can' do ha fo all he i o al momen ha e migh an ome in igh in o. We end el ing on o memo . We do ha e o a k eo le o ha e a of hei a i h , he he gene al o ie o a of e e ience . We' e going o alk abo ho memo i fallible. Peo le ell hing ha he hink ha e an o hea , hich i ocial a iabili hich I'm e o ' e familia i h. The al o ell hing ha he emembe beca e he ' e con ained b hei memo . E en if i ha en , he e' no a fo hem o con e ha o . Al o he end o a ionali e hei beha io . A lo of a e ha e no a of kno ing if e a k omeone abo hei mo i a ion o do ome hing, e don' kno if ha mo i a ion i l ha mo i a ed hem in ha momen , o if he ' e come i h a ea on fo i af e he fac . We' e going o foc on ho ome of he e hing manife in o e ea ch. To a , I'm going o ell o abo one of m fa o i e e e imen hich in ol e a ca c a h, m ch like omebod migh emembe he cene f om he chambe of ec e , and o hi i an e e imen ha deal i h ca c a he and leading e ion . We all kno ha leading e ion a e bad. We a oid hem l ing he lag e. We ha d no o a hing like, o like hi , igh , o ho m ch do o lo e X e e ience. Doing ha o ld make i ha d fo o ge an acc a e eliable e on e . One of he hing ha i eall im o an o emembe , ome ime leading e ion don' e en ha e o o nd leading. Some ime one o d can be all i ake o make he e ion leading e j a li le bi mo e ne al. So he e e imen I an o ell o abo i b Lof and alme . Lof i an Ame ican chologi e big in he ela ing of con c ed memo . She an ed o nde and he he leading e ion co ld al e eo le' memo ie . She ho ed hem ideo of ca
  6. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 6 c a he and he had fi e diffe en e e imen al g o . So he g o e e, each g o a hi e ion abo ho fa e e he ca going hen he - one g o a , hen he ma hed. The o he g o a hen he collided. The hi d g o hen he b m ed. Yo ge he idea. The onl diffe ence being ha la o d ha de c ibed ho he ca made con ac . Again he a ched all he ame Socce oo . Wha he fo nd i ha j b changing ha one o d in he e ion, eo le' e on e fo he a e age cene changed d ama icall . Fo in ance, he eo le ha aid ha - he eo le ha a he e ion ha i ma hed, ho fa e e he ca going hen he ma hed. The on a e age e o ed ha he ca e e going a 40.8 mile an ho , he ea ho e i h he e ion hen i con ac ed he a i a 49 mile an ho . The e' a 9 mile an ho diffe ence ba ed on ha e ion. I goe o ho ho im o an i i ha e' e mindf l of ha kind of hin o c e e migh be embedding in o e ion. To follo , he a able o ga he ha he a he e ion a o ded im ac ed eo le' e on e b he an ed o kno if i im ac ed hei memo . Doe i al e hei memo o change he a he e ond. She follo ed i h ano he e e imen and i h o of ho e condi ion hi ime, j ma hed and hi , ho fa e e he e ca going hen he hi o ma hed each o he , and in hi condi ion, he - he a ked he follo - e ion, did o ee an b oken gla , e o no. I ned o ha he eo le e e a ked ha a he ma h e ion, 32 e cen of hem aid e , he did ee b oken gla in he ideo he had een ea lie . Whe ea in he condi ion ha a hi , onl 14 e cen of hem aid e , hich i a e ignifican diffe ence and he c a ie a i he e a no gla in an of he ideo . In ome a eo le econ c ed hei memo o ma ch he e ion. Thi ho ho ong he o e of gge ion i and ho econ c i e memo
