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A LandSAT-driven approach to describe meander stream phenomenon in Mahakam Watershed, East Kalimantan

A LandSAT-driven approach to describe meander stream phenomenon in Mahakam Watershed, East Kalimantan

A LandSAT-driven approach to describe meander stream phenomenon in Mahakam Watershed, East Kalimantan

1. Stevanus Nalendra Jati
2. Dasapta Erwin Irawan
3. Deny Juanda Puradimaja
4. Rusmawan Suwarman

Dasapta Erwin Irawan

October 19, 2022

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    – 27th 2022 A LandSAT-driven approach to describe meander stream phenomenon in Mahakam Watershed, East Kalimantan Stevanus Nalendra Jati1,2, Dasapta Erwin Irawan3, Rusmarwan Suwarman4, Deny Juanda Puradimaja3 1 Geological Engineering Study Program, Universitas Sriwijaya 2 PhD student, Institut Teknologi Bandung 3 Applied Geology Research Group, Institut Teknologi Bandung 4 Meterological Study Program, Institut Teknologi Bandung Abstract The role of the Mahakam River in society is undeniably vital because it is the cornerstone of product distribution channels from upstream to downstream, namely forestry, agricultural, and even mining commodities. Especially with the National Capital (IKN) plan, the Mahakam River is in a buffer zone. Satellite imagery in Mahakam is available in various seamless access, including those of the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This study provides an overview of Mahakam Watershed's dynamics through Landsat Imagery's perspective. The Landsat observation is preliminary research from a research grant in Geomorphometry of the Mahakam Watershed, utilizing Landsat image data by combining bands 7, 5, and 3 for Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS (Land Satellite 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor) and bands 7, 4, and 2 as Landsat 5 STM (Land Satellite 5 Sensor Thematic Mapper). The study examines the pattern and changes in the direction of the Mahakam River flow, as well as the phenomenon of the presence of three lakes. So, to the results of the identification, the Mahakam Watershed is divided into three sub-watersheds, upstream, central, and downstream. The Central sub-watershed is characterized by the presence of three natural lakes parallel to the change in flow direction caused by tectonic processes. The impact narrows the river channel, so the velocity experiences a backwash effect and anastomosing reach. Meanwhile, from the morphography aspect, the three lakes in the Mahakam Watershed are in the half-graben framework due to the second strain of the formation of Samarinda Anticlinorium. This research will continue to the measurement, calculation, and modeling stages to have more comprehensive benefits in predicting flood and drought hazards from the dynamics of the Mahakam Watershed. Keywords: Mahakam, watershed, river, three lakes, landsat. Introduction The Mahakam River is the center of economic activity because it is the cornerstone of product distribution from upstream to downstream, namely forestry, agricultural, fishery, and even mining commodities. Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia Number 12 of 2012 stipulates that the Mahakam River Area is a priority river category. The most intense transportation rate activity in the Mahakam River is the back-and-forth distribution of coal, which strongly influences changes in the dimensions of the Mahakam River (Aslan et al., 2021; Hadibarata et al., 2019). Milestone mining downstream of the Mahakam River causes silting at every bend of the river due to the deposition of soil material on the riverbed (Persoon and Simarmata, 2014; Setiawan et al., 2014). Currently, the Mahakam watershed has become a national issue. It plays a role as a buffer for the National Capital City (IKN) in terms of strategic water supply, although with significant variability and uneven spatial distribution (Arifanti et al., 2019; Hadibarata et al., 2019). Judging from the overall flow pattern of the Mahakam River, the dynamics of the river's bend in the Mahakam Sentral Sub-watershed is the center of attention. There is because, apart from the extreme degree of curvature of the river, there is also a change in the direction of the flow. In general, from upstream, the Mahakam River flows to the southeast, then in the central part, it changes relative to the northeast for 63 km, then flows back to the southeast. Related to the change in the flow direction, there is a phenomenon of three successive large lakes along the anomaly of the river flow that leads to the northeast. The three lakes from upstream are Lake Jempang, Lake Melintang, and Lake Semayang. Watershed morphometric properties are the long-term impacts of geological and climatic processes. Some hydrogeologists have even confirmed that morphometric parameters are vital in tropic watershed hydraulics (Basahi et al., 2016; Elfeki et al., 2017; Farhan et al., 2016; Niyazi et al., 2020). The unmeasured tropical region, its morphometric features, and related parameters impact watershed hydraulics, especially surface runoff and groundwater infiltration (Masoud, 2016). Many studies have considered the integration between morphological

