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Building autonomous Airplanes and VTOLs

Building autonomous Airplanes and VTOLs

will tell about:
- quick overview of hardware in Airplane models to feel what's like to construct one - quite easy! (Flight Controller "computer"`, e.g. [Mamba STM32 F405](https://ardupilot.org/plane/docs/common-mamba-basic-mk3.html) with onboard gyro/accelerometer/barometer sensors, control surfaces/Servos, motor(s), wing, radio systems for control/telemetry & video)
- [Ardupilot](https://ardupilot.org/plane/index.html) as the most popular and capable OSS autopilot software (not only for planes - quadcopters, cars, submarines,etc) including:
* main wing flight modes: airplane stabilization (FBWA) and even autonomous flight missions - as programmed, or return to home (RTL) if lost control radio link
* VTOL - how `Vertical Take-Off and Landing` simplifies and makes the takeoff safer, even increasing the payload capacity and possible flight duration/distance (by allowing to use higher minimum speed)

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vidma

July 31, 2022
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Transcript

  1. Building autonomous Airplanes and VTOLs using Ardupilot 2022, by Vidmantas

    Zemleris
  2. Intro - controls & flying FPV

  3. Contents - How (model) planes work - Radio controls and

    video transmission - Hardware & How to construct - Setup - Opensource Ardupilot - VTOL (Vertical takeoff and landing)
  4. Planes live hands-on demo?

  5. Basics: control surfaces Old Standard (4 servos) - Aileron{Left|Right}: roll

    left/right - Elevator: pitch nose up/down - Rudder: yaw left/right (i.e. turn left/right) Delta-Wing (2 servos): - only ElevonLeft + ElevonRight - Together they act as both ailerons (different), elevator (same) & drag-rudder
  6. Basics: Wing CG & AOA https://www.ecalc.ch/cgcalc.php Wing is tilted upward

    by ~6° (relative to body & motor) To match the Angle of Attack (AOA) Center of gravity (CG) Must be FORWARD of Aerodynamic center (AC) to be able to fly stable. at ~30% of wing
  7. Radio Control (transmitter) - Radio Controller (RC Transmitter), E.g. Radiomaster

    TX16s - Antenna tracker - in Ardupilot - Ground station - QGroundControl software
  8. Ardupilot - Autopilot Flight Modes - FBWA Stabilized using sensors

    guesses wind & attitude - Gyroscope - Accelerometer - Opt: Barometer (altitude), GPS - Fully Autonomous Flight [even 100+km]: - Cruise (keep direction) - Follow Mission points - Avoid forbidden places (Fence/Cage) - Return to Home (RTL) e.g. if lost connection/visibility - Soaring: if air is rising => glide up in circles to save energy - VTOL
  9. Hardware: Flight controllers (FC) - Matek H743 - Mamba F405

    V3 And many others… connects: - ESC = motor controller => motor(s) - Servos - RC receivers - Video transmitter VTX / Camera - Sensors
  10. Hardware: Fancy sensors - Airspeed, e.g. Matek aspd-4525 → -

    Barometer (altitude, fast but drifting). Often in FC - GPS + Compass - GPS give slow updates - e.g. M9N → - Lidar/Sonar (accurate @ low altitude) - e.g. 2m, 30m, 100+m - Plane: for auto landing - VTOL for hover and landing - E.g. Optical flow (position hold) + Lidar distance sensor 2m → - Gyroscope / Accelerometer in FC
  11. Plane calculations: Motor power, propeller, battery, weight Prop: inch x

    pitch, e.g. 7x4 Planes need: - Pitch speed >= 2x cruise speed - Thrust > 0.3*weight ( >0.8 for easy takeoff) - Large prop for thrust / smaller for pitch speed - Not overload motor Has to match otherwise inefficient or won’t fly https://www.ecalc.ch/motorcalc.php
  12. Hardware: Radio control & Telemetry links - TBS CrossFire (CRSF)

    ~3+ km - Open-source ELRS (CRSF protocol), 10+km - long-range low latency - Mavlink: any network, e.g. Raspberry Pi Zero 2W + … - Long range Wifi etc - 4G modem - OpenHD - Long range Wifi (video up to 10-100+ km with antenna tracker)
  13. Hardware: FPV Video systems - Analog 5.4Ghz VTX + VRX/Goggles

    - Antenna Tracker (also Ardupilot) - Digital: OpenHD up to 80+ km via modified Wifi - …
  14. Antenna Tracker https://ardupilot.org/antennatracker/ Using same flight controller as tracker https://youtu.be/RWhsQ6oWfQo?t=119

    - Mavproxy (multiple links)
  15. VTOL Intro https://youtu.be/4oVlSQaplZc?t=14 https://youtu.be/5N_bSbBPEIo?t=2

  16. QuadCopter / VTOL - cool stuff & lessons - Quad

    + forward (5 motors) seem cool - More efficient / stable / simple - Lean into wind - Weatherwaving - Need quite stiff frame - no yaw control otherwise - Good guide: VTOL Basics Setup Series by Painless360 / 3dxr.co.uk - Motor+Prop: thrust > 2x of weight (with discharged battery!) - Q_TAILSIT_ENABLE=0 if Quad, 1 only if tailsitter! - Configure switch to force flight mode change (can get stuck in transition QLoiter->FBWA far away from you)
  17. Where to get/buy? What to get? Banggood.com https://www.eclipson-airplanes.com/ - 3d

    printed (not practical without extra strengthening) Rcshop.lt / rcdalys.lt / modelis.lt
  18. Thanks! Extra slides after…

  19. Extra: why planes >3x more efficient (vs drones) https://www.youtub e.com/watch?v=7J

    H1_ZKV7t4&featur e=youtu.be https://hackaday.co m/2022/07/24/turn- drone-into-a-large- propeller-to-increas e-hover-efficiency/
  20. Extra: adverse yaw - why we need(ed) rudder https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=223OmaQ9uLY&feature=youtu.be -

    No adverse yaw - Reduced drag/vorteces
  21. Extra: Basic Ardupilot setup Servo1: Elevon_left Servo2: Elevon_right Servo3: Throttle

    RC_OPTIONS +256 for CRSF telemetry
  22. Extra: Plane Body Production methods Foam - EPO best /

    EPP OK - standard for hobby models - Hot wire cut/CNC 3D Printed (weak, can use very efficient airfoils!) 3D Printing with Composites - 3D Printed LW-PLA + Composites - will test (rather easy) - Foam + Composites - very durable, will test - Composites (from mold) a bit more complex - Bayraktar Composite = Epoxy + {Kevlar|Carbon} fabric
  23. Extra: Encryption Control -> Mavlink -> Encrypt -> [unsecure radio

    link] -> Decrypt -> Mavlink -> FC E.g. via RasperryPi
  24. Extra: how to overcome radio jamming? GPS: - Terrain (image

    recognition)? - Compass? Radio: - Laser + antenna tracker? - Satelites? Blocked? slow?
  25. Laws / Įstatymai https://tka.lt/oro-transportas/katalogas/bendra-informacija-2/