  7. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 7 la a fac o and hi i h e need o be ca ef l hen e' e ing oge he o o n e ion . Again, info ma ion embedded in o e ion can affec he e l , he he a o d o an en i e h a e ha ' leading. I can be ha d fo o fig e o hich i hich b i ' im o an e o a oid he mo ob io one and e en he one ha don' come a ob io , ake a look a he o d and ee he he he migh be embedding ome cl e in he e. The ne kind of bia ha I an o alk abo o con c i called he eak end ill, o hel o nde and, I an ed o o hink abo he la ime o e e on a olle -coa e . Yo obabl can' , beca e of COVID i migh ha e been a hile ago no , o obabl can' eco n e e i and n, o obabl didn' emembe ha e en a o ended on ha olle -coa e . B o obabl co ld emembe he he o enjo ed i , he he i ended ell. Yo can obabl emembe a he e o had a lo of f n, he e o didn' , and o obabl had a co le of eak momen in o head. The a hi o k , hich o nd a li le ill , e kind of ha e he e o el e , e ha e o elf ha e call he e e iencing elf and he o he ha ' called he emembe ing elf. Thi come o of o k, he a he e e ience kind of enca e ho e' e feeling igh no in hi momen he ea he emembe ing elf ca e ho e' e feeling o e all. Righ no in hi momen , I'm ho ing o e e ience e emble hi lide a li le bi , ho ef ll o ' e ha , enjo ing hi . B i migh be on he ne lide o migh be I'm eall bo ed o ha e e ience elf change . Yo emembe ing elf, e en if ha e e iencing elf change , o emembe ing elf can ill a , de ending on he eak and he ending. If fo in ance o ended he olle -coa e b ge ing ick, ha i in an l going o make o feel like ha olle -coa e ide a e ible, e en ho gh o had a lo of good momen , and e en if he e e e
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    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 8 momen hen o e e ca ed, b he end of i , o migh j feel, if o fel h illed b he end of i and good a he end, o migh ac all be like, o kno , ha a f n. Ho hi emembe ing elf i calc la ed, i ' no ac all an a e age of all of he momen of he e e ience o had. Again, i ' kind of an a e age of he a ome hing end and he eak , he high and he lo ha o e e ience. So if o hink abo i hen o ' e doing e ea ch i h omeone i h a od c ha o ' e o king on and o a k hem o ell o abo an e e ience o e e ience of hei od c , i ' likel going o be o e inde ing on he eak , o he ime ha o od c eall deligh ed hem o hen i didn' and memo of ha od c o e en i hin one e e ience, he e e e eak and ha ending i going o ma e a lo mo e. I ' im o an o kee ha in mind, ome ime ha ' alien i n' e e en a i e of all he e e ience and he momen ha omebod ha . Daniel i he one ha ha de c ibed hi a leng h. He a odd a i ma eem I am he emembe ing elf and m e e iencing elf i a ange o me. O memo ie a e no ha good. We ha e hi emembe ing elf ha kind of ake o e and j emembe a li le bi . When o ' e alking o a ici an and a king hem e ion abo ha ha ened in he a , j emembe o ' e onl ge ing hei emembe ing elf. Tho e high , ho e lo , ho e ending , o i ' be e if o can o make hem do a a k in f on of o , ha a o ' e ge ing clo e in o he e e iencing elf a ell. Again he lea likel e e ience i he mo likel memo . We end o emembe he be of ime and he o of ime b no he mo ime , kee hi in mind. The hi d i em I an o alk abo nde he a i a bia called he hind igh bia . I'm e e e one he e ha e e ienced hi . I ' like he kne i all along henomenon. Le ' a o ead a book o a ch a
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    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 9 mo ie, and ome hing ha en , af e i ha en , o a I kne ha a going o ha en, I kne ha cha ac e a good o bad. Once o ha e he kno ledge i feel ob io in e o ec and hi ha en a lo hen i come o he ock ma ke , foo ball game , e en iall e end o an fo m an e en chologicall in o head o make i eem mo e edic able han i a . We o find ea on fo h i ha ened and e o ld ha e fig ed ce ain hing o e en if i ' no echnicall af e i . Some of o migh ha e e e ienced i i h o akeholde and a ne , hen o do e ea ch. Some ime af e a e ea ch d , finding a e elea ed and eo le a he e hing a e ob io , o kno ha befo e hi eo le didn' kno hi ff b af e he fac bia kick in. One of he hing o kee in mind i hi i eall common d ing fea ibili e ing. A lo of ime eo le ill a ome hing like, f mble h o gh ome hing and aid oh, o kno , I o all o ld ha e een ha b on if i a a li le bigge . The a ionali e ha he o ld ha e done e en if he kne i a n' e. When I a a con l an , one of he hing ha baffled me a ho one hing a o nchanging, no ma e ho m ch eo le ended o ggle d ing a e , he o ldn' a , he o ld gen inel ggle, fail a lo of he e , a he end if I a ked hem ho ha e e ience a , a lo of ime he o ld a oh, i a ea , i ac all make en e, I j me ed , b i a ac all ea . In ome a ha ' hei hind igh bia kicking in. In e o ec i eem ea . So I o ld enco age o o and eall j a a en ion o ha ha e e ience a . Ho e e he ac all going h o gh i e ha a e he a ionali ing af e he fac . The econd one I kno can be con en io beca e obing i a of o job , e an o a k h and ha ' going on, ha he mo i a ion a e fo eo le doing hing . I o ld a g e ha e ha e o be
  10. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 10 ca ef l abo hen e obe. We an o make e eo le feel comfo able alking o , lea e eno gh ilence in he con e a ion ha he o en and ha e ha he ' e hinking b e don' an o obe if omeone doe n' kno h he did ome hing, if e obe oo m ch, he ' e no going o lea e hanging, no going o an he a he don' kno o e and o e again. So eo le migh come i h a ionali a ion , ha ' no hel f l in gi ing good e l . I o ld a i ' im o an o e a j dgmen call he e. Of co e, in he momen i ' al a efe able o af e he fac . The e' limi a ion . We can' al a be he e in he momen , b he e a e ime he e like he dia d , e can ge eo le o doc men , hei in he momen ho gh . Again, e find ea on fo he e en ha ha ened in o a , and hi i almo a co ing mechani m fo a h man ome ime b i can e en ome challenge hen e ea ch a ici an gi e ea on fo hing ha e' e done. The e' o man o he bia a la hen e alk abo he a ,. The e' a lo in e m of memo and ho o a en ion o k ha e can di e in o. The e a e a co le of o he ha I hink a e im o an o kee in mind hen o a e cond c ing e ea ch ha a k abo eo le' a , and o eah, he e a e all hing o kee in mind. The e' a lo b I hink he e a e ome mall hing e can do o hel . Fo hi ne cha e , I'm going o alk abo he c al ball. Some of o emembe he c al ball in he e ie . Wha ' eall in e e ing abo - o he c al ball, kind of edic ing he f e, i ha imagining he f e i an abili ha f om an e ol iona and Poin i ' e ecen fo h man . In fac , e' e he onl animal ha hink abo he f e. We' e e bad a i . We' e no good a edic ing o f e emo ion and beha io . Thi i e idenced b 3D TV he e a lo of migh ha e aid eah, ha o nd ama ing, I can' ai . Tha doe n'
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    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 11 mean ha o edic ion ma ched i h ha ac all ha ened. No onl can e no edic he f e in gene al b e' e bad a edic ing o o n efe ence , o o n f e . The e' a lo of e ion ha come i h hing , like o ld o ecommend hi , o ld o do ha . A lo of e ea che confi med ha a king eo le if o ld he do ome hing doe n' al a amo n o hei ac al, if o ma ch ha o hei ac al beha io , he e' of en ome incong ence he e. A a ealing a i migh be o a k abo he f e, I o ld a k o o check and ee if he e' a a a o nd a king abo he f e and ge mo e ecific if o do o. When i come o he f e, eo le end o be eall oo ed in he e en . We end o di o o iona e eigh on he he e and no . We a e bad a edic ing ho e ill feel