Proof of Stake Casper

Proof of Stake Casper

ブロックチェーン勉強会 #1 発表資料

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Kazuki YAMAGUCHI

February 02, 2018
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  1. 1SPPGPG4UBLF$BTQFS d&UIFSFVNະདྷͷίϯηϯαεΞϧΰϦζϜd  ϒϩοΫνΣʔϯษڧձ ,B[VLJ:BNBHVDIJ !ZBNBSL[ (VOPTZ*OD

  2. 4PGUXBSF&OHJOFFS!(VOPTZ (SBEVBUFEGSPN4QSJOH 8FC"QQMJDBUJPO3BJMT %BQQT4PMJEJUZ 3FTFBSDI$SZQUP$VSSFODZ#MPDLDIBJO (JUIVC5XJUUFS!ZBNBSL[ ,B[VLJ:BNBHVDIJ!ZBNBSL[

  3. (VOPTZ#MPDLDIBJO#MPH΍ͬͯ·͢ʂ ʮIUUQCMPDLDIBJOHVOPTZJPʯPSʮάϊγʔϒϩοΫνΣʔϯʯ

  4. "HFOEB w&UIFSFVNݱࡏͷεςʔλε w&UIFSFVNϝδϟʔΞοϓσʔτϑϩʔ w1SPPGPG4UBLF w&UIFSFVNͷ1P4$BTQFS wͭͷ$BTQFS w$BTQFS'SJFOEMZ'JOBMJUZ(BEHFU w·ͱΊ ˞ࠓճ͸$BTQFSͷ֓ཁͷ঺հͷΈͰɺৄࡉͳٕज़࢓༷ʹ͸৮Ε·ͤΜ ˞$BTQFSͷٕज़࢓༷͸ݱࡏਐߦܥͰࡦఆதͰ͢ͷͰࠓޙมΘΔՄೳੑ͕͋Γ·͢

  5. &UIFSFVNݱࡏͷεςʔλε ࣌఺

  6. &UIFSFVNݱࡏͷεςʔλε ࡞੒ऀ 7JUBMJL#VUFSJO ެ։೔  γεςϜ 1SPPGPG8PSL ίϯηϯαεΞϧΰϦζϜ &UIBTI τʔΫϯൃߦ্ݶ

    ͳ͠ ϒϩοΫੜ੒ใु &5) ϒϩοΫੜ੒ִؒ ฏۉඵ ϝδϟʔόʔδϣϯ .FUSPQPMJT #Z[BOUJVN ಛ௃ 4NBSU$POUSBDUT
  7. ࠓճ͸͜͜ͷ࿩ ࡞੒ऀ 7JUBMJL#VUFSJO ެ։೔  γεςϜ 1SPPGPG8PSL ίϯηϯαεΞϧΰϦζϜ &UIBTI τʔΫϯൃߦ্ݶ

    ͳ͠ ϒϩοΫੜ੒ใु &5) ϒϩοΫੜ੒ִؒ ฏۉඵ ϝδϟʔόʔδϣϯ .FUSPQPMJT #Z[BOUJVN ಛ௃ 4NBSU$POUSBDUT &UIFSFVNݱࡏͷεςʔλε
  8. &UIFSFVNϝδϟʔΞοϓσʔτϑϩʔ

  9. 'SPOUJFS ະ։୓ )PNFTUFBE
 Ո԰ෑ .FUSPQPMJT
 େ౎ࢢ 4FSFOJUZ
 ฏ੩ ࠓίί ϝδϟʔΞοϓσʔτ

    ϋʔυϑΥʔΫ &UIFSFVNͷϝδϟʔΞοϓσʔτϑϩʔ ։ൃॳظ͔ΒେܕΞοϓσʔτΛ࣮ࢪ͠ɺਐԽΛଓ͚͍ͯΔ ʁ .FUSPQPMJTୈ஄ʮ#Z[BOUJVNʯ͕׬ྃ
  10. 'SPOUJFS ະ։୓ )PNFTUFBE
 Ո԰ෑ .FUSPQPMJT
 େ౎ࢢ 4FSFOJUZ
 ฏ੩ ϝδϟʔΞοϓσʔτ ϋʔυϑΥʔΫ

    &UIFSFVNͷϝδϟʔΞοϓσʔτϑϩʔ ʁ %BHHFS)BTIJNPUP &UIBTI &UIBTI $BTQFS 1SPPGPG8PSL 1SPPGPG4UBLF όʔδϣϯ͝ͱʹίϯηϯαεΞϧΰϦζϜ΋มԽ͖͍ͯͯ͠Δ
  11. 'SPOUJFS ະ։୓ )PNFTUFBE
 Ո԰ෑ .FUSPQPMJT
 େ౎ࢢ 4FSFOJUZ
 ฏ੩ ϝδϟʔΞοϓσʔτ ϋʔυϑΥʔΫ

