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Designing and Evaluating Behaviour Change Technologies for and in the Real World

Designing and Evaluating Behaviour Change Technologies for and in the Real World

Talk given at the World Usability Day 2016 event in Tallinn, Estonia

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Evangelos Karapanos

November 10, 2016
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Transcript

  1. Designing and Evaluating Behaviour Change Technologies for and in the

    Real World 1200 steps Evangelos Karapanos
  2. 1200 steps Designing for Experience How can technology provide a

    pleasurable experience? 1940s
  3. 1979 Apple II Designing for Usability 1979 VisiCalc - “killer

    app” for Apple II 1981 IBM XT/AT 1980s
  4. Designing for Experience How can technology provide a pleasurable experience?

    2000s
  5. Designing for Wellbeing How can technology have a positive impact

    on people’s lives?
  6. 1200 steps Personal informatics tools that helps us track our

    behaviours, emotions, thoughts
  7. Physical activity

  8. Finances

  9. Time

  10. 1200 steps Behaviour Change Technologies

  11. 1200 steps Health Human behaviour a key predictor over the

    long-term
  12. 1200 steps Diabetic patients skip their insulin medication 25% of

    the time 25,000 people a year go blind 
 Hundreds of thousands lose limbs, every year, for something that's solvable.
  13. 1200 steps Physical Activity Over 80% of the world's adolescent

    population is insufficiently physically active. Insufficient PA is a key risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes.
  14. 1200 steps NC (chronic) diseases account for 40% of mortality

    cases and 75% of health care costs worldwide. Estimated increase of 42% by 2023.
  15. 1200 steps From cure to prevention Gordon Brown: ”NHS [National

    Health Service] of the future [being] one of patient power, with patients engaged and taking control over their own health and healthcare".
  16. 1200 steps

  17. How to design for Behaviour Change

  18. Theoretically and Empirically grounded design

  19. Theoretically grounded design

  20. Evidence-based Behaviour Change Techniques Michie et al. (2013)

  21. The simple acts of measuring one's target behavior and comparing

    it to an external standard or goal can result in lasting improvements to that behavior. Self-monitoring
  22. –Johnny Appleseed self-monitoring

  23. Self-setting specific, proximal, and difficult goals results in increased performance

    Goal Setting Theory
  24. 1200 steps

  25. Empirically grounded design

  26. Do our assumptions hold?

  27. Evaluating technologies in the wild Interaction logs Wearable cameras Experience

    Sampling Interaction logs
  28. Evaluating technologies in the wild Interaction logs Wearable cameras Experience

    Sampling Wearable cameras
  29. Evaluating technologies in the wild Interaction logs Wearable cameras Experience

    Sampling Experience sampling
  30. Evaluating technologies in the wild Interaction logs Wearable cameras Experience

    Sampling Interaction logs
  31. Habito !! !

  32. goal setting

  33. historical data

  34. informational and persuasive messages

  35. 256 users downloaded Habito over the course of 10 months

    none of these users were recruited or rewarded towards usage
  36. How can we design glanceable feedback?

  37. Do our assumptions hold?

  38. 1. Designed for all?

  39. stages of behavior change questionnaire understanding how different stages of

    ‘readiness’ impacted adoption precontemplation currently have no intention of being active contemplation not active but intend to be soon preparation trying, but not regularly active action regularly active, but for less than 6 months maintenance regularly active for 6 months or more
  40. precontemplation 5 of 36, 14% contemplation preparation action maintenance 14

    of 26, 54% 19 of 33, 58% 7 of 24, 29% 4 of 19, 21% Readiness for use: motivation and adoption
  41. 2. Goal setting… or, accepting?

  42. Self-setting specific, proximal, and difficult goals results in increased performance

    Goal Setting Theory
  43. Self-setters walked more

  44. Self-setters were only 31% of users The rest just accepted

    the preset goal
  45. 3. Behaviour change through Knowledge or self-regulation?

  46. Usage sessions historical information was only accessed in 30% of

    all usage sessions even more, 87% of these concerned an ongoing day
  47. Glances sessions in which users open and close Habito with

    no additional actions or inputs 57%, 5 sec Review Engage 22%,12 sec 21%,45 sec sessions with at least one additional actions and last up to 22 seconds sessions with at least one additional actions and last more than 22 seconds Usage sessions
  48. Glances 73% Review Engage 18% 9% Usage sessions

  49. None
  50. participants were more likely to initiate a new walk when

    seeing a low number of steps in the last hour
  51. participants were more likely to initiate a new walk when

    seeing a low number of steps in the last hour Participants who saw they walked 10 min or less over the past hour had a 77% chance of starting a new walk in the next 5 min
  52. Dual process theory System 1 - automatic mind (intuition) System

    2 - rational mind (analytical reasoning)
  53. 94% (165 of 176) systems designed for the rational mind

    Adams et al., 2015
  54. Behaviour change through Knowledge or self-regulation?

  55. 4. Unexpected things are to be expected

  56. participants were more likely to initiate a new walk when

    closely ahead or behind of others
  57. Hidden costs of self-monitoring While self-monitoring led to short-term increase

    in steps, it also lead to a decrease in enjoyment of walking Etkin (2015)
  58. Overjustification effect When extrinsic motivations overshadow intrinsic ones

  59. No matter how theoretically grounded your design is test it

    in real life!
  60. No matter how theoretically grounded your design is test it

    in real life!
  61. Question what your assumptions are, about how people will use

    your product
  62. Question what your assumptions are, about how people will use

    your product Thank you Evangelos Karapanos
  63. http://persuasive.cut.ac.cy/