in he f e. We end o kno ha a ce ain e en migh lead o feel nega i el o o i i el , b e a e no g ea a edic ing o ha e en . We kno if ha emo ion i going o la a mon h o a ea . We end o hink hi i going o la a lo longe . And e end o hink e a e going o be he ame eo le, in he momen e feel e a e going o be eall imila . So I an o ell o abo ano he one of m fa o i e e e imen hich a cond c ed b P ofe o Lo en f om CMU in 1999 and he emi e of hi e e imen a e en iall ing o nde and e en bia . P e en bia , e make choice oda ha f e ma no eall a ecia e, ma no eall efe . Wha he did i ha he com iled a li of 40 film , o of hich e e he e one Slee le in Sea le and Schindle ' Li he e, he e e kind of demanding film , he o he half e e ea going film , film o co ld a ch i ho hinking oo m ch abo hem. Pa ici an e e no old ha he e e imen a abo and a a e l of filling o , he e e old ha e' e going o gi e o h ee f ee
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    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 12 ideo loan f om he lib a . And hi i - Ne fli i ill ge ing a a , back hen hi a a li le bi of a bigge deal han i i no . The film a e e en ed i ho ca ego i a ion, e en ho gh he e e e 40 film in each ca ego , eo le didn' kno , he e en' labelled ha a . The co ld ick ha e e he an . Fo he a ha hi o ked he e e e o condi ion in hi e - e m. One condi ion, half he a ici an e e a ked o choo e a film o a ch - half he a ici an e e in a im l aneo condi ion, on da one he e e a ked he e' 40 film , ick ha film o an o a ch oda and ell hich one o an o ake o fo omo o and he da af e . The e i ano he e e imen al condi ion hich a e en ial. Tha one aid, oka , ick a film oda and omo o come back and ick he ne film, he ne da come back and ick he ne film. In he cena io hen eo le e e icking im l aneo l , choo ing a film o a ch on he ame da b choo ing o a ch on f e da a ell, he e e fa mo e likel o ick an ea film fo da one and mo e likel o ick demanding film fo da o and h ee. The e en ial g o hen he go o ick each da f e h, he ended o ick ea film e e da . Tha make en e beca e e gene all hen gi en he choice be een doing ome hing ea o ha d, a lo of ime e do ha e i e he lea amo n of effo . So if omeone offe o f i o cake, in heo o ' e like, f i i good fo me, omo o I'll ea f i , oda I'll ea cake, ha ' ha hi e e imen ho ed, de ending on hen he had o make hi choice, Schindle ' Li a cho en onl once fo he da , b cho en mo e fo f e da . Peo le ho gh I ho ld a ch b no oda , I ill e en all . The e cen age of he high b o o demanding film ha e e cho en a highe hen eo le icked all on he ame da beca e o f e el e e e a i a ional e al a hink ha e ha e mo e a ience han e do in he momen . Tha a an
  13. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 13 in e e ing a o ho ca e ho m ch e a e oo ed in he e en and ho o choice change o e ime. I a hinking abo , e en looking a m o n life, he e' o man hing ha I echnicall an o do, ha e en me ho ld al ead be doing, b f e me ho ld deaf an do, ea heal hie , o oc a ina ing, all he e diffe en hing , b he onl one I' e been doing a e he one in g een. Thi i a li of all he hing I an o be doing. Thi i ho a lo of o k. Yo go o he g oce o e and b heal h food, all he e f i , I kno I' e done ha , I b f i and I can' ai o ea all hi heal h f i and hen i i and goe bad beca e I ai ed oo long. A he momen i a a g ea deci ion b o e ime, I ke a ing omo o , omo o , omo o , and omo o ne e came. We hink e' e going o be be e han e a e. We' e mo e di ci lined in he f e han e a e oda . In o mind e' e mo e di ci lined. Thi i kind of he c behind ne ea ' e ol ion , b Ma ch i hin o . We end o ge mo e a ional a e' e fo ced o ai . So I lo e hi o e he e i a : ( ead ). I'm e all of o can ela e o ome e en i h hi , beca e hi i j ho i o k . No hing i e e o ed o go ong fo he f e. The ame goe , hen e a k eo le, o ld o do hi , o ld o b hi , o ld o end hi amo n on hi od c , hen e' e a king hem abo a f e a e, he oo a e being hone o he be of m abili beca e he al o hall a i a ional abo hei f e and he in he momen hink ha e , I o ld and I ill b hi and I o ld end ha amo n of mone . B in he f e hei condi ion a en' nece a il a each . In he f e he ' e imagining he 'll ha e he mone fo i , be o gani ed, b b he ime he f e come a o nd ha co ld change. The hing ha he aid a e e in e m of he ' e elling ha he ' e e b i doe n' nece a il mean i ill hold e o e ime. I '
  14. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 14 al a be e o ake ha ff i h a li le g a e of al . I kno I e a lo a o . We foc on he hea ing no , e' e a i a ional abo o f e. When fo ced o ai e end o ge a li le mo e a ional. If he ick each da , he o ld ick ha a ea b if he icked in ad ance he ended o ick choice ha e e ma be a li le bi mo e a ional. We' e bad a being a a e of he fac ha e al a hink e' e going o make change b ha doe n' al a ha en. Wha hi mean fo o e ea ch i eo le' efe ence a e ime incon i en , and o eo le a e al a going o eak o hei ideal el e , hei idea e of ci c m ance , hei ideal a e ha e e e a k hem abo he f e. Unle omebod i inc edibl elf-a a e, ac al ado ion, ac al cha e co ld diffe . Whene e o ' e a king illingne o cha e e ion , he mo e o can ge clo e o ome hing ha ' oo ed in beha io o ha omeone - ha ' clo e o he f e, he mo e likel o a e o ge info ma ion ha ' alid. Then he ne bia in hi - hen o hink abo he f e ha I an o alk abo i called effec i e fo eca ing and ha ' affec ing i h an A, like affec , hi i b omeone ho' done a lo of e ea ch in ha ine . He alk abo ho e' e no g ea a edic ing o emo ion . We' e good a edic ing he he i ' going o be o i i e o nega i e. I lo e he nad l e a ed jo in hi ic e. Yo migh kno ha af e ge ing a omo ion, o ' e going o feel ha o af e going h o gh a b eak- o ' e going o feel ad. B a lo of ime e' e bad a fig ing o ha ha in en i i going o be. Peo le hink af e ge ing a omo ion he ill be ha fo a longe han i e. The e' been die ha ha e ho n ha o a k eo le abo ho he ' e going o feel af e a b eak- . The kno he ' e going o feel bad b he a me he ill be ad fo e e . A lo of o c l e ong abo eflec ha feeling and ha in en ion. Pa of he ea on i e ha e hi
  15. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 15 chological imm ne em he e e bo nce back. E en hen hing ha en, e bo nce back and fo h be een he e high and lo . Thing ne e la a long a e an ici a e he ill. The bo om line i good and bad e en end o be le in en e and mo e flee ing han eo le edic . So f ll di clo e, hi i no a eal o e, hi i mo e j an agg ega e of ome hing I' e hea d man , man ime , hich i if o co ld add ha fea e, i o ld make m life o m ch ea ie , I o ld 100% b i , I'd ne e lea e o g . The mean i in he momen , beca e he ' e en i ioning hei f e in hi a he e he ' e like if I had acce o hi hing all of a dden m life i going o change. Tha i obabl e in ha i obabl ill o ome e en , b ha ma no be i e a acc a e i he e en of ha emo ion and fo ho long i ' going o la . J beca e omeone a if o a k he f e I ill ick i h hi fo e e , ha doe n' mean ha i e. Yo al ead kne ha b j eminde e ho ld ake claim of eo le' f e emo ion di ec l , b ake he in en i and he d a ion i h a li le bi of a g ain of al . So e , e o e e ima e he in en i and d a ion of f e