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The Development And Evolution of Language

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April 14, 2016

The Development And Evolution of Language

CH6 of ‘Language, Cluture and Society’ by Z. Salzmann, J. M. Stanlaw, N. Adachi

課堂報告
第 2 ~ 7 張投影片是組員的,不關我的事。

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April 14, 2016
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  1. The Development And Evolution of Language Language, Culture and Society

    Z. Salzmann, J. M. Stanlaw, N. Adachi
  2. Communication and Its Channels • An early model of communication:

    the sender, the message, the channel, the receiver, and the effect. • 吖圵ኞᇔ樌ጱԻ窕 • ݱ圵㯽螏懱௳ጱොୗ物肯憽牏憙憽牏藉憽牏琘憽 • 懱௳㯽螏ጱ疻匍
  3. Communication Among Social Insects • Bees: Pheromone, dance • Ants:

    Pheromone, tactile signals • ๜胼䋊聜
  4. Communication Among Nonhuman Primates and Other Vertebrates •Birds: Songs and

    calls •Cetaceans: Acoustic signals •Chimpanzees
  5. Milestones • Human evolution • Evolution of human culture •

    Establishment of language
  6. Design Features of Language 1.Vocal-auditory channel 2.Broadcast transmission and directional

    reception 3.Rapid fading 4.Interchangeability 5.Complete feedback 6.Specialization 7.Semanticity
  7. Design Features of Language 8.Arbitrariness 9.Discreteness 10.Displacement 11.Productivity/Openness 12.Duality of

    patterning 13.Cultural (or traditional) transmission 14.Prevarication 15.Reflexiveness 16.Learnability
  8. 承᥺ฎᄍ玕ጱ叨ᇔ

  9. 承᥺䷱磪ᇔ搡ጱᄍ玕綫撪 ?

  10. 㮆㺔氂 2

  11. 承᥺ฎ统簁ၶ匍牧 螭ฎ侅蝱咳疻ጱ牫 1

  12. 蝫媲ቘ抷҈Ӿ䥁ቘ抷 Lenneberg (1967)

  13. 蝫媲ቘ抷(continuity) ୌचෝ 㵕ᇔ传蝢 ತڊ 娄௔稲纷 ᰁጱ癩吖

  14. Ӿ䥁ቘ抷(discontinuity) 加ᛔ咳疻 Ꮈ绗 ݘդ承᥺

  15. Lenneberg 玱䌘蝫媲ቘ抷ጱቘኧ ɾय़ሜሜฎ玱挨 ɾ̿㵕ᇔ传蝢ńńՈ承᥺̀ጱവ抷犋ਠ碉 ɾ䷱磪ತک᪜ᗭ誢ᇔ圵ጱ传蝢ᤈ傶粬监 ⇒ ䷱磪挨硁

  16. 承᥺ฎࢩአᘒኞጱ 螭ฎኞᇔ詴㵕ጱ牫 2

  17. ᄍ玕㬵ጱ

  18. ۅ叨ߝ by-product

  19. ∩ ೥㯎

  20. ೥㯎spandrel 㱑ᓕ犋ฎ磪఺咳疻牧֕奾ຎ 㬵藯盄᯿ᥝጱᄍ玕ۅ叨ߝ

  21. ᄍ玕ፗ矑֢አ҈ݝฎۅ叨ߝ

  22. ᄍ玕ፗ矑֢አ ɾᄍ玕螂纷眜咳羊ੂጱLADزկ ɾPinker

  23. ݝฎۅ叨ߝ ɾ蒂ቘ承᥺ጱ秚ګฎℂ覄裾觊蒂ቘ憙 ̴憽ጱ秚ګᄍ玕ڊ㬵ጱ ɾᥝ㺔ጱฎአک֜圵ኞᇔ䯤蝨 ɾGivón, Chomsky, Gould

  24. አک֜圵ኞᇔ䯤蝨牫 (A)ܻ磪ጱ!承᥺ࢩአᘒኞ (B) 碝ጱ҈粬玕ጱ䯤蝨!ॠኞጱ

  25. 承᥺ጱ瑿ቘ蚏რ

  26. 㻌Ӟ蚏რ҈ग़瑿蚏რ

  27. 搡綡ग़瑿蚏რ ɾ承᥺狅蚅谎य़ጱ蒂ቘ秚ګ牧 ̴ಅ磪Ո᮷㴄অᄍ玕蒂Ӟ䰬ጱ䯤蝨牫 ɾBickerton物㻌Ӟ统虋疰䄪虋ڊ承᥺ ̴⇒ 玱ᘒิ纈磪وݶ礬რ

  28. 㻌Ӟ蚏რ藯 㻌娄 ग़娄 fuzzy

  29. None
  30. a b c d

  31. a b c d

  32. a b c d A B C

  33. B 匍ਂ承᥺ ᮷ℂ蝡愊虋㬵

  34. ইຎ磪獋圵ኸӥ珌牫

  35. a b c d A B C

  36. B C 螭ฎӞ䰬㻌Ӟ蚏რࠡ

  37. 㺔氂懵抷

  38. 蝫媲ቘ抷(continuity) ୌचෝ 㵕ᇔ传蝢 ತڊ 娄௔稲纷 ᰁጱ癩吖

  39. 蝫媲ቘ抷(continuity) 搡ጱ癩吖 ?