    – 27th 2022 characteristics and hydrological response, such as Elfeki et al. (2018), Elfeki and Bahrawi (2017), Marko et al. (2019). This study is the first part of significant research related to the hydrogeomorphometry of the Mahakam watershed. So that the priority of this study on LadSAT observations with the aim: 1. Studying geological control concerning the dynamics of river bends in the Mahakam watershed. 2. Interpret the process of the formation of the Mahakam River and the emergence of three lakes. 3. Develop a theoretical framework for linking rivers and three lakes in the Mahakam watershed. Next, the general aim of the study will be to improve the understanding of geomorphometric variability and its consequences on the evolution of the three lakes, including genesis and prediction. It even provides a quantitative assessment of the morphometric variables and their impact on the hydrological response. Furthermore, these results will help researchers by quantitatively assessing the potential for flooding with the level of risk. Data and Method The increased availability of satellite imagery information and the ease of data processing within the scope of remote sensing technology and GIS has enabled the development of several methodologies for the extraction of landscape characteristics from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM), such as disaster monitoring and analysis into a comprehensive one (Malczewski and Rinner, 2015). The data acquisition process, namely spatial data with seamless access from the www.tanahairindonesia.go.id site belonging to the Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) in the form of cartographic data and National DEM (DEMNas) with a resolution of 8.25-10 m (Hell and Jakobsson, 2011). The spatial analysis uses ArcGIS Pro 2.5 and Quantum GIS to delineate watershed boundaries and sub-watersheds. Furthermore, DEM data is the primary data set used in elevation control (Table 1). Table 1: Recapitulation of the data used. Component Data Authority Vector DEMNas BIG Raster 5-STM: band 7, 4, 2 USGS 8-OLI/TIRS: band 7, 5, 3 BRIN PR-Inderaja LandSAT IKONOS 2013 Digital Globe, US LandSAT GeoEye Google – NGA The data and information needed in the geomorphometric research of the Mahakam watershed are hydrogeological data, topography, rainfall, land use, and flood susceptibility index (FSI) analyzed through GIS. However, this initial study prioritizes the presentation of Landsat data and the identification of phenomena in the Mahakam watershed. Result and Discussion The Mahakam watershed stretches from Mahakam Ulu Regency on the west side of East Kalimantan Province to Samarinda Municipality on the east side. It empties into an ideal delta pattern in the Makassar Strait. When viewed from the morphographic aspect, the Mahakam watershed is divided into three sub- watersheds (Figure 1), namely: 1. Upstream: in the form of mountains and hills morphology, bordered by cliffs reaching 100- 1000 m, composed of igneous rocks resistant to erosional processes, the river pattern is relatively straight and stable, and the width of the narrow river ranges from 48-100 m. 2. Central: in the form of lowlands dominated by swamp deposits, meandering river patterns, and developing into braided. 3. Downstream: downstream of the river mouth in the Makassar Strait, which forms the Mahakam Delta. Figure 1: Map of the Mahakam River Basin which includes the Mahakam Watershed including the Mahakam River Basin ( River Basin Criteria and Determination, KepMen PUPR, 2015). This research is studio work, namely spatial computing (Figure 2). Visualization of the results utilizes Landsat image data available on the pages of the Center for Remote Sensing Research, the National Research and Innovation Agency (PR-Inderaja BRIN), and the United States Geological Society (USGS) by combining bands 7, 5, and 3 for Land Satellite 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS) and bands 7, 4, and 2 as Landsat 5 Sensor Thematic Mapper (STM) (Figure 3). Finally, several previous studies reviewed the identification of meanders in the Mahakam watershed related to the interpretation of the three lakes' genesis. The geological component in this study is a crucial parameter for the genesis of the three lakes.