emo ion , bo h good and bad. So and ome ime hi i called im ac bia , o i ' eall im o an hen e a k eo le abo ho he ' e going o feel e ecogni e ha e en if he ' e gi ing an an e o he be of hei abili ha an e i obabl no going o eflec eali fo hem. The la bia hing I an o go o e abo he f e and hen e a k abo i i called ojec ion bia . P ojec ion bia i ba icall ha eo le, e end o nde e ima e ho m ch o c en and f e efe ence and al e ill align. Fo e am le, in ma be a high chool, and ob io l he e' e ce ion o hi le, hen o eo le da e ma be he hink he ' e going o be oge he fo e e . The hink I'm al a going o be he a I am oda . We kno ha ' no nece a il e. Simila l hen e oclaim a kid ha e' e going o ha e - I be
  16. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 16 man of he e did no a I'm going o be a e ea che o de igne hen I g o . Yo a e ome hing ha in he momen feel e b ha change o e ime. P ojec ion bia i ba icall ojec ing ha o al e and belief a e he e on o f e hich ma o ma no ac all be e. If o ' e e e gone g oce ho ing on an em omach, o kno ha I'm alking abo , o end b ing he o e, o ' e o h nge in ha momen i eem like he igh hing o do. B he ime i ac all come ime fo o o ea , o hink oh m God I bo gh a mo e han I needed beca e o ' e ojec ing ha h nge a e on o o e manen a e hich didn' ma ch . In e ea ch if omebod ' alking o abo a od c in he momen , he migh be eall in e e ed, he migh a me ha f e hem o ld al o be eall in e e ed beca e ha ' ha he ' e foc ing on in he momen . In eali , in he f e he migh ha e com e ing io i ie , he he e migh be com e i o , he migh be di ac ed, hei need migh ha e changed. The e' no hing ha e ha e a e ea che , he e' al a going o be a lag be een hen e do he e ea ch and hen hing come o a a od c and ho hing manife . Of co e, hi i no one ha e can elimina e com le el . I ' one o kee in mine beca e he clo e and he icke he feedback can be he be e . I ' good fo o kno ho e efe ence a en' able. We can make e hen e' e e a ola ing e' e aking ha in o acco n . We' e ing ho e a e ima e a he han ea ing hem a com le el e. Again e hink o c en need and al e ill be o f e one , in ome ca e he a e b a lo of ime he ' e no . One of he be a o o k h o gh hi i o and a k, if o do ha e o a k abo he f e hich gene all I ecommend again if o ible. If o do ha e o a k, a king abo he nea f e, don' j a k eo le
  17. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 17 gene all abo he f e, he neb lo f e. T o a k eo le ome hing a clo e a o ible o hei c en eali o ha ojec ion bia i a li le bi le . So ho e a e again j a co le of he man , man bia e ha e co ld alk abo oda . B I no an o gi e o a co le of idea ha I ha e fo a ha o migh be able o ackle ome of he e bia e , a ha o migh be able o no elimina e hem b a lea o make hem a li le le common in o o k. He e' ome ac ical o ion and he e' 7 I'm going o ho o oda . J a eca , memo i fallible, he e a e a co le of he con c ha con ib e o ha . A good a eo le' in en ion a e, a m ch a he an o gi e acc a e info ma ion he can onl gi e info ma ion ha ' acc a e ha hei o n b ain allo hem o d eam . We al a ha e o ake hi a li le bi of c i ical lang age. Limi o ime o ecall. We did alk abo ho e m, long e m memo , b he fac of he ma e i he longe e ai , icall o e ime o memo ie fade. Tha ' e fo e e one. So i ' eall im o an ha e ake ime o oac i el ched le ome deb ief e ion . If o kno ha o ' e going o ha e a b nch of e ion back o back, hing like ha , befo e o ha e hem all, j go ahead and hem in like a - ome ick info ma ion in be een. S e e, o , I j a o o . Oka . So nd good. So eah, ba icall j o ched le ome e ion o ha o don' a mi ing , one e on' bi f om he o he beca e o memo ie a e j a one o di o ion a an bod el e. T o hink abo o ec i men indo e ca ef ll beca e o kno ha if i ' been - like, if o a o ec i omeone o ell o abo a ce ain e o he had in a flo and o ' e no alking o hem n il o eek af e he fac he on' emembe . Again in con e i al a be e han
