Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

On the design of Subly: Instilling Behavior Change during Web Surfing through Subliminal Priming

On the design of Subly: Instilling Behavior Change during Web Surfing through Subliminal Priming

Caraban, A., Karapanos, E., Teixeira, V., Munson, S. A., & Campos, P. (2017). On the Design of Subly: Instilling Behavior Change During Web Surfing Through Subliminal Priming. In International Conference on Persuasive Technology (pp. 163-174). Springer, Cham.

With 50% of people spending over 6 h per day surfing the web, web browsers offer a promising platform for the delivery of behavior change interventions. One technique might be subliminal priming of behavioral concepts (e.g., walking). This paper presents Subly, an open-source plugin for Google’s Chrome browser that primes behavioral concepts through slight emphasis on words and phrases as people browse the Internet. Such priming interventions might be employed across several domains, such as breaking sedentary activity, promoting safe use of the Internet among minors, promoting civil discourse and breaking undesirable online habits such excessive use of social media. We present two studies with Subly: one that identifies the threshold of subliminal perception and one that demonstrates the efficacy of Subly in a picture-selection task. We conclude with opportunities and ethical considerations arising from the future use of Subly to achieve behavior change.

Evangelos Karapanos

April 06, 2017
Tweet

More Decks by Evangelos Karapanos

Other Decks in Research

Transcript

  1. Instilling Behavior Change during Web Surfing through
    Subliminal Priming
    On the Design of Subly:
    Ana Caraban, Vítor Teixeira, Pedro Campos, Madeira Interactive Technologies Institute, PT
    Evangelos Karapanos, Cyprus University of Technology, CY
    Sean A. Munson, University of Washington, USA

    View full-size slide

  2. Modes of thinking
    AUTOMATIC
    REFLECTIVE
    2
    Dual Process Theory

    View full-size slide

  3. AUTOMATIC REFLECTIVE
    Adams A, et al. (2015). Mindless Computing.
    6%
    94%
    Systems designed for...

    View full-size slide

  4. Behavior change through knowledge

    View full-size slide

  5. One third of owners of activity trackers discard the
    tracker within the first
    6 months
    Ledger, D. (2014)

    View full-size slide

  6. How can we design technologies that
    trigger the Automatic Mind?

    View full-size slide

  7. Subliminal Priming of behavior
    concepts (e.g., to walk)

    View full-size slide

  8. 50% people spend over 6 hours
    per day surfing on the web

    View full-size slide

  9. Subly: Priming through changing the opacity of words

    View full-size slide

  10. 1. Can we determine the threshold of subliminal perception?
    STUDIES

    View full-size slide

  11. FirstWordSecondWord
    Opacity was decreased at rate of 1% every 0.5 sec
    STUDY 1 Thresholds of Subliminal Perception

    View full-size slide

  12. FirstWordSecondWord
    Participants were asked to look at the screen
    and press the spacebar when noticing a change
    STUDY 1 Thresholds of Subliminal Perception

    View full-size slide

  13. FirstWordSecondWord
    STUDY 1
    Foveal vision
    FirstWord SecondWord
    Peripheral vision
    Thresholds of Subliminal Perception

    View full-size slide

  14. FirstWordSecondWord
    STUDY 1
    Black
    FirstWordSecondWord
    Blue
    Thresholds of Subliminal Perception

    View full-size slide

  15. FirstWordSecondWord
    STUDY 1
    Black
    FirstWordSecondWord
    Blue
    5 repetitions
    25 participants
    Thresholds of Subliminal Perception

    View full-size slide

  16. Median Opacity threshold (black font)
    = 0.76
    Median Opacity threshold (blue font)
    = 0.73
    This difference between blue and black text (3%) was not statistically significant
    Findings Thresholds of Subliminal Perception

    View full-size slide

  17. 1. Can we determine the threshold of subliminal perception?
    2. Can subliminal priming influence users’ decisions?
    2 STUDIES

    View full-size slide

  18. e.g “A bird, a cat and a bear were standing on a tree”
    STUDY 2 Efficacy of subliminal priming

    View full-size slide

  19. STUDY 2
    e.g “A bird, a cat and a bear were standing on a tree”
    Efficacy of subliminal priming

    View full-size slide

  20. STUDY 2
    e.g “A bird, a cat and a bear were standing on a tree”
    Does priming a concept lead to higher likelihood of selecting the
    corresponding image?
    Efficacy of subliminal priming

    View full-size slide

  21. Does priming a concept lead to higher likelihood of selecting the
    corresponding image?
    STUDY 2
    e.g “A bird, a cat and a bear were standing on a tree”
    30 participants 9 sentences
    3 condition
    Efficacy of subliminal priming

    View full-size slide

  22. Supraliminal
    STUDY 2
    66 % Control
    Subliminal
    Are participants more likely to select a relevant image when a hint is primed
    in the sentence?
    Sentences, images and primes were randomized
    76 %
    e.g “A bird, a cat and a bear were standing on a tree”
    Efficacy of subliminal priming

    View full-size slide

  23. Were individuals more likely to select a relevant image when
    we primed a hint?
    0%
    25%
    50%
    subliminal control supraliminal
    Chance of selection = 33%
    STUDY 2
    33%
    33%
    33%

    View full-size slide

  24. Were individuals more likely to select a relevant image when
    we primed a hint?
    0%
    25%
    50%
    28%
    STUDY 2
    control

    View full-size slide

  25. Were individuals more likely to select a relevant image when
    we primed a hint?
    0%
    25%
    50%
    42%
    28%
    Subliminal primes leaded to
    a higher chance of selection
    p < 0.05
    STUDY 2
    subliminal control

    View full-size slide

  26. 0%
    25%
    50%
    28%
    24%
    Aversion effect
    p = 0.61
    STUDY 2
    Were individuals more likely to select a relevant image when
    we primed a hint?
    subliminal control supraliminal

    View full-size slide

  27. STUDY 2 Did priming disrupt the reading process?
    F(2)=0.04, p=0.96
    F(16)=1.43, p=0.13
    F(8)=9.14, p<0.001
    Effect of condition on reading time:
    Effect of the sentence on reading time:
    Interaction effect between condition and the sentence:

    View full-size slide

  28. STUDY 2 Did priming disrupt the reading process?
    Pauses in reading
    High interrater agreement (Cohen’s Kappa=0.85)
    No significant difference among the three
    conditions (Fisher’s exact test, p=0.99)
    a pause in reading leading to silence, a hesitation or
    a repetition in reading

    View full-size slide

  29. Subliminal priming of behavioral
    concepts can be a promising
    Behavior change intervention

    View full-size slide

  30. Yet, bear in mind the
    task..

    View full-size slide

  31. https://github.com/SublyM-ITI/Subly
    subly.m-iti.org
    www
    Database connection
    Events definition
    Interaction Logs
    http request
    External applications or web
    browsing behaviors
    Interactions with primes and
    webpages

    View full-size slide

  32. Thank you
    Ana Caraban
    ([email protected])
    https://github.com/SublyM-ITI/Subly
    subly.m-iti.org
    www

    View full-size slide