    – 27th 2022 Figure 2: Mahakam watershed and the position of the three lakes. The three Mahakam lakes are natural lakes consisting of Lake Jempang, Lake Melintang, and Lake Semayang. These three lakes are included in the 15 national priority lakes as stipulated in Presidential Regulation 60 of 2021. In the Presidential Regulation document, the three lakes are termed the Mahakam Cascade Area. Meanwhile, in the Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), Kaskade means a series of devices that work sequentially one after the other. So that it gives the meaning of the relationship between the three lakes, namely from upstream is Lake Jempang, then Lake Melintang, and Lake Semayang. The determination of the Mahakam Cascade Lake Area in 15 national priority lakes is the concern of all stakeholders so that the carrying capacity and capacity of the environment are maintained in line with the vision of sustainable management. The dimensions of these three large lakes are Lake Jempang with an area of 15,000 ha, Lake Melintang with 11,000 ha, and Lake Semayang with 13,000 ha (Table 2). The position of Lake Jempang is isolated from the other two lakes because the flow of the Mahakam River separates it. Meanwhile, Lake Melintang and Lake Semayang tend to merge during the rainy season until the overflow of water increases. Even Lake Melintang and Lake Semayang only have one outlet, the Pela River, which empties into the Mahakam River. Table 2: Dimensions of the three lakes in the Mahakam. Aspect Jempang L. Melintang L. Semayang L. Area 15.000 ha, 150 km2 11.000 ha, 110 km2 13.000 ha, 130 km2 Depth 3,5 m (dry), 7 m (rainy) 2 m (dry), 6,5 m (rainy) 3 m (dry), 6,5 m (rainy) Loc adm Jempang Subdis, West Kutei Reg Muara Wis Subdis, Kukar Reg Muara Wis Subdis, Kukar Reg Inlet- outlet I: Bongan R, Ohong R; O: Kemujan R I: Enggelam R, O: Pela R I: Kahala R, O: Pela R Before being stipulated in Presidential Regulation 60 of 2021, these three lakes had become targets in the 20115-2019 National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN). The RPJMN document states that the administrative location of Lake Jempang is in Jempang District, West Kutai Regency, while Melintang Lake and Semayang Lake are in Muara Wis District, Kutai Kartanegara Regency (Figure 4). The impact of the determination of the three lakes area in the two national strategic documents, the provincial government, through the East Kalimantan Tourism Office, held a national-scale agenda entitled "Festival of 3 Lakes" in November 2021. This is to support and increase creative ecotourism.

    – 27th 2022 Figure 3: Basic satellite image data for 1996 (top, from LAPAN), 2000 (middle, USGS), 2010 (middle, USGS), 2019 (bottom), accessed and processed in May 2021. Figure 4: The state of the three lakes, Lake Jempang and its transportation facilities (above, source deniekasurya.com); Melintang Lake during the dry season (middle, source dispar.kaltimprov.go.id); Semayang Lake at high tide (bottom, source Kalimantan.menlhk.go.id). The Mahakam watershed's physiography has phenomena relevant to three lakes. The three lakes are located at an elevation of 2-3 meters above sea level. Elevations flank them in the upstream part of the Mahakam watershed and the Samarinda Anticlinorium ridge downstream of the three lakes (Figure 5). Spatially, in the Mahakam watershed, three lakes are in an inter-altitude valley where the accumulation of stagnant water flows. Tectonostratigraphic configuration, the Mahakam watershed is within the scope of the Kuter Basin, which also illustrates the deviation of the Mahakam River flow direction to the Northeast (Figure 6). The flow shift is also marked by the presence of a lake, which is tectono-stratigraphically called the Kutei Lakes. According to Satyana et al. (1999), the lake sediment has occurred since the Plio-Pleistocene which is closely related to the formation process of the Samarinda Anticlinorium so that it is closely related to tectonic processes (Figure 7). The lake deposits are in the form of fine sedimentary material with relatively calm currents because they are Plio- Pleistocene Lake deposits. Moss and Chambers (1999) stated that a compressional stress regime controlled the study area, especially in the inversion phase that occurred in the Eocene, by forming half- graben depocenters (Figure 7). Based on the river's genesis, the Mahakam River is classified as an antecedent type because it not only penetrates a fold but winds through a collection of 12 folds, namely the Samarinda Anticlinorium. The antecedent type is pre-genetic, namely the river that has flowed first, then a compressional tectonic process occurs, then folds are formed. The compressional stress phase in the formation event of the Samarinda Anticlinorium is thought to have hampered the flow of the Mahakam River, resulting in a delay in backwashing. The impact on the behavior of the river flow is that there is an adjustment, such as an anastomosing reach with the form of three lakes. Figure 5: Physiography of the Kutai Basin (Satyana et al., 1999; Vermeulen et al., 2014). Identification of the Landsat band combine, the three lakes are reflected in a half-graben pattern. The distribution of the three lakes pattern is also still linear to the anomaly of changes in the direction of the