    &UIFSFVNͷϝδϟʔΞοϓσʔτϑϩʔ ʁ %BHHFS)BTIJNPUP &UIBTI &UIBTI $BTQFS 1SPPGPG8PSL 1SPPGPG4UBLF ࠓճ͸͜ͷίϯηϯαεΞϧΰϦζϜͷ࿩
  12. 1SPPGPG4UBLF

  13. w ΤωϧΪʔফඅ໰୊ "4*$ϚγϯͷಋೖͳͲ 
 εςʔΫྔʹԠͯ͡ϒϩοΫੜ੒֬཰͕มԽ͢ΔͷͰܭࢉྔΛ཈͑ΒΕΔ w ߈ܸ໰୊ ϚΠχϯάϓʔϧͷ݁ୗ 
 εςʔΫྔʹґଘ͢ΔܗʹͳΔͷͰɺશମͷͷεςʔΫΛ֬อ͢Δͷ͸ඇݱ࣮త

    1SPPGPG4UBLF͸௚༁͢Δͱʮֻ͚ۚʹΑΔূ໌ʯ ίϯτϥΫτPSಛఆͷΞυϨεʹૹ৴͞ΕͨτʔΫϯྔʹԠͯ͡ϒϩοΫঝೝͷ੒ޭ֬཰͕มΘΔɻ ʮ੒ޭ֬཰͕มΘΔʯͷఆٛ͸༷ʑɻEJ⒏DVMUZUBSHFUͷ஋͕εςʔΫྔͰมԽ͢Δ৔߹΍ɺϒϩο Ϋੜ੒ݖ͕ϥϯμϜʹৼΓ෼͚ΒΕΔγεςϜͰɺੜ੒ݖΛಘΒΕΔ֬཰͕มԽ͢Δ৔߹ͳͲɻ 1P4͸1P8๊͕͑ΔʮΤωϧΪʔফඅ໰୊ʯ΍ʮ߈ܸ໰୊ʯͳͲͷ໰୊Λղܾ͢Δίϯηϯαε ΞϧΰϦζϜͱͯ͠ߟ͑ΒΕͨɻ ·ͨɺ&UIFSFVNͰ͸τʔΫϯͷྲྀಈੑΛଛͳ͏Մೳੑͷ͋ΔDPJO"HFͷ࢓૊Έ͸ಋೖ͞Εͳ͍ɻ ౓εςʔΫͨ͠τʔΫϯ͸໿ϲ݄ϩοΫ͞ΕΔ 7JUBMJLͷൃݴ 1SPPGPG4UBLF 1P8๊͕͑Δ໰୊ͱ1P4ʹΑΔղܾ
  14. εςʔΫ૯ྔʹରͯࣗ͠਎ͷεςʔΫྔͷׂ߹͕ϑΥʔδϯάͷ੒ޭ֬཰ͱͳΔ ্هͷάϥϑͷ৔߹ɺ࠷΋ଟ͘ͷεςʔΫΛߦͳ͍ͬͯΔ%͞Μ͕࠷΋ߴ͍੒ޭ֬཰ 1P8Ͱ͸ܭࢉྔͷଟ͕֬͞཰ʹ൓ө͞ΕΔ͕ɺ1P4Ͱ͸εςʔΫྔͰܾ·Δ όϦσʔλʔ ͲͷΑ͏ʹͯ͠ϑΥʔδϯάͷ੒ޭ֬཰͕ܾ·Δͷ͔ʁ 4UBLF ҰఆྔͷτʔΫϯΛσϙδοτ " # $