  18. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 18 el ing on eo le' ecall. And hen iang la e. So hi line I hink o all a e obabl familia i h, b ba icall iang la e ac o eamma e , look a ho e an i a i e and ali a i e e ea ch o ee if o can ge o he bo om of he o , a lo of ime , looking a o bo h of ho e oge he i a g ea a o fig e o if he e a e ga . And he e e he e a e ga , ma be ome hing i ami i h he da a. Thi d, f ame e ion ne all . We alked abo Lof and econ c ed memo , and e en one o d can change an en i e e on e and e e ience. Take ca e o e o d ha don' ha e embedded meaning ha o ma no ha e eali ed a fi . U e o en-ended e ion hen o can and do cogni i e e ing. Tha ' one hing ha I hink i a e n ela ed ool. We e cogni i e e ing o make e he e ion ac all made en e, he e en' bia ed, e ce e a. N mbe fo , i e fo di e i . I'm no going o go in o oo m ch de ail b di e i al a ed ce he chance of bia e com o nding. And a oid h o he ical , like I j look, foc on ob e able beha io . Limi he e of a king ha o ld o do if, eo le a e no o io l bad on being able o an e ha . Don' a k abo he di an f e. Don' j a ha o ld o do if o co ld e hi . In ead a , ha o ld o do if I co ld gi e o acce o hi omo o , ell me ha o o ld do o ha o ld o do he ne ime o had o e i . Tha ' he a o make i ea ie fo hem o gi e o an an e ha ' na al. Ge ecific abo he a , o in ead of a king ome hing like ho of en, in ead of a king ho of en do o do X. If o a k me ho of en I e e ci e, I obabl o ldn' an o ell o i ' e , e li le. B if o aid hen a he la ime o e e ci ed o ho man ime did o e e ci e in he la eek. Tha i a m ch be e a o ge conc e e abo eo le' an e and i ' m ch mo e likel o be a king.
  19. N e ha hi i a edi ed a c

    i f a li e e e a d he ef e ma c ai e . Thi a c i i he j i e f Ca i LIVE a d he a h i ed a e ible f a me a d ma be c ied ed b a he a i h a h i a i . Page 19 So obe, j be ca ef l, e o j dgmen abo a e o obing eno gh o oo m ch ha i ' going o lead o a ionali a ion. When omeone' e laining an e e ience, o an o and a ce ain, i hi an e e ience ha ' common o an e e ience ha ' j ha ened once and e alien in hei mind . J beca e i ' ha ened once, doe no make i le im o an . Some ime he mo im o an e e ience a e he one ha i a e alien . B i ' im o an fo o ge a en e of hich one a e ha ening a lo e once in a hile. Finall b ing o he al hake o ake ce ain hing i h a g ain of al . Wa ch o fo he a ionali a ion , I o ld ha e done hi . T ea an e o h o he ical a a i a ional, a ideal beca e i ' no al a in mind eo le' eali . Be a a e of emo ion ha a e e agge a i e. The migh no kno ha he a e e agge a ed in ha a . I kno e don' ha e ime fo o o ha e a c al ball b e do ha e i and ick o hel . E en if eo le' an e a en' e fec , e can ge ma abo he a e a k e ion , ob e e beha e, he a e iang la e. I ho e he e i a e hel f l o o and ha o can con in e o make ome good e e ience i h hem. Thank o m ch and feel f ee o ge in o ch i h me if o 'd like on T i e . We'd lo e o hea f om o . Thank o o m ch. STEVE BATY: Tha a onde f l. Thank o . The e ha e been a fe e ion o ed o he Q and A Vidhika if o ha e a fe min e o o o e in ha anel and e ome an e fo , a e mo e on o o ne e en a ion. B hank o . Tha a a onde f l jo ne h o gh ha o ic. Thank o . VIDHIKA BANSAL: Thank o m ch.