    – 27th 2022 Mahakam River flow to the northeast. Thus, the dynamics of the meandering and braided stream of the Mahakam River up to three lakes, the process is controlled by tectonic, the phenomenon is still clearly visible. Figure 6: The structural pattern of the Eastern Kutai Basin (Moss and Chambers, 1999). The green box notation is the study area, while the red line represents the cross-sectional area in Figure 7. Figure 7: Cross-section of West-East, which illustrates the relationship between the presence of lake deposits and the pattern of the Samarinda Anticlinorium (Moss and Chambers, 1999; Satyana et al., 1999). Conclusions The focus of this study is Landsat observations in the Mahakam watershed which resulted in several studies, including: 1. There is an anomaly in the direction of the Mahakam River, which generally flows to the southeast, but in the Mahakam Sentral Sub- watershed, the flow direction changes to the northeast for 63 km, then flows back to the southeast. 2. The existence of three successive large lakes, precisely in the Mahakam Sentral Sub-watershed. These three lakes have a linear pattern concerning changes in the direction of the Mahakam River flow. 3. Based on space and time, the Three Lakes have existed since the Plio-Pleistocene and were in a half-graben framework during the formation of the Samarinda Anticlinorium. 4. The Mahakam River is an antecedent type that first flowed before the formation of the Samarinda Anticlinorium. 5. The hypothesis is that the flow of the Mahakam River will experience a narrowing of the channel and/or obstruction of flow during the Samarinda Anticlinorium process. So, a backwash occurs, which has implications for the anastomosing reach around the Three Lakes. This study is part of the initial study of major research on hydro-geomorphometry of the Mahakam watershed, East Kalimantan. So that the next study will be more in-depth related to measurements, calculations, and modeling. The hope is that it can prove the hypothesis built in this study and has more comprehensive benefits to predict the danger of flooding or drought. Acknowledgements This study was funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology (Kemdikburistek) under a research grant from decentralization program number 0277/E5/AK.04/2022 dated May 6th 2022. We also thank to Imam Priyono, Yuniarti Ulfa, Ananta Purwo as colleague for the discussion about hydrogeological. References Arifanti, V. B., Kauffman, J. B., Hadriyanto, D., Murdiyarso, D., & Diana, R. (2019). Carbon dynamics and land use carbon footprints in mangrove-converted aquaculture: The case of the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 432, 17–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2018.08.047 Aslan, A., Rahman, A. F., Robeson, S. M., & Ilman, M. (2021). Land-use dynamics associated with mangrove deforestation for aquaculture and the subsequent abandonment of ponds. Science of The Total Environment, 791, 148320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148320 Basahi, J., Masoud, M., & Zaidi, S. (2016). Integration between morphometric parameters, hydrologic model, and geo-informatics techniques for estimating WADI runoff (case study WADI HALYAH—Saudi Arabia). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 9(13), 610. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-016-2649-6 Elfeki, A., Al-Shabani, A., Bahrawi, J., & Alzahrani, S. (2018). Quick Urban Flood Risk Assessment in Arid Environment Using HECRAS and Dam Break Theory: Case Study of Daghbag Dam in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Dalam A. Kallel, M. Ksibi, H. Ben Dhia, & N. Khélifi (Ed.), Recent Advances in Environmental Science from the

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