    % 1SPPGPG4UBLF
  15. 1SPPGPG4UBLF /PUIJOHBU4UBLF໰୊ͱ௄േతΞϧΰϦζϜ4MBTIFS 1P4͸1P8ͱൺֱ͢Δͱ༏Ε͍ͯΔ఺͕͋Δ͕ɺ1P4ʹ΋γεςϜతͳ໰୊͕ଘࡏ͢ ΔɻͦΕ͕ɺ/PUIJOHBU4UBLF໰୊ɻ /PUIJOHBU4UBLF໰୊ͱ͸ɺϦεΫΛഎෛΘͣʹ༰қʹϒϩοΫੜ੒͕ߦ͑ͯ͠·͏ ໰୊ɻ1P4Ͱ͸ҰఆͷεςʔΫྔ͕͋Ε͹༰қʹෆਖ਼ͳϒϩοΫΛ࡞Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ ঢ়گ͕࡞ΒΕ·͢ɻ͜ͷঢ়گΛར༻ͯ͠ෆਖ਼ͳϒϩοΫΛੜ੒͠ɺॏૹۚ໰୊Λൃੜ ͤ͞Δ͜ͱ͕༰қʹͰ͖ΔΑ͏ʹͳͬͯ͠·͏ɻ ͜ͷ/PUIJOHBU4UBLF໰୊Λղܾ͢ΔͨΊʹɺ&UIFSFVNͷ1P4Ͱ͸ʮ4MBTIFSʯ ͱݺ͹ΕΔ௄േతΞϧΰϦζϜ͕ಋೖ͞Ε·͢ɻ

    ਖ਼֬ʹ͸ಋೖ͞ΕΔ༧ఆͰ͢  4MBTIFSͱ͸1P4Ͱෆਖ਼ΛߦͬͨϢʔβʔͷεςʔΫΛ຅ऩ͢Δ࢓૊ΈͰɺ͜ͷ௄േ తΞϧΰϦζϜͷಋೖʹΑΓɺෆਖ਼ͳϒϩοΫੜ੒ͳͲΛߦ͏ϦεΫΛେ͖͘͠·͢ɻ ͜ͷෆਖ਼Λߦ͏ϦεΫΛେ͖͘͢Δ͜ͱʹΑΓɺ/PUIJOHBU4UBLF໰୊Λղܾ͠·͢ɻ
  16. &UIFSFVNͷ1P4$BTQFS

  17. $BTQFSͷ࢓༷͸ͭߟ͑ΒΕ͍ͯΔ $BTQFS͸೥ࠒ͔Βߏ૝͕࢝·Γɺͭͷݚڀ࣮૷͕ߦΘΕ͍ͯΔɻ ͲͪΒ΋ιʔείʔυ͕(JU)VC্ʹެ։͞Ε͓ͯΓɺ ݱࡏ7JUBMJLߟҊͷ''(ܕͷ$BTQFS͕ςετωοτ্Ͱͷݕূ͕ਐΊΒΕ͍ͯΔɻ ''(͸׬શͳ$BTQFSͰ͸ͳ͘ɺ$BTQFSҠߦͷϓϩηεͰ༻͍Δ؆қ࣮૷ 'SJFOEMZ'JOBMJUZ(BEHFU ''(  1P8ͱ1P4ͷϋΠϒϦοτܕ $PSSFDUCZ$POTUSVDUJPO

    $#$  1P4ܕ
  18. $BTQFS͸೥ࠒ͔Βߏ૝͕࢝·Γɺͭͷݚڀ࣮૷͕ߦΘΕ͍ͯΔɻ ͲͪΒ΋ιʔείʔυ͕(JUIVC্ʹެ։͞Ε͓ͯΓɺ ݱࡏ7JUBMJLߟҊͷ''(ܕͷ$BTQFS͕ςετωοτ্Ͱͷݕূ͕ਐΊΒΕ͍ͯΔɻ ''(͸׬શͳ$BTQFSͰ͸ͳ͘ɺ$BTQFSҠߦͷϓϩηεͰ༻͍Δ؆қ࣮૷ $PSSFDUCZ$POTUSVDUJPO $#$  1P4ܕ 'SJFOEMZ'JOBMJUZ(BEHFU ''(

     1P8ͱ1P4ͷϋΠϒϦοτܕ $BTQFSͷ࢓༷͸ͭߟ͑ΒΕ͍ͯΔ $BTQFSόʔδϣϯͰಋೖ͞ΕΔ༧ఆͷ࣮૷͸ͬͪ͜
  19. $BTQFS΁ͷҠߦ͸ଟஈ֊తʹߦΘΕΔ༧ఆ &UIBTI 1P8্ʹల։͢Δ1P4 1P8ͰϒϩοΫΛϚΠχϯάޙɺ
 1P4ͰϑΝΠφϥΠζ 1P8ͱ1P4ͷϋΠϒϦοτӡ༻
 ϚΠχϯάใुΛݮগ͠ɺ
 7BMJEBUPSͷใुΛ૿΍͢ʣ $BTQFS 1P4

        ݚڀ։ൃ͕ελʔτ͠ݕূ͕ਐΊΒΕ͍ͯΔ $BTQFSόʔδϣϯͰ͸1P4''(͕ಋೖ͞ΕΔ༧ఆ Ҏ߱ͷৄࡉͳٕज़࢓༷ͳͲ͸ܾ·͍ͬͯͳ͍ $BTQFSҠߦͷϩʔυϚοϓ
  20. ϒϩοΫ໨ ϒϩοΫ໨ ϒϩοΫ໨ ''(͸1P8ͰϒϩοΫΛੜ੒Λߦ͍ɺ1P4Λ༻͍ͯϝΠϯνΣʔϯΛܾఆ͢Δɻ 1P8 ͷ্ʹ1P4͕৐͔ͬͬͯಈ͘Πϝʔδ  ϒϩοΫຖʹʮνΣοΫϙΠϯτʯͱݺ͹ΕΔ۠੾ΓΛઃఆɻ νΣοΫϙΠϯτ͝ͱʹ༗ޮͩͱࢥ͏νΣʔϯͷϒϩοΫΛόϦσʔλʔͷ౤ථʹΑ Γܾఆ͢Δɻ

    ܾఆʹ͸ஈ֊ͷϥ΢ϯυΛ౿Έɺϥ΢ϯυ໨ ϒϩοΫ໨ Ͱਖ਼౰Խ KVTUJpFE ɻ ϥ΢ϯυ໨ ϒϩοΫ໨ Ͱ֬ఆ 'JOBMJ[F ͞ΕΔɻ $BTQFS''(͸1P8ͱ1P4ͷϋΠϒϦοτ $BTQFS'SJFOEMZ'JOBMJUZ(BEHFU 1P8ͷ্ʹ1P4͕৐͔ͬͯಈ͘Πϝʔδ 1SPPGPG8PSL 1SPPGPG4UBLF ˞''(͸8IJUF1BQFSͰ঺հ͞Εͨ࢓૊Έͳ ͷͰɺࠓޙมΘΔՄೳੑେ
  21. ''(͸1P8ͰϒϩοΫΛੜ੒Λߦ͍ɺ#'54UZMF104Λ༻͍ͯϝΠϯνΣʔϯΛܾ ఆ͢Δɻ 1P8ͷ্ʹ1P4͕৐͔ͬͬͯಈ͘Πϝʔδ  ϒϩοΫຖʹʮνΣοΫϙΠϯτʯͱݺ͹ΕΔ۠੾ΓΛઃఆɻ νΣοΫϙΠϯτ͝ͱʹ༗ޮͩͱࢥ͏νΣʔϯͷϒϩοΫΛόϦσʔλʔͷ౤ථʹΑ Γܾఆ͢Δɻ ܾఆʹ͸ஈ֊ͷϥ΢ϯυΛ౿Έɺϥ΢ϯυ໨ ϒϩοΫ໨ Ͱਖ਼౰Խ

    KVTUJpFE ɻ ϥ΢ϯυ໨ ϒϩοΫ໨ Ͱ֬ఆ 'JOBMJ[F ͞ΕΔɻ ϒϩοΫ໨ ϒϩοΫ໨ ϒϩοΫ໨ $BTQFS''(͸1P8ͱ1P4ͷϋΠϒϦοτ $BTQFS'SJFOEMZ'JOBMJUZ(BEHFU 1P8ͷ্ʹ1P4͕৐͔ͬͯಈ͘Πϝʔδ 1SPPGPG8PSL 1SPPGPG4UBLF pOBMJ[FEKVTUJpFE pOBMJ[FEKVTUJpFE
  22. ·ͱΊ ɾ&UIFSFVN͸େܕΞοϓσʔτΛ࣮ࢪ͠ɺਐԽΛଓ͚͍ͯΔ ɾ$BTQFSͷಋೖ͸ଟஈతʹߦΘΕ͍ͯ͘༧ఆͰɺݱࡏݚڀ։ൃ ͢͢ΊΒΕ͍ͯΔ ɾ$BTQFSҠߦ΁ͷୈҰஈ֊ͱͯ͠1P8ͱ1P4ͷֻ͚߹Θͤͨ ''(ͱݺ͹ΕΔ࢓૊Έ͕ಋೖ͞ΕΔ༧ఆ

  23. ࢀߟࢿྉ w*OUSPEVDJOH$BTQFSlUIF'SJFOEMZ(IPTUz w6OEFSTUBOEJOH4FSFOJUZ 1BSU$BTQFS w$BTQFS'SJFOEMZ'JOBMJUZ(BEHFUXIJUFQBQFS w1SPPGPG4UBLF'2(JUIVC w$BTQFS7FSTJPO*NQMFNFOUBUJPO(VJEF

  24. ͝੩ௌ͋Γ͕ͱ͏͍͟͝·